Questions tagged [semigroups-and-monoids]

A semigroup is a set $S$ together with a binary operation that is associative. Examples of semigroups are the set of finite strings over a fixed alphabet (under concatenation) and the positive integers (under addition, maximum, or minimum). A monoid is a semigroup with a neutral element. Of course, any group is also a monoid/semigroup.

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3
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1answer
100 views

Lie monoids as monoids internal to the category of smooth manifolds?

This question can be thought as a complement to this one. Lie groups can be defined as groups internal to the category of smooth manifolds. Lie monoids, however, as a particular case of Lie semigroups,...
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23 views

Looking for a characterization of 'P2-monoids' and related structures

Definition 1. Let $M$ denote a monoid and consider $x \in M$. Then for the purposes of this question, $x$ is semicentral if and only if for all $a,b \in M,$ with $ba = 1$, we have $bxa=x$. Some basic ...
3
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3answers
146 views

Surjective monoid homomorphism $\text{End}(B)\to \text{End}(A)$ given surjection $g:B\to A$

For any set $A\neq\varnothing$ let $\text{End}(A)$ denote the endomorphism monoid, consisting of all functions $f:A\to A$, together with composition. If $A, B\neq \varnothing$ are sets and $g:B\to A$ ...
3
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1answer
165 views

Can one turn finite-dimensional vector subspaces into a cancellative semigroup?

Let $V$ be a vector space over some field and let ${\rm Fin}\,V$ be the family of all finite-dimensional subspaces of $V$. Is it possible to turn ${\rm Fin}\,V$ into an commutative cancellative ...
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Non-commutative version of the order dimension of a poset

I view the order dimension of a poset $P$ as an inherently commutative notion. On the one hand, it can be defined via realizers, which I find fairly intuitive from an order-theoretic viewpoint. On the ...
6
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1answer
146 views

Identities of finite inverse semigroups

An inverse semigroup is an algebra with two operations: binary $\cdot$ and unary $^{-1}$ such that $\cdot$ is associative and $xx^{-1}x=x, xx^{-1}yy^{-1}=yy^{-1}xx^{-1}$. The Brandt semigroup with 1, $...
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3answers
478 views

Is the class of power-associative binars finitely axiomatizable?

A binar is simply a set $S$ equipped with a single binary operation $*$. A power-associative binar is a binar where the subalgebra generated by a single element is associative. Equivalently, they can ...
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Maximal number of commuting functions of a finite set

Let $S$ be a finite set with $n$ elements and let $F_S$ denote the set of functions from $S$ to $S$. I wonder whether anything is known about the maximal cardinality of a commuting subset of $F_S$? A ...
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1answer
114 views

The rank of a semigroup

Let $S$ be a finite noncommutative semigroup(without identity) with a subset $M$ such that $\langle M \rangle =S$. If every element of $M$ is indecomposable in $M$, i.e. for any $a \in M$, there are ...
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Combinatorial proof of invertibility of a symmetric matrix associated to the ring of matrices over a finite field

Let $F$ be a finite field of $q$ elements with characteristic $p$. Let $M_n(F)$ be the ring of $n\times n$ matrices over $F$. We define a $q^{n^2}\times q^{n^2}$ symmetric matrix $L$ over the ...
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1answer
90 views

Centralizer of a single element in the monoid of self-maps of a set

This is a follow-up to this question: For what sets $X$ do there exist a pair of functions from $X$ to $X$ with the identity being the only function that commutes with both? Let $X$ be a set, and $X^...
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2answers
590 views

For what sets $X$ do there exist a pair of functions from $X$ to $X$ with the identity being the only function that commutes with both?

It is not too difficult to show that if $X$ is an infinite set, then there exists a two-element subset of the group $\operatorname{Sym}(X)$ with trivial centralizer iff $\lvert X\rvert \leq \lvert\...
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A semifield of characteristic zero may have a finite number of elements

A commutative semiring $(S, +, \cdot, 0, 1)$ with unity is said to be a semifield if for all $a, b\in S$, $a+b=0$ implies that $a=0$ and $b=0$, and $a.b=0$ implies that either $a=0$ or, $b=0$. I ...
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Are most semigroups nilpotent of degree 3?

A semigroup is nilpotent of degree 3 if every product of 3 elements gives the same result. In 2012, Andreas Distler and James D. Mitchell wrote that: It is part of the folklore of semigroup theory ...
3
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1answer
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Question on monoid algebras

Let $G$ be a finite monoid. Question 1: In case the monoid algebra $A=kG$ is weakly symmetric (meaning soc(P)=top(P) for each indecomposable projective modules), is $kG$ even symmetric (meaning $A \...
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Bijection between monoid of nilpotent decreasing self-maps and local subsemigroup

Let $\mathcal{C}_X\cong\mathcal{C}_n$ be the monoid of self-maps $\alpha$ of $X=\{1\dots,n\}$ that are order-preserving ($\forall x,y$, $x\le y$ $\Rightarrow$ $\alpha(x)\le\alpha(y)$) and decreasing ($...
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3answers
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What spaces $X$ do have $\text{End}(X) \cong \text{End}(\mathbb{R})$?

This is a follow-up on the following question. Let $\text{End}(X)$ denote the endomorphism monoid of a topological space $X$ (that is, the collection of all continuous maps $f:X\to X$ with composition)...
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3answers
382 views

Spaces with unique endomorphism monoids

If $(X,\tau)$ is a topological space, let $\text{End}(X)$ denote the collection of all continuous maps $f: X\to X$. With composition, this becomes the endomorphism monoid $(\text{End}(X), \circ)$. We ...
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1answer
78 views

Quasi-isometries and E-unitary inverse semigroups

Let $S = \langle K\rangle$ be a finitely generated inverse semigroup, where $K \subset S$ is a fixed, finite and symmetric set of generators. Preliminaries: Recall that we say that $s, t \in S$ are $\...
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1answer
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Ascending sequences of idempotents in inverse semigroups

I've enocuntered the following question in my current research, and I'd appreciate any help you could give me. This is probably well known to experts on the subject. Let $S = \langle K \rangle$ be a ...
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22 views

On the number of connected functional digraphs recoverable from the preimage set size structure

I am studying the list of inverse images (preimage sets) of some function $f$ at a given inverse depth $j$ -- for each element $x_i$ of a finite domain $X$. For example, $P_j=\left[f^{-j}(...
2
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1answer
117 views

Additivity of the upper Banach density

The following notion of upper Banach density was defined (Definition 2.1(c)) by Hindman and Strauss in their paper 'Density in arbitrary semigroups': Definition: Let $S$ be a semigroup, let $\mathcal{...
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203 views

What is a “cusp” (“кусок”) in relation to Guba's embedding theorem?

I'm confused by the definition of a "cusp" as found in V.S. Guba, Conditions for the embeddability of semigroups into groups, Math. Notes 56 (1994), Nos. 1-2, 763-769 (link). In the words of Mark ...
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74 views

Is the natural action of the monoid of endomorphisms is a complete invariant for group?

Let $\alpha$ and $\beta$ be actions of semigroups $A$ and $B$ on sets $X$ and $Y$ respectively. Recall that $\alpha$ and $\beta$ are called isomorphic if there exists an isomorphism $\phi$ between ...
2
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1answer
106 views

Classification of associative polynomial functions

What is known about a classification of associative (binary) polynomial functions? First of all, it is interesting in two cases: over Integral domain (or even over field) and over ring of integers ...
14
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1answer
615 views

Associativity may fail by little?

It is a well-known result on group theory that if a group has many pairs of commuting elements then it is abelian. This motivated the following pseudo-conjecture. If a (possibly infinite) set $S$ ...
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1answer
297 views

Closed submonoid of $(\mathbb{C}^*)^n$

The answer of this question might be known but I was not able to find any answer. Let $n\geq 1$ and $S$ be a closed submonoid of $(\mathbb{C}^*)^n$, that is, a closed and stable by product subset of $(...
4
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1answer
82 views

Closed cobounded additive submonoid of $\mathbb{R}^n$

Let $M$ be a closed additive submonoid of $\mathbb{R}^n$ with $n\geq1$. Suppose also that there exists $r>0$ such that every ball of radius $r$ intersects $M$. I wonder if we can obtain more ...
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1answer
70 views

What is the minimal possible size of a subset of this semigroup satisfying the following conditions?

Suppose $A$ is some set. Let's define a pair semigroup over $A$ as $P[A] = (A\times A \cup \{0\}, \circ)$, where the $\circ$ operation is defined by the following two identities: $\forall a \in P[A]$ ...
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2answers
348 views

Counting nilpotent self-maps of $\{1,\dots,n\}$ with image of a given cardinal

Let $\mathcal{C}_n$ be the monoid of self-maps $\alpha$ of $\{1\dots,n\}$ that are order-preserving ($\forall x,y$, $x\le y$ $\Rightarrow$ $\alpha(x)\le\alpha(y)$ and decreasing ($\forall x$, $\alpha(...
6
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1answer
145 views

Comonoids in the category of monoids

Let us give the category of monoids $\mathbf{Mon}$ a monoidal structure with $\otimes = \sqcup$ (coproduct). How can we classify $\mathbf{CoMon}(\mathbf{Mon})$, the category of comonoids of monoids? ...
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0answers
37 views

Compute irreducibles of monoid

Given $n > 0$ and $w \in \mathbb{Z}^n$. Is there an efficient algorithm to compute the set of irreducible elements of the monoid $M_w = \{x \in \mathbb{N}^n \mid \langle x,w\rangle = 0 \}$? Here, ...
0
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1answer
177 views

Continuous semigroup homomorphism of composition to additive structure

Let $G$ be the topological semigroup whose underlying space is $C(\mathbb{R}^d,\mathbb{R}^d)$ equipped with composition as semigroup operation and let $H$ be the topological group whose underlying ...
17
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2answers
955 views

Monoids of endomorphisms of nonisomorphic groups

Can monoids of endomorphisms of nonisomorphic groups be isomorphic ?
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1answer
111 views

Internal commutative monoid gives commutative monad

Let $(C,\otimes,1)$ be a symmetric monoidal category. Let $(M,\mu,\eta)$ be an internal commutative monoid object. The functor $X\mapsto M\otimes X$ has a canonical monad structure, with unit and ...
3
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1answer
89 views

Joint spectral radius of $\{M,M^T\}$

Let $F$ be a bounded subset of ${\bf M}_n({\mathbb C})$. G.-C. Rota & G. Strang defined the joint spectral radius of $F$ as follows. For $k\ge1$, denote $F_k$ the set of all products of $k$ ...
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0answers
80 views

Cancellativity of a particular $2$-generated monoid presented by an infinite number of relations

Let $X = \{x, y\}$ be a two-element set, and let $H$ be the monoid defined by the presentation $$ \langle x, y \mid x y^k x = y x y^{k+1} x y, \text{ for } k = 0, 1, 2, \ldots\rangle. $$ That is, $H$ ...
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0answers
52 views

Are there finitely-presented astral monoids?

We say a semigroup $S$ is $k$-astral if there exists a finite set $F \subset S$ such that whenever $s_1, s_2, ..., s_k \in S$ there exists $s \in S$ such that $\forall i: s_i \in sF$. Say $S$ is ...
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0answers
31 views

$m$-potent elements in $N(C_n)$

We konw that in semigroup theory, $(C_n)$ is the semigroup of all order-preserving and decreasing transformations on $X_n=\{1,\dots,n\}$, under its natural order and $N(C_n)$ the set of all nilpotent ...
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0answers
170 views

Generating the monoid of injective endomorphisms of the free group

Let $F$ be the free group of rank $2$ (or any finite rank if this does not matter). The set of injective group endomorphisms $F\to F$ forms a monoid $M$ by compositions. Is there a simple looking set ...
2
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1answer
85 views

Define a homomorphism of a set of graphs to its power set

Let $G$ be a simple graph and $S$ be the set of all sub graphs of $G$. Define two operations on $S$ as: $union$ of two graphs $ G_1$ and $G_2$ is, $G_1\cup G_2$ $=\langle V(G_1)\cup V(G_2), (E(G_1)\...
0
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1answer
136 views

Multiplicative monoid of ring modulo units

Let $M = \mathbb{Z}[\phi] \setminus \{0\}$ be the multiplicative monoid of the ring $\mathbb{Z}[\phi]$ with $\phi = \frac{1+\sqrt{5}}{2}$ the golden ratio. We define the equivalence relationship $x\...
6
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0answers
96 views

Generalization of pseudogroups

Pseudogroups are defined here: https://ncatlab.org/nlab/show/pseudogroup One of the problems with defining manifolds in terms of pseudogroups is that it gives no notion of a morphism between manifolds,...
8
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2answers
511 views

Is the equational theory of groups axiomatized by the associative law?

Consider the class of groups in the signature {*}. Is the equational theory of that class axiomatized by the associative law? I asked this on math stack exchange but I didn't receive a satisfactory ...
5
votes
1answer
139 views

A characterisation of faces of rational polyhedral cones

This is about a (seemingly) basic lemma about rational polyhedral cones that is sometimes used when working with toric varieties and is usually "left to the reader". Unfortunately, I could ...
5
votes
1answer
139 views

Which homotopy types can be realized as the classifying space of a right-cancellative discrete monoid?

McDuff showed that every connected homotopy type can be realized as the classifying space of a discrete monoid, but the monoid she constructs has lots of idempotents. Question: Which homotopy types ...
8
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1answer
1k views

Who invented Monoid?

I was trying to find (and failed) the original author of either the concept of Monoid (set with binary associative operation and identity) the name (which sounds french ? and also Dioid (for what ...
5
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1answer
170 views

Topological category of topological monoids / operads

The category of topological monoids can be made into a topological category in a naive way. Namely, the space of all continuous homomorphisms between two topological monoids is a closed subspace of ...
4
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1answer
104 views

Characterization of Archimedean linearly ordered monoids

In this question, it is shown that all Archimedean ordered groups are isomorphic to an ordered subgroup of $\mathbb R$. Additionally, it is shown that if such a group is complete, then it is ...
6
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0answers
42 views

Special monomorphism to encode the inclusion of topological submonoids

Consider the category $\mathrm{TopMon}$ of topological monoids and continuous monoid homomorphisms. Consider the inclusion $i:\Bbb{R}_{\ge 0}\hookrightarrow \Bbb{R}$, where the spaces are taken with ...

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