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Questions tagged [set-theory]

forcing, large cardinals, descriptive set theory, infinite combinatorics, cardinal characteristics, forcing axioms, ultrapowers, measures, reflection, pcf theory, models of set theory, axioms of set theory, independence, axiom of choice, continuum hypothesis, determinacy, Borel equivalence relations, Boolean-valued models, embeddings, orders, relations, transfinite recursion, set theory as a foundation of mathematics, the philosophy of set theory.

44
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0answers
2k views

Set-theoretic reformulation of the invariant subspace problem

The invariant subspace problem (ISP) for Hilbert spaces asks whether every bounded linear operator $A$ on $l^2$ (with complex scalars) must have a closed invariant subspace other than $\{0\}$ and $l^2$...
40
votes
0answers
603 views

How many algebraic closures can a field have?

Assuming the axiom of choice given a field $F$, there is an algebraic extension $\overline F$ of $F$ which is algebraically closed. Moreover, if $K$ is a different algebraic extension of $F$ which is ...
36
votes
0answers
2k views

Concerning the various proofs from the axiom of choice that R^3 admits of surprising geometrical decompositions into circles, skew lines and so on: can we prove in any instance that there are no Borel such decompositions? Or that AC is required?

This question follows up on a comment I made on Joseph O'Rourke's recent question, one of several questions here on mathoverflow concerning surprising geometric partitions of space using the axiom of ...
28
votes
0answers
872 views

Where do uncountable models collapse to?

Suppose $T$ is a complete first-order theory (in an finite, or at worst countable, language). Given any model $\mathcal{M}\models T$ of cardinality $\kappa$, we can ask whether $\mathcal{M}$ can be ...
25
votes
0answers
556 views

Can one divide by the cardinal of an amorphous set?

This question arose in a discussion with Peter Doyle. It is provable in ZF that one can divide by any positive finite cardinal $k$: if $X \times \{1,\ldots,k\} \simeq Y \times \{1,\ldots,k\}$ then $X ...
25
votes
0answers
1k views

Supercompact and Reinhardt cardinals without choice

A friend of mine and I ran into the following question while reading about proper forcing, and have been unable to resolve it: Definition. A cardinal $\kappa$ is supercompact if for all ordinals $\...
23
votes
0answers
498 views

Is it still an open problem whether $\mathbb{R}^\omega$ is normal in the box topology?

On page 205 of his Topology book, James Munkres makes an interesting remark: It is not known whether $\mathbb{R}^\omega$ is normal in the box topology. Mary-Ellen Rudin has shown that the answer ...
22
votes
0answers
443 views

CH and automorphisms of ultrapowers of $\mathbb{Z}$ and $\mathbb{R}$

Notation and motivation. Given an algebraic structure $\mathbb{M}$ of cardinality at most the continuum and with countably many operations, and a nonprincipal ultrafilter $\cal{U}$ on a countably ...
21
votes
0answers
652 views

Relative null-ness

Here, "measure" always means Lebesgue measure on $\mathbb{R}$. This question is partly motivated by my answer https://math.stackexchange.com/questions/1444498/is-there-a-categorizaiton-system-for-null-...
21
votes
0answers
810 views

categorical characterization of large cardinals

Question 1. Is there a categorical representation of Kunen's inconsistency result? Question 2. Is there a categorical characterization of very large cardinals (in particular for strong and ...
21
votes
0answers
1k views

Subfields of $\mathbb{C}$ isomorphic to $\mathbb{R}$ that have Baire property, without Choice

While sitting through my complex analysis class, beginning with a very low level introduction, the teacher mentioned the obvious subfield of $\mathbb{C}$ isomorphic to $\mathbb{R}$, and I then ...
20
votes
0answers
795 views

A question about small sets of reals

In ZFC, does there exist an uncountable set of reals $A$ such that for every closed measure zero set of reals $B$, we have that $ A + B = \{a+b : a \in A, b \in B\} \neq \mathbb{R}$? This question is ...
18
votes
0answers
608 views

Is this Variation of the Continuum Hypothesis Inconsistent with ZFC or ZF?

It is a well-known fact that the Generalized Continuum Hypothesis is undecidable from ZFC. For similar sentences $\phi$, this is simply equivalent to ZFC having a model $M$ for which $M\models\phi$. ...
18
votes
0answers
586 views

The cofinality of $(\mathbb{N}^\kappa,\le)$ for uncountable $\kappa$?

For a partially ordered set $P$, a set $A\subseteq P$ is cofinal if for each element of $P$ there is a larger element in $A$. The cofinality of $P$, ${\rm cof}(P)$, is the minimal cardinality of a ...
18
votes
0answers
526 views

Souslin trees on the first inaccessible cardinal

This may be well-known or simply deducible from the existing theorems, but I didn't find an answer in my set theory books: Is there a model of $ZFC$ in which there are no $\kappa$-Souslin trees where ...
18
votes
0answers
647 views

Antichains of Cardinals in ZF Without Choice…

With the Axiom of Choice, the cardinals form a nice linearly ordered "set". In the absence of the Axiom of Choice, the cardinals form a partially ordered "set". Broadly, I am wondering what ...
17
votes
0answers
336 views

Is it consistent with ZF that $V\to V^{\ast \ast}$ is always surjective?

In a comment to a recent question, Jeremy Rickard asked whether it is consistent with ZF that the map $V \to V^{**}$ from a vector space to its double dual is always surjective. We know that "always ...
17
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0answers
321 views

Does the pointclass of universally Baire sets always have the uniformization property?

A set of reals, or binary relation on the reals, etc., is called universally Baire if and only if every continuous preimage of it in every topological space has the property of Baire. (There is also ...
17
votes
0answers
281 views

Hahn-Banach and the “Axiom of Probabilistic Choice”

Stipulate that the Axiom of Probabilistic Choice (APC) says that for every collection $\{ A_i : i \in I \}$ of non-empty sets, there is a function on $I$ that assigns to $i$ a finitely-additive ...
17
votes
0answers
803 views

Souslin trees and weakly compact cardinals

In Souslin trees on the first inaccessible cardinal it is asked if it is consistent that there are no $\kappa-$Souslin trees at the least inaccessible cardinal $\kappa$. In this question I would like ...
17
votes
0answers
562 views

Are there lightweight foundations for arbitrarily extendable objects?

My experience with foundations is rather scant, but I've run into some types of objects that seem to resist the sort of set-theoretic encoding schemes via Kurowski tuples that are rather common for ...
16
votes
0answers
447 views

Does every real function have this weak derivation property?

After this question : Does every real function have this weak continuity property? Natrualy there are an other (more difficult) : Is it true that for every real function $f:\mathbb{R}\to\mathbb{R}...
16
votes
0answers
445 views

Gitik's work on Shelah's weak hypothesis

It seems that Moti Gitik has recently refuted some variants of Shelah's weak hypothesis. For this see the title and abstract of his talk at the Set Theory, Model Theory and Applications conference. I ...
16
votes
0answers
507 views

Ramsey's theorem for the first uncountable ordinal

Sierpiński proved that a version of Ramsey's theorem for colourings of pairs of countable ordinals fails miserably by comparing the ordering of $\omega_1$ with the linear ordering of (a subset of) the ...
16
votes
0answers
207 views

Gap two Sierpinski set?

Is it consistent to have a set of reals $X$ of size $\aleph_3$ such that for every $Y \subseteq X$, $Y$ has measure zero iff $|Y| \leq \aleph_1$?
16
votes
0answers
441 views

Do all countable $\omega$-standard models of ZF with an amorphous set have the same inclusion relation up to isomorphism?

In my recent paper with Makoto Kikuchi, J. D. Hamkins and M. Kikuchi, The inclusion relations of the countable models of set theory are all isomorphic. manuscript under review. (arχiv) we proved ...
16
votes
0answers
625 views

Ideas behind Gitik's solution of PCF conjecture

Recently Moti Gitik has refuted Shelah's PCF conjecture (see Short extenders forcings II ) by proving the following theorem: Theorem. Assuming the consistency of infinitely many strong cardinals, one ...
15
votes
0answers
581 views

A question about sigma algebras and rectangles

Let P be the statement: Every subset of plane belongs to the sigma algebra generated by $\{A \times B : A, B \subseteq \mathbb{R}\}$. Let Q be the statement: Every continuum-sized family of subsets ...
15
votes
0answers
524 views

The axiom $I_0$ in the absence of $AC$

It is well-known that if $AC$ holds and if $j: L(V_{\lambda+1}) \to L(V_{\lambda+1})$ is a non-trivial elementary embedding with $crit(j) < \lambda,$ then $\lambda$ has countable cofinality (and in ...
15
votes
0answers
495 views

To what extent does (co)homology of groups made discrete depend on set theory?

There's a well-known paper by Milnor, "On the homology of Lie groups made discrete," that discusses the relation between the homology of a Lie group $G$ and the underlying discrete group $G^\delta$. ...
14
votes
0answers
439 views

Does inner model theory seek canonical models for large cardinals?

Like the author of this question, I have heard that a main goal of inner model theory is building canonical inner models for large cardinals. My questions are: (a) Is this accurate? (b) If so, in ...
14
votes
0answers
297 views

O-minimality and forcing

It is well-known that the structure $(\mathbb{R}, +, \cdot, <, 0, 1)$ is an o-minimal structure and hence the set of integers $\mathbb{Z}$ is not definable in it. In an ongoing project with Will ...
14
votes
0answers
331 views

Cardinality vs. isomorphism type of vector spaces without choice

One of the classical uses of the existence of bases of vector spaces (which is equivalent to the axiom of choice) is the following theorem: If $V$ is an infinite vector space over a field $F$, and $...
14
votes
0answers
505 views

Cohen/Random reals over intermediate models in countable support iterations

Assume that the continuum is $\aleph_2$ in our ground model $V$. Suppose that $(P_n \, : \, n \in \omega)$ is a fully supported iteration of length $\omega$. Suppose further that the factors of the ...
14
votes
0answers
282 views

The failure of GCH al $\aleph_\omega$ by nice forcing

There are several ways to force $GCH$ below $\aleph_\omega$ and $2^{\aleph_\omega}> \aleph_{\omega+1},$ say: 1) The Gitik-Magidor's extender based forcing, see Prikry type Forcings. 2) Woodin's ...
14
votes
0answers
493 views

Is the universality of the surreal number line a weak global choice principle?

I'd like to consider the principle asserting that the surreal number line is universal for all class linear orders, or in other words, that every linear order (including proper-class-sized) linear ...
14
votes
0answers
380 views

A meager subgroup of the real line, which cannot be covered by countably many closed subsets of measure zero?

Is there a ZFC-example of a subgroup $H$ of the real line $\mathbb R$ such $H$ is meager, has zero Lebesgue measure, but cannot be covered by countably many closed subsets of measure zero in $\mathbb ...
14
votes
0answers
415 views

Adding a saturated ideal

Is it consistent that there is no $\omega_2$-saturated ideal on $\omega_1$, but one is introduced by an $\omega_2$-closed forcing? Some motivation: If $\delta$ is a Woodin cardinal, then it remains ...
14
votes
0answers
429 views

Is $\mathbb{Z}^{\omega}$ ever the union of a chain of proper subgroups each isomorphic to $\mathbb{Z}^{\omega}$?

Recall that the covering number $cov(B)$ is the least cardinal $\kappa$ such that $\kappa$ meagre sets cover the real line. Andreas Blass and John Irwin http://www.math.lsa.umich.edu/~ablass/bb.pdf ...
14
votes
0answers
305 views

Are there additive subgroups of reals of dimension 1 with no subgroups of dimension strictly between 0 and 1?

I will use $dimA$ to denote the Hausdorff dimension of a set $A \subseteq \mathbb{R}$. Being a null set means having Lebesgue measure zero. In the 1966 paper "Additive gruppen mit vorgegebener ...
13
votes
0answers
256 views

Consistency strength of $j:L_δ→L_δ$ for some δ

What is the consistency strength of existence of a nontrivial elementary embedding $j:L_δ→L_δ$ for some ordinal $δ$? The consistency strength is strictly between totally ineffable and $ω$-Erdős ...
13
votes
0answers
270 views

Covering S2 with great circles

Let $S_2$ be the unit 2-dimensional sphere. Is there a way to cover it with great circles such that each point on $S_2$ has 1 or 2 great circles that go through it?
13
votes
0answers
386 views

Small cardinals related to topological convergence

Recall that a topological space is called sequential if a set is closed if and only if it contains all limits of convergent sequences lying inside of it. A space $X$ is called Frechet if for every non-...
13
votes
0answers
547 views

If $U,D$ are $\kappa$-complete nonprincipal ultrafilters on $\kappa$ and $j_U(U) = j_D(D)$, is $U=D$?

Here, $\, j_U, \, j_D$ are the canonical elementary embeddings induced by $U,D$ respectively. I note that it is consistent with the existence of a measurable that the answer be yes: it is true in the ...
13
votes
0answers
656 views

Arguments against Freiling's argument against Continuum Hypothesis

Freiling's axiom of symmetry ($\sf AS$) is known as a justification for falsity of Continuum Hypothesis. Freiling in his 1986 paper, Axioms of symmetry: throwing darts at the real number line, ...
13
votes
0answers
274 views

Non meager union of lines

Suppose every subset of real line of size $\aleph_1$ is meager. Can we conclude that any union of $\aleph_1$ lines in plane is also meager? If we replace meager by null, this was negatively answered ...
13
votes
0answers
415 views

How much choice is required to prove concretizability theorems in category theory?

A concretization of a category is a faithful functor to the category of sets. A category is concretizable if there exists such a functor. An evident necessary condition for concretizability is ...
13
votes
0answers
383 views

How to measure the strength of Zermelo over bounded Zermelo?

Bounded Zermelo is Zermelo set theory with only bounded separation. It has the same strength as simple type theory or MacLane set theory or ETCS. It is a finitely axiomatized fragment of Zermelo, so ...
12
votes
0answers
313 views

L-spaces without convergent sequences

An L-space is a regular hereditarily Lindelof space which is not hereditarily separable. Consistent examples of L-spaces are relatively easy to come by (for example, Suslin Lines), but the first ...
12
votes
0answers
262 views

Can you define a probability measure on the set of countable transitive models of ZFC?

It is well known that the set of hereditarily countable sets $H(\omega_1)$ —or, if you prefer, $H_{\omega_1}$— has cardinality $2^{\aleph_0}$, and I understand that every countable ...