# Questions tagged [surfaces]

A surface is a two-dimensional topological manifold. The term can also be used to describe a smooth surface, depending on the context.

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### Question in the proof of Hilbert's theorem

I'm researching about Hilbert's theorem which says that there isn't isometric immersion of a complete surface with constant negative Gaussian curvature in $\mathbb{R}^3$. I'm taking as a reference the ...
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### Degree one self-map of $\Bbb R^2\big\backslash \big\{(n,0):n\in \Bbb Z\big\}$ not homotopic to any self-homotopy equivalence

Consider the surface $\Sigma=\Bbb R^2\big\backslash \big\{(n,0):n\in \Bbb Z\big\}$. Does there exist a proper map $f\colon \Sigma\to \Sigma$ of degree $1$ and not homotopic to any self-homotopy ...
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### Dirichlet domains of cusped hyperbolic surfaces

I'm used to think of cusped hyperbolic surfaces as equipped with ideal (all vertices are ideal) fundamental domain, but this is not in general a Dirichlet domain. Is is true that any such surface has ...
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### Are the “generalized Catalan numbers” of Dumitrescu–Mulase the “moments” of some “multivariate Wigner semicircle distribution”?

The classical Catalan numbers $$C_n = \frac{1}{n+1} \binom{2n}{n},$$ well-known for their numerous combinatorial interpretations (the second volume of Stanley's Enumerative Combinatorics famously ...
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### Are there canonical exhaustions for bordered surfaces?

If $S$ is a boundaryless connected surface then $S$ has a canonical exhaustion: a sequence of compact connected surfaces $(F_n)$ such that $F_n\subset intF_{n+1}$, $S=\bigcup F_n$ and if $W$ is a ...
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### Algebraic context for Mednykh's formula?

Let $S$ be a closed orientable surface and let $G$ be a finite group, then Mednykh's formula says that $$\sum_{V}d(V)^{\chi(S)} = |G|^{\chi(S) - 1} |\text{Hom}(\pi_1 S, G)|$$ where the sum is over ...
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### Can the infinite jungle gym surface be expressed by an exhaustion of compact surfaces with one boundary component?

Is it possible to write the infinite jungle gym surface as the increasing union of compact surfaces whose boundaries consist of only one simple closed curve? I believe that this is true. This surface ...
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### The Schoenflies Theorem on two dimensional surfaces

Let $S$ be a surface and $U$ an open connected subset of $S$. If the frontier of $U$ in $S$ is a two sided circle $C$, then the closure of $U$ in $S$ is a surface whose boundary is $C$. I would like ...
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### Subgroups of Mod(S) generated by Dehn twists depend only on intersection numbers?

$\DeclareMathOperator\Mod{Mod}$Let $S$ be a closed surface and $\Mod(S)$ be its mapping class group. It is a well known fact, proved in the Primer on Mapping class groups for example, that the ...
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### Lifting of a proper map in the cover is a proper map

Let $M$ be an orientable surface without boundary$($I am not assuming $M$ is compact, it can be non-compact$)$. Let $\Phi: M\to M$ be a proper homotopy-equivalnce$($A proper homotopy-equivalence can ...
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### Pair of pants decomposition for non-orientable surfaces

Pair of pants decomposition on orientable surfaces is a classic way to decompose orientable surface to simples surfaces. Is there a way to decompose non-orientable surfaces into pair of pants? ...
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### Constant Gaussian curvature disks

This question has also been posted on MSE, but maybe here is the right place to post it. Is it true that if $D$ is a Riemannian $2$-disk having constant Gaussian curvature equal to $1$ and whose ...
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### Homotopy equivalence preserving all geometric intersection numbers

This question again might be silly, like the last post(deleted). Let me know I will delete it. Problem: Let $\Sigma$ be a surface without boundary and $f:\Sigma\to \Sigma$ be a proper homotopy ...
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### Hyperbolic length of curve that does not enter a collar

Let $\Sigma$ be a compact surface of genus at least $1$ with one boundary component, equipped with a hyperbolic metric so that the boundary is geodesic. There is a version of the collar lemma that ...
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### Cusps of hyperbolic surfaces under finite covers

The following statement seems true, but I don't know a proof or a reference for it (and I would like one). Let $\Gamma< \operatorname{PSL}(2,\mathbb R)$ be a nonuniform lattice with one cusp. We ...
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### Representing relative homology classes orientable surfaces with boundary

Let $S$ be compact oriented surface without boundary. Then it is a classical result that a primitive class $\gamma \in H_1(S; \mathbb{Z})$ is always represented by a simple closed curve. It implies ...
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### What can we say about the complement of two homotopic simple closed curves on a compact orientable surface?

Do two homotopic simple closed curves separate a compact orientable surface? If they are disjoint they do and bound a cylinder. But if they intersect? What can we say about the components of their ...
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### A computation in a commutative Frobenius algebra

This is already posted here https://math.stackexchange.com/questions/3695584/a-computation-in-a-commutative-frobenius-algebra but I didn't get any answers. Given a commutative Frobenius algebra (in ...
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### Convergence of free boundary minimal surfaces

I suspect the following statement is true: Let $(M^3,g)$ be a compact and orientable Riemannian $3$-manifold with nonempty boundary. Let $\{\Sigma_n\}_{n \geq 1}$ be a sequence of compact and ...
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### An orientable surface that cannot be embedded into $\Bbb R^3$? [duplicate]

I previously asked this question on MSE, without success. By Whitney's embedding theorem, every 2-dimensional manifold (aka. a surface) can be embedded into $\Bbb R^4$. Now, Wikipedia states in this ...
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### Space of representations of surface group into Lie groups

In the context of Goldman's paper The symplectic nature of fundamental groups of surfaces: Consider a closed oriented surface $S$ with fundamental group $\pi$, and let $G$ be a connected Lie group. ...
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### Continuity of $r\mapsto\int_{\Sigma\cap B_r(x)}f^2d\mu$

Let $\Sigma$ be an embedded smooth surface in $\mathbb{R}^3$, and let $f:\Sigma\to\mathbb{R}$ be a smooth function. Suppose $f$ is square-integrable on $\Sigma$, with \begin{align} 0<\int_{\Sigma}f^...
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### How do I find the portion of a cell/voxel lying within a defined surface?

We have a 3-dimensional grid of voxels (or cells), with individual voxels being of volume $dx\,dy\,dz$ where $dx=dy=dz=1$. A cone-like surface is defined by some function, $z = f(x, y)$, which in ...
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### When is a regular surface in $\mathbb{R^4}$ contained in a $3$-dimensional vector subspace of $\mathbb{R^4}$?

Introduction: Let $S$ be a regular connected surface embedded in $\mathbb{R^3}$. We know that $S$ is contained in a plane (a $2$-dimensional vector subspace of $\mathbb{R^3}$) iff every point of $S$ ...
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### Permuting $n$ points in a $2$-manifold

Given $n$ points on a connected $2$-manifold $M$, I'd like to consider the homotopy classes of paths that "permute" these points. Edit (Clarifying what I mean by this): Given a set of $n$ ...
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### Closed simple curves in $\mathbb{R}\mathbb{P}^2$

EDIT: The well known Jordan curve theorem says: let $C\subset S^2$ be a closed simple curve on the 2-sphere. Then its complement $S^2\backslash C$ consists of two connected components, both ...
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### A generalization of Jordan-Schoenflies theorem on simple plane curves

The well known Jordan-Schoenflies theorem says: let $C\subset \mathbb{R}^2$ be a closed simple curve. Then there exists a homeomorphism $f\colon\mathbb{R}^2\to \mathbb{R}^2$ such that $f(C)$ is the ...
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### Immersion in $\mathbb R^3$ of a Klein bottle with Morse-Bott height function without centers

Can the Klein bottle be immersed in $\mathbb R^3$ so that the associated height function be of Morse-Bott type and have no centers? That is, the height function would have only Bott-type extrema and ...
### Immersion of non-orientable surface in $\mathbb R^3$ with conditions on the height function
EDIT: The answer is trivially positive; the question arose from my misunderstanding of the figure below. Can a non-orientable closed surface of odd genus be immersed in $\mathbb R^3$ so that the ...