# Questions tagged [splines]

Splines and their properties and applications. A spline is a function defined piecewise by polynomials, and is typically used in interpolating problems.

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### True origin of the term "Spline"

In mathematical contexts the term spline essentially refers to interpolating or approximating piecewise functions with continuity constraints. According to the history of mathematical splines In the ...
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### Error bounds for spline interpolation. Hall and Meyer's conjecture

Hall & Meyer, 1976, J. Approx. Theory, show for $f \in C^4[a,b]$ and a mesh $a = x_1, \ldots x_n = b$ with $h = \max x_{j+1} - x_j$, for $\pi f$ a cubic spline interpolant over the mesh for some ...
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### The $L_\infty$ norm of the derivative of the $L_2$ spline projector

A. Shadrin (Acta Mathematica, 2001) shows that the $L_\infty$ norm of the $L_2$ projector $P_\Delta$ onto the spline space $S_k(\Delta$) is bounded independently of the knot-sequence. I.e. for a ...
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### Polynomial-preserving boundary conditions for spline interpolation

Spline interpolation requires the definition of boundary conditions because the smoothness requirements do not yield enough conditions for a unique solution. Question: which kind of boundary ...
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### Marsden's Identity and B-splines

Marsden's Identity states that for every $\tau$ in $\mathbb{R }$: $$(\cdot -\tau)^{k-1}=\sum_j\Psi_{j,k}(\tau)B_{j,k,t} \, ,$$ with $\Psi_{j,k}=(t_j-\tau)\times...\times(t_{j+k-1}-\tau)$. Following ...
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### Optimal $L^2$ bounds of cubic spline interpolation

Let $s(x)$ be the natural cubic spline interpolant of a function $f\in C^4$. There are known bounds on the $L^{\infty}$ error, $\|f^{(r)}(x) - s^{(r)} (x) \|_{\infty}$ for $r=0,1,2,3$. See Hall & ...
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### Do splines preserve monotonicity?

Start with a monotone nonincreasing function and sample it at finite set of points $x_0, ..., x_n$, $x_i<x_{i+1}$ so that $f(x_i)<f(x_{i+1})$. If you approximate $f$ with a linear spline then ...
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### Cubic interpolating spline – number of extremum points

Question: Given $f\in C^2 [a,b]$, and $s$ its "natural cubic spline" interpolant on some grid/knots $a= t_0 < t_1<t_2 < \ldots < t_n = b$, is there a bound on the number of ...
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### Splines with bounded first derivative?

I have a set of points $(x_i,y_i)\in{\mathbb R}_+\times{\mathbb R}$, $i=1,...,n$, ($x_i$ are the independent variables and $y_i$ are the dependent variables or responses) that I want to fit using ...
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### Smoothness Conditions for Planar "Mock-parametric" Spline Interpolation

By "mock-parametric" interpolating curves I understand a class of curves that connect a discrete sequence of points with a predefined degree of smoothness and, that correspond to a non-...
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### Variational proof for minimum curvature of cubic splines

Background: Given an increasing set of points $(x_i)_{i=0}^n \subset \mathbb [a,b]$, a cubic spline $S(x)\in C^2([a,b])$ is a piecewise cubic polynomial on each subinterval $(x_i, x_{i+1})$. Given a ...
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### Maximum of a B-spline

Given $p+2$ nondecreasing (and not all identical) knots $t_0, \ldots, t_{p+1}$ on the real line, consider the normalized B-spline of degree $p$ defined over these knots. We know that the B-spline is ...
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### Interpolating between piecewise linear functions, with a family of smooth functions

Let $[a,b)\subset\mathbb R$, and $F,G:[a,b)\to\mathbb R$ two decreasing piecewise linear functions so that $F(x)\leq G(x)$ for any $x\in[a,b)$. We assume that: there is a number $k\in\mathbb N-\{0\}$ ...
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### Which data structure should I use for hierarchical T-meshes and PHT-splines?

Recently, I'm working on something about polynomial splines over hierarchical T-meshes, which is basically a rectangular grid that allows T-junctions. I want to do some numerical experiments but I don'...
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### Once differentiable, piecewise degree three polynomials on triangulated planar domains

Here is an easily described, but very difficult, problem that I (and a number of other people) really would like to see solved during our life times. The basic problem is to compute the dimension of ...
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### Comparison of cubic Hermite finite element and cubic B-spline finite element (regarding condition number of stiffness matrix)

Background: Consider the one-dimensional second-order elliptic PDE,  \left\{\!\! \begin{aligned} & -(a(x)u'(x))'+b(x)u(x)=f(x)\qquad x\in[0,1]\\ & u(0)=u(1)=0 \end{aligned} \...
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### Cubic spline smoothing question

I came across this link when searching for an algorithm for spline smoothing. Though I understand basically what I have to do, I need further clarifications on the formula chosen for curvature ...
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### Approximating derivatives between gridpoints

Suppose we have a grid (possibly irregular) of $N$ function/value pairs, $(x_i, f_i)$, $i=1...N$. The function is differentiable everywhere at least twice (perhaps more). What would be a good way to ...
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### Finding 3 dimensional B-spline control points from given array of points from spline solution?

Wa are talking about Non-uniform rational B-spline. We have some simple 3 dimensional array like {1,1,1} {1,2,3} {1,3,3} {2,4,5} {2,5,6} {4,4,4} Which are ...
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Given $n$ points $p_i=(x_i,y_i)$ on the [Euclidean] plane, and a positive real number $\rho$. Can we have a polynomial spline (e.g., natural cubic spline) passing through all these points, such that: (...