# Questions tagged [semigroups-and-monoids]

A semigroup is a set $S$ together with a binary operation that is associative. Examples of semigroups are the set of finite strings over a fixed alphabet (under concatenation) and the positive integers (under addition, maximum, or minimum). A monoid is a semigroup with a neutral element. Of course, any group is also a monoid/semigroup.

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### Generating functions in countable commutative monoids

Let $f: \mathbb{N}_0 \rightarrow \mathbb{C}$ be a function. The power series of $f$ can be viewed as the function $\mathscr{P}_f : q \mapsto \sum_{n \in \mathbb{N}_0}^{} f(n)q^n$ where $q \in \mathbb{...

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### A recursive description of the smallest divisor-closed subsemigroup containing a set

Let $S$ be a semigroup and $\widehat{S}$ be its unitization, i.e., the monoid obtained from $S$ by adjoining an identity element if necessary (so that $\widehat{S} = S$ when $S$ is already a monoid).
...

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### Every homomorphism between (rational) Puiseux monoids is multiplication by a non-negative rational

Let a (rational) Puiseux monoid be a non-trivial submonoid of the non-negative rational numbers under (the usual operation of) addition. It is not difficult to show that, if $f \colon H \to K$ is a (...

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### References on semigroup actions

I posted this question on Math Stack Exchange about 10 days ago, but received no answer (https://math.stackexchange.com/q/4843881/1223994).
I would like to ask for references on semigroup actions on ...

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### Are the automorphisms of the power semigroup of a cancellative semigroup cardinality-preserving?

Let $S$ be a semigroup (written multiplicatively) and $f$ be an automorphism of the power semigroup $\mathcal P(S)$ of $S$, that is, a bijective function on the family of all non-empty subsets of $S$ ...

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### Congruences that aren't "finite from above," take 2: semigroups

This is a hopefully less trivial version of this question. Briefly, say that a congruence is parafinite if it is the largest congruence contained in some equivalence relation with finitely many ...

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### An isomorphism problem for semigroups of ideals

An ideal of a semigroup $S$ (written multiplicatively) is a set $I \subseteq S$ such that $IS$ and $SI$ are both contained in $I$ (here, $XY$ means, for all $X, Y \subseteq S$, the setwise product of $...

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### Prove or disprove: $R^{n+1} \supseteq R \cap R^2 \cap \cdots \cap R^n$ for every binary relation $R$ on a set of size $n$

Prove or disprove: $R^{n+1} \supseteq R \cap R^2 \cap \cdots \cap R^n$ for every binary relation $R$ on a set of size $n$.
I have verified the statement for $n \leq 4$ with a Mathematica code.
I have ...

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### What is the highest $n\in\Bbb N$ for which a complete classification of inverse semigroups of order up to $n$ is known?

What is the highest $n\in\Bbb N$ for which a complete classification of inverse semigroups of order up to $n$ is known?
Given that there are $3{,}684{,}030{,}417$ semigroups of order $8$, I guess $n\...

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### Continuity of Moore-Penrose generalized inversion

Any matrix $A\in\mathbb{C}^{m\times n}$ has a unique generalized inverse $A^{\dagger}\in\mathbb{C}^{n\times m}$ with the properties $$AA^{\dagger}A=A,\qquad A^{\dagger}AA^{\dagger}=A^{\dagger},\qquad (...

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### $S$ and $T$ globally isomorphic semigroups, with $S$ (commutative and) cancellative, iff $S$ is isomorphic to $T$?

Denote by $\mathcal P(S)$ the semigroup obtained by equipping the non-empty subsets of a "ground semigroup" $S$ (written multiplicatively) with the operation of setwise multiplication ...

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### Apropos of two groups being globally isomorphic iff they are isomorphic

Denote by $\mathcal P(S)$ the semigroup obtained by endowing the non-empty subsets of a "ground semigroup" $S$ (written multiplicatively) with the operation of setwise multiplication induced ...

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### Name for a monoid on the basis of a vector space?

Is there a name for the structure of a vector space with a monoid defined on its basis?
Given a vector space V over a field F, we can choose a basis and define a monoid on it. Now we can use each ...

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### Can we generalise groupoids to monoid-oids? [closed]

Groups correspond to one object categories where every morphism is an isomorphism. Monoids correspond to one object categories.
Groupoids correspond to small categories where every morphism is an ...

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### Generalization of the concept of a measure

Consider the following generalization of the concept of a measure:
Let $L = (X, \lor, \land, \bot)$ be a semi-bounded lattice.
Let $M = (Y, \bullet, e)$ be a commutative monoid.
An $(L, M)$-measure is ...

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### The monoid of stably-free modules over integral group rings

Fix a torsion-free group G, let $M_G$ be the monoid of stably-free $\mathbb{Z}G$-modules under operation $\oplus$, the direct sum of modules.
In studying objects related to Wall’s D2 problem on CW-...

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### Is lambda calculus polymorphism a type of generalized monad?

Let $\mathbf{C}$ be a Cartesian closed category. Then simply typed lambda calculus in $\mathbf{C}$ in one type variable can be interpreted as a category $\mathbf{STLC}_{\mathbf C}$ where the objects ...

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### Does this monoid have a name?

Fix a positive integer $n \geq 1$. Let $M$ be the monoid with generators $S=\{x_0,x_1,\ldots,x_n\}$ and relations $R = \{ \alpha x_0 = \beta x_0\colon \alpha,\beta \in S^*, |\alpha|=|\beta|\}$, where $...

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### On the origin of power semigroups

Let $S$ be a (multiplicatively written) semigroup. Equipped with the (binary) operation of setwise multiplication $(X, Y) \mapsto \{xy \colon x \in X, \, y \in Y\}$, the family of all non-empty ...

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### Are all free monoids residually finite?

I cannot manage to prove that a free monoid with operation concatenation, and with at least two generators is residually finite. If there is just one generator, the free monoid $\{a\}^*$ is isomorphic ...

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### Semigroup algebras with one dimensional center

Let $S$ be a finite semigroup and $K$ a field of characteristic 0 (we can assume the complex numbers for simplicity).
Question: Is there a characterization when the center of the semigroup algebra $...

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### Cycles in almost breakable semigroups

Last October, I learned from Benjamin Steinberg's answer to another question of mine that a semigroup $S$ is called breakable if $xy \in \{x, y\}$ for all $x, y \in S$. Let's now say that $S$ is an ...

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### Semigroups containing an appropriate subgroup

We are looking for a class of non-monoid semigroups $S$ (resp. monoids $M$) satisfying the following conditions:
(1) $S$ has a left identity;
(2) There exists a subgroup $H$ of $S$ (resp. $M$) such ...

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### What is the tiling semigroup for an Einstein "hat" tiling?

My undergraduate dissertation was on inverse semigroups and the key text I used for it was Lawson's, "Inverse Semigroups: The Theory of Partial Symmetries". In said book, Lawson describes ...

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### A construction that sort of merges two semigroups to build a new one

Suppose $H$ and $K$ are semigroups and assume without loss of generality that (the underlying sets of) $H$ and $K$ are disjoint. We can then extend the operations of both $H$ and $K$ to a binary ...

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### Is there a name for this condition on a monoid?

Suppose we have a commutative monoid ${\mathcal M}=\langle M,\otimes\rangle$ such that the usual divisibility relation $\leq_\otimes$ given by $a\leq_\otimes b\Leftrightarrow \exists c(a\otimes c=b)$ ...

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### Three preprints and one manuscript of Tamura on power semigroups

I'm reading Takayuki Tamura's article "On the recent results in the study of power semigroups", pp. 191-200 in Goberstein & Higgins' Semigroups and Their Applications, Kluwer, 1987 (the ...

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### When is semigroup algebra local?

Let $G$ be a finite semigroup (or monoid if that helps) and $K$ a field.
Question: When is the semigroup algebra $KG$ local?
Here local means that there is a unique maximal right (or left) ideal.
...

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### Cartan matrix of the full transformation monoid ring

Let $T_n$ be the full transformation monoid of an $n$-set and $A_n=KT_n$ its monoid algebra over the complex numbers.
Question 1: Is the Cartan matrix of $A_n$ known? Im especially interested to see ...

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### Algebra generated by transformation matrices

Let $T_n$ be the full transformation monoid of an $n$-set $N_n$ with elements 1,...,n consisting of all functions $f: N_n \rightarrow N_n$.
We can associate to each function $f$ a matrix $M_f$ in the ...

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### Understanding the picture of monoidal space

Ogus in his slides https://math.berkeley.edu/~ogus/preprints/colloqhandout.pdf presents the following picture of a monoidal space $\operatorname{Spec}(\mathbb{N} \longrightarrow \mathbb{C}[\mathbb{N}])...

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### Cancelable commutative monoids with finite maximal subgroups

Suppose $\mathcal{M} = (M, +, 0)$ is a cancelable commutative monoid. Let $G$ be the maximal subgroup of $M$, i.e.
$$G = \{ a \in M \colon (\exists b \in M)\, a + b = 0 \}.$$
For $a, b \in M$ say $a \...

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### Neighborhoods of idempotents in topological inverse semigroups

In a topological group, for any neighborhood $U$ of the origin, there is another such neighborhood with the property that $V.V\subseteq U.$ I conjecture a similar property for topological inverse ...

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### Making the powerset into a topological monoid

Every monoid $X$ induces a monoid structure $\circledast$ on $\mathcal{P}(X)$ via
$$U\circledast V := \{uv\ |\ u\in U,v\in V\}.$$
Moreover, a morphism of monoids $f\colon X\to Y$ induces a morphism of ...

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### Eventual stabilization for repeatedly adding multiplayer games

This question is an outgrowth of a couple previous questions of mine. In order: 1,2,3. This should be fully self-contained, but those questions may help motivate this one.
To keep things readable, I'...

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### Usefulness of total algebras and exotic generating series

In his first Algebra volume, Bourbaki [1] defines the structure of a “total algebra” i.e. the space of functions on a monoid $M$ (to a ring $k$) with the convolution product ( a function $f:\ M\to k$ ...

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### Monoid associated to $>2$-player Hackenbush

There is some literature on multiplayer combinatorial game theory, but as far as I can tell none of it follows the line of attack below. I'd love a pointer to a similar approach taken in the ...

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### Examples of groups with a positive homogeneous presentation without the Haagerup property or not of type $F_\infty$

I am looking for groups with a certain presentation that do not have the Haagerup property or are finitely presented but not of type $F_\infty$ (meaninig that for some $n\geq 3$ we cannot find any ...

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### Primal identity in matrix semigroup

Given a finite set of matrix $\{M_1,M_2,\cdots,M_n\}\subseteq \mathbb{C}^{d\times d}$, we consider the semigroup generated by matrix product.
We call $s_1\cdots s_k$ an identity index if
$M_{s_1}M_{...

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### A term for a submonoid of a free abelian monoid?

Are there multiple ways of characterising which monoids are submonoids of free abelian monoids?
What free abelian monoids are:
A free abelian monoid $\mathbb N^d$ with $d$ generators (where $d$ is an ...

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### Grothendieck group of the Fibonacci monoid

Let's denote the Fibonacci numbers by $F_0=0,F_1=1,F_{n+2}=F_{n+1}+F_n \; \forall n \ge 0$. According to Zeckendorf's theorem, every positive integer can be represented uniquely as the sum of some (at ...

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### Semigroups related to iterated orthogonal complement

Let $R\subset V\times V$ be a relation on a set $V$. For a subset $S\subset V$, define its orthogonal complement with respect to $R$
as
$$S^l:=\{ x: \forall y\in S\ \ (x,y)\in R\},\ \ S^r:=\{y: \...

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### Two numerical monoids are isomorphic iff they are equal

A numerical monoid (or numerical semigroup) is a submonoid $S$ of the additive monoid $(\mathbb N, +)$ of non-negative integers with the property that the set $\mathbb N \setminus S$ is finite.
It is ...

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### Category whose morphisms are commutative monoids but not enriched

In a recent investigation, I constructed a category $\mathcal{C}$ with the following property. For objects $X,Y \in \mathcal{C}$, the morphism set $\text{Mor}(X,Y)$ is a commutative monoid with ...

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### A particular generalization of free partially commutative monoids

A trace monoid, or free partially commutative monoid, is one with the presentation $\langle \Sigma \mid a_1b_1 = b_1a_1, \dots, a_nb_n = b_na_n\rangle$. The theory of trace monoids has been well ...

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### Left syndeticity and right syndeticity in nilpotent group

$\DeclareMathOperator\Pf{\mathcal{P}_\mathrm{f}}$Question: Does there exist any reference regarding the study of left and right syndeticity in nilpotent group? More specifically, did anyone introduce/...

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### Closure of the inverse image under the projection map

Let $S$ be a subsemigroup of a semitopological semigroup $(T,+)$, let $e$ be an idempotent in $T\setminus S$ such that $e\in cl_T(S)$, let $\mathcal{E}$ be a subsemigroup of $S\times S$ such that $(e,...

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### Parallelizability of Lie monoids

A Lie monoid is a monoid, together with a structure of a smooth manifold (possibly with a boundary), such that the monoid multiplication is smooth.
If all left (or right) translations in a Lie monoid $...

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### The existence of an idempotent in some special semigroups

Problem. Does a semigroup $S$ have an idempotent, if there exist elements $b\in S$ and $a_1,\dots,a_n\in S$ such that $b\in \bigcup_{i=1}^na_ixSxa_i$ for every $x\in S$?
What is the answer to this ...

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### A pexiderization of the sine addition law on semigroups

Can we solve the follwing functional equation
$$f(xy)=g(x)h(y)+g(y)h(x)$$
on semigroups for unknown complex valued functions $f,g,h$ ?