Questions tagged [semigroups-and-monoids]

A semigroup is a set $S$ together with a binary operation that is associative. Examples of semigroups are the set of finite strings over a fixed alphabet (under concatenation) and the positive integers (under addition, maximum, or minimum). A monoid is a semigroup with a neutral element. Of course, any group is also a monoid/semigroup.

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72 views

What is the correct name for a “product function” on a monoid?

Let $W$ be a monoid. A function $f\colon W\rightarrow W$ is a "product function" if $f(w)$ is a product of constants in $W$ and positive integer powers of $w$. It could also be called a "non-...
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Maximal number of commuting functions of a finite set

Let $S$ be a finite set with $n$ elements and let $F_S$ denote the set of functions from $S$ to $S$. I wonder whether anything is known about the maximal cardinality of a commuting subset of $F_S$? A ...
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The rank of a semigroup

Let $S$ be a finite noncommutative semigroup(without identity) with a subset $M$ such that $\langle M \rangle =S$. If every element of $M$ is indecomposable in $M$, i.e. for any $a \in M$, there are ...
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Combinatorial proof of invertibility of a symmetric matrix associated to the ring of matrices over a finite field

Let $F$ be a finite field of $q$ elements with characteristic $p$. Let $M_n(F)$ be the ring of $n\times n$ matrices over $F$. We define a $q^{n^2}\times q^{n^2}$ symmetric matrix $L$ over the ...
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1answer
85 views

Centralizer of a single element in the monoid of self-maps of a set

This is a follow-up to this question: For what sets $X$ do there exist a pair of functions from $X$ to $X$ with the identity being the only function that commutes with both? Let $X$ be a set, and $X^...
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559 views

For what sets $X$ do there exist a pair of functions from $X$ to $X$ with the identity being the only function that commutes with both?

It is not too difficult to show that if $X$ is an infinite set, then there exists a two-element subset of the group $\operatorname{Sym}(X)$ with trivial centralizer iff $\lvert X\rvert \leq \lvert\...
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A semifield of characteristic zero may have a finite number of elements

A commutative semiring $(S, +, \cdot, 0, 1)$ with unity is said to be a semifield if for all $a, b\in S$, $a+b=0$ implies that $a=0$ and $b=0$, and $a.b=0$ implies that either $a=0$ or, $b=0$. I ...
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Are most semigroups nilpotent of degree 3?

A semigroup is nilpotent of degree 3 if every product of 3 elements gives the same result. In 2012, Andreas Distler and James D. Mitchell wrote that: It is part of the folklore of semigroup theory ...
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Question on monoid algebras

Let $G$ be a finite monoid. Question 1: In case the monoid algebra $A=kG$ is weakly symmetric (meaning soc(P)=top(P) for each indecomposable projective modules), is $kG$ even symmetric (meaning $A \...
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Bijection between monoid of nilpotent decreasing self-maps and local subsemigroup

Let $\mathcal{C}_X\cong\mathcal{C}_n$ be the monoid of self-maps $\alpha$ of $X=\{1\dots,n\}$ that are order-preserving ($\forall x,y$, $x\le y$ $\Rightarrow$ $\alpha(x)\le\alpha(y)$) and decreasing ($...
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What spaces $X$ do have $\text{End}(X) \cong \text{End}(\mathbb{R})$?

This is a follow-up on the following question. Let $\text{End}(X)$ denote the endomorphism monoid of a topological space $X$ (that is, the collection of all continuous maps $f:X\to X$ with composition)...
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377 views

Spaces with unique endomorphism monoids

If $(X,\tau)$ is a topological space, let $\text{End}(X)$ denote the collection of all continuous maps $f: X\to X$. With composition, this becomes the endomorphism monoid $(\text{End}(X), \circ)$. We ...
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Quasi-isometries and E-unitary inverse semigroups

Let $S = \langle K\rangle$ be a finitely generated inverse semigroup, where $K \subset S$ is a fixed, finite and symmetric set of generators. Preliminaries: Recall that we say that $s, t \in S$ are $\...
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Ascending sequences of idempotents in inverse semigroups

I've enocuntered the following question in my current research, and I'd appreciate any help you could give me. This is probably well known to experts on the subject. Let $S = \langle K \rangle$ be a ...
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On the number of connected functional digraphs recoverable from the preimage set size structure

I am studying the list of inverse images (preimage sets) of some function $f$ at a given inverse depth $j$ -- for each element $x_i$ of a finite domain $X$. For example, $P_j=\left[f^{-j}(...
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1answer
115 views

Additivity of the upper Banach density

The following notion of upper Banach density was defined (Definition 2.1(c)) by Hindman and Strauss in their paper 'Density in arbitrary semigroups': Definition: Let $S$ be a semigroup, let $\mathcal{...
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202 views

What is a “cusp” (“кусок”) in relation to Guba's embedding theorem?

I'm confused by the definition of a "cusp" as found in V.S. Guba, Conditions for the embeddability of semigroups into groups, Math. Notes 56 (1994), Nos. 1-2, 763-769 (link). In the words of Mark ...
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74 views

Is the natural action of the monoid of endomorphisms is a complete invariant for group?

Let $\alpha$ and $\beta$ be actions of semigroups $A$ and $B$ on sets $X$ and $Y$ respectively. Recall that $\alpha$ and $\beta$ are called isomorphic if there exists an isomorphism $\phi$ between ...
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1answer
105 views

Classification of associative polynomial functions

What is known about a classification of associative (binary) polynomial functions? First of all, it is interesting in two cases: over Integral domain (or even over field) and over ring of integers ...
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613 views

Associativity may fail by little?

It is a well-known result on group theory that if a group has many pairs of commuting elements then it is abelian. This motivated the following pseudo-conjecture. If a (possibly infinite) set $S$ ...
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1answer
295 views

Closed submonoid of $(\mathbb{C}^*)^n$

The answer of this question might be known but I was not able to find any answer. Let $n\geq 1$ and $S$ be a closed submonoid of $(\mathbb{C}^*)^n$, that is, a closed and stable by product subset of $(...
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1answer
78 views

Closed cobounded additive submonoid of $\mathbb{R}^n$

Let $M$ be a closed additive submonoid of $\mathbb{R}^n$ with $n\geq1$. Suppose also that there exists $r>0$ such that every ball of radius $r$ intersects $M$. I wonder if we can obtain more ...
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1answer
70 views

What is the minimal possible size of a subset of this semigroup satisfying the following conditions?

Suppose $A$ is some set. Let's define a pair semigroup over $A$ as $P[A] = (A\times A \cup \{0\}, \circ)$, where the $\circ$ operation is defined by the following two identities: $\forall a \in P[A]$ ...
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300 views

Counting nilpotent self-maps of $\{1,\dots,n\}$ with image of a given cardinal

Let $\mathcal{C}_n$ be the monoid of self-maps $\alpha$ of $\{1\dots,n\}$ that are order-preserving ($\forall x,y$, $x\le y$ $\Rightarrow$ $\alpha(x)\le\alpha(y)$ and decreasing ($\forall x$, $\alpha(...
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1answer
143 views

Comonoids in the category of monoids

Let us give the category of monoids $\mathbf{Mon}$ a monoidal structure with $\otimes = \sqcup$ (coproduct). How can we classify $\mathbf{CoMon}(\mathbf{Mon})$, the category of comonoids of monoids? ...
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Compute irreducibles of monoid

Given $n > 0$ and $w \in \mathbb{Z}^n$. Is there an efficient algorithm to compute the set of irreducible elements of the monoid $M_w = \{x \in \mathbb{N}^n \mid \langle x,w\rangle = 0 \}$? Here, ...
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1answer
177 views

Continuous semigroup homomorphism of composition to additive structure

Let $G$ be the topological semigroup whose underlying space is $C(\mathbb{R}^d,\mathbb{R}^d)$ equipped with composition as semigroup operation and let $H$ be the topological group whose underlying ...
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952 views

Monoids of endomorphisms of nonisomorphic groups

Can monoids of endomorphisms of nonisomorphic groups be isomorphic ?
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1answer
111 views

Internal commutative monoid gives commutative monad

Let $(C,\otimes,1)$ be a symmetric monoidal category. Let $(M,\mu,\eta)$ be an internal commutative monoid object. The functor $X\mapsto M\otimes X$ has a canonical monad structure, with unit and ...
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1answer
87 views

Joint spectral radius of $\{M,M^T\}$

Let $F$ be a bounded subset of ${\bf M}_n({\mathbb C})$. G.-C. Rota & G. Strang defined the joint spectral radius of $F$ as follows. For $k\ge1$, denote $F_k$ the set of all products of $k$ ...
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80 views

Cancellativity of a particular $2$-generated monoid presented by an infinite number of relations

Let $X = \{x, y\}$ be a two-element set, and let $H$ be the monoid defined by the presentation $$ \langle x, y \mid x y^k x = y x y^{k+1} x y, \text{ for } k = 0, 1, 2, \ldots\rangle. $$ That is, $H$ ...
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Are there finitely-presented astral monoids?

We say a semigroup $S$ is $k$-astral if there exists a finite set $F \subset S$ such that whenever $s_1, s_2, ..., s_k \in S$ there exists $s \in S$ such that $\forall i: s_i \in sF$. Say $S$ is ...
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29 views

$m$-potent elements in $N(C_n)$

We konw that in semigroup theory, $(C_n)$ is the semigroup of all order-preserving and decreasing transformations on $X_n=\{1,\dots,n\}$, under its natural order and $N(C_n)$ the set of all nilpotent ...
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165 views

Generating the monoid of injective endomorphisms of the free group

Let $F$ be the free group of rank $2$ (or any finite rank if this does not matter). The set of injective group endomorphisms $F\to F$ forms a monoid $M$ by compositions. Is there a simple looking set ...
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1answer
83 views

Define a homomorphism of a set of graphs to its power set

Let $G$ be a simple graph and $S$ be the set of all sub graphs of $G$. Define two operations on $S$ as: $union$ of two graphs $ G_1$ and $G_2$ is, $G_1\cup G_2$ $=\langle V(G_1)\cup V(G_2), (E(G_1)\...
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1answer
133 views

Multiplicative monoid of ring modulo units

Let $M = \mathbb{Z}[\phi] \setminus \{0\}$ be the multiplicative monoid of the ring $\mathbb{Z}[\phi]$ with $\phi = \frac{1+\sqrt{5}}{2}$ the golden ratio. We define the equivalence relationship $x\...
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Generalization of pseudogroups

Pseudogroups are defined here: https://ncatlab.org/nlab/show/pseudogroup One of the problems with defining manifolds in terms of pseudogroups is that it gives no notion of a morphism between ...
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Is the equational theory of groups axiomatized by the associative law?

Consider the class of groups in the signature {*}. Is the equational theory of that class axiomatized by the associative law? I asked this on math stack exchange but I didn't receive a satisfactory ...
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1answer
139 views

A characterisation of faces of rational polyhedral cones

This is about a (seemingly) basic lemma about rational polyhedral cones that is sometimes used when working with toric varieties and is usually "left to the reader". Unfortunately, I could neither ...
5
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1answer
137 views

Which homotopy types can be realized as the classifying space of a right-cancellative discrete monoid?

McDuff showed that every connected homotopy type can be realized as the classifying space of a discrete monoid, but the monoid she constructs has lots of idempotents. Question: Which homotopy types ...
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Who invented Monoid?

I was trying to find (and failed) the original author of either the concept of Monoid (set with binary associative operation and identity) the name (which sounds french ? and also Dioid (for what ...
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1answer
169 views

Topological category of topological monoids / operads

The category of topological monoids can be made into a topological category in a naive way. Namely, the space of all continuous homomorphisms between two topological monoids is a closed subspace of ...
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1answer
98 views

Characterization of Archimedean linearly ordered monoids

In this question, it is shown that all Archimedean ordered groups are isomorphic to an ordered subgroup of $\mathbb R$. Additionally, it is shown that if such a group is complete, then it is ...
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42 views

Special monomorphism to encode the inclusion of topological submonoids

Consider the category $\mathrm{TopMon}$ of topological monoids and continuous monoid homomorphisms. Consider the inclusion $i:\Bbb{R}_{\ge 0}\hookrightarrow \Bbb{R}$, where the spaces are taken with ...
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How exactly to adapt Brown's collapse from monoids to algebras?

In The Geometry of Rewriting Systems (Springerlink behind paywall), Kenneth Brown describes a method to collapse the bar resolution of a monoid. Roughly: Given a simplicial set $X$ equipped with a ...
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1answer
71 views

Primage structures: induced domain partitioning by itterated inverse (reference request)

I am studying the list of inverse images (preimage sets) of some function $f$ at a given inverse depth $j$ -- for each element $x_i$ of a finite domain $X$. For example, the j-th such preimage list ...
2
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1answer
176 views

A question about semigroup union

The semigroup of all order-preserving and decreasing transformations in full transformations semigroup $T_n$ is denoted $C_n$. I consider the idempotent set $A=\{\begin{bmatrix}2\\1 \end{bmatrix},\...
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64 views

What is the normalized complex of a simplicial set with a monoid action?

This question is a follow up to this question I posted on Math.SE. I will make this question self-contained, though. In a certain point on the paper The Geometry of Rewriting Systems, Kenneth Brown ...
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1answer
228 views

Category of continuous self maps

Is there any way to reconstruct a topological space from the category of its continuous self maps (possibly under some assumptions)? How can we tell whether a category is the category of continuous ...
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100 views

Is the Upper Banach density always zero with respect to some sequence of Finite subset

The following question came to me while reading the paper 'Density in Arbitrary Semigroups' by Hindman and Strauss. Question: Given an infinite subset $A$ of $\mathbb{N}$ such that $A^c$ is also ...

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