# Questions tagged [semialgebraic-geometry]

Semialgebraic geometry is the study of inequalities expressible in algebraic functions in one or several variables, usually over the real numbers or some field with similar properties.

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### If a subset $X$ of a $C^k$ manifold $M$ is semialgebraic in the charts of $M$, is it Whitney stratifiable?

Let $M$ be a $C^k$ manifold for some $k\geq 1$ and $X$ be a subset of $M$.
Assume that there is an atlas of charts $(\phi_\alpha, U_\alpha)_\alpha$ of $M$ such that in the coordinates of each of these ...

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### Feasibility of a polynomial system of equalities and inequalities

Consider a system of the form $f_i(x) = 0$ and $g_j(x) \ge 0$ ,where $f_i,i=1,\dots,r$ and $g_j,j=1,\dots,s$ are polynomials in real unknowns $x_i,i=1,\dots,n$ with rational coefficients.
Is there a ...

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### Writing the $\ell^{p/(p-1)}$ unit sphere as a semi-algebraic set for $p\in\Bbb N$

The $\ell^p$ unit sphere $\{x\in\Bbb R^n\mid |x_1|^p+\cdots+|x_n|^p=1\}$ with $p\in\Bbb N$ is a semi-algebraic set, and its polar dual is
$$(*)\quad \{x\in\Bbb R^n\mid |x_1|^q+\cdots +|x_n|^q=1\},$$
...

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### Tarski-Seidenberg for strict inequalities and bounded quantification

This theorem says that quantifiers over real variables can be eliminated from classical first order formulae built from equations and inequalities between polynomials with rational coefficients, ie in ...

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### An application of Tarski-Seidenberg Theorem

I am reading the paper "A. D. Ioffe, An invitation to tame optimization, SIAM J. Optim., 19 (2009), 1894–1917" and stuck at Proposition 3.1. The author claims (in the language of semi-...

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### Computer algebra tools for finding real dimension of an algebraic variety

I have a system of polynomial equations with the unknowns being real numbers. The set of solutions is infinite. What software can I use to compute the real dimension of the solution set?
The CAD-based ...

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### Is the polar dual of a semi-algebraic convex body also semi-algebraic?

Call a convex body $C\subset\Bbb R^n$ semi-algebraic if it can be written as
$$(*)\quad C=\bigcap_{i\in I}\, \{x\in \Bbb R^n\mid p_i(x)\le 0\}$$
with polynomials $p_i\in\Bbb R[X_1,...,X_n]$ and a ...

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### Projections of compact real algebraic sets

Suppose that $M$ is a compact, real
algebraic subset of $\mathbb R^n$ and $f:\mathbb R^n \to \mathbb R^m$ is the projection to the first $m$ coordinates. If $f$ maps $M$ bijectively unto its image $f(...

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### Certificates of connectivity of basic semi-algebraic sets

Given real polynomials $p_1, \ldots, p_n \in {\mathbb R}[x_1, \ldots, x_d]$, consider the closed basic semi-algebraic set $S \subseteq {\mathbb R}^d$ given by $$S := \{x \in {\mathbb R}^d : p_i(x) \...

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### Homotopy equivalence of stably equivalent semialgebraic sets

In his book [1], Richter-Gebert introduces a notion of stable
equivalence for primary basic semialgebraic sets (subsets of
$\mathbb{R}^n$ defined by a conjunction of polynomial equations
and strict ...

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### Examples of semi-abelian schemes over a curve

Let $C$ be a nice curve, i.e. $C$ is a smooth, projective, geometrically integral scheme of dimension $1$ over a field $k$. For example, (assuming the characteristic of $k$ is neither 2 or 3) an ...

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### What are the possible asymptotics of the measure of a parametrised semialgebraic set?

Consider a family of semialgebraic sets $S_t \subset \mathbb{R}^d$ ($t \in [0,1]$) of the form
$$ S_t = \{ x \in \mathbb{R}^d \ : \ p_1(x,t) \geq 0,\ p_2(x,t) \geq 0, \dots, p_m(x,t) \geq 0 \} $$
...

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### Lower convex envelope of polynomial functions

Let $P\in{\mathbb R}[X]$ be a polynomial and $[a,b]$ be a bounded interval. Of course, the graph of $P$ is an algebraic set. I am interested in the lower convex envelope $\bar P$ of $P|_{[a,b]}$. It ...

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### Constructing M-curves à la Hilbert

I have been reading some text about Harnack's theorem. The theorem basically says that for degree $d$, the maximal number of connected components in the real (projective) plane of a plane curve with ...

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### Representations in Archimedean quadratic modules

Let $\mathbb R [X] = \mathbb R [X_1,\dots,X_n]$ and $\Sigma[X] = \big\{ \, f \in \mathbb R[X] \mid \exists r \in \mathbb N, \ g_i \in \mathbb R[X] \colon f = g_1^2 + \dots + g_r^2 \,\big\}$ denote ...

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### General Tarski-Seidenberg Theorem

The Tarski-Seidenberg Theorem states that the polynomial image of a semi-algebraic set is semi-algebraic. A semi-algebraic subset of a Euclidean space $\Bbb{R}^n$ is by definition a finite union of ...

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### On strict positivity and Schmüdgen's Positivstellensatz

Schmüdgen's Positivstellensatz requires the polynomial to be strictly positive on a semialgebraic set. While trying to understand it, I am just wondering if the strictly positive condition can be ...

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### Convex combination of semi-algebraic sets

Suppose we are given two semi-algebraic sets $S_1$ and $S_2$. Define
$$
S=\{s=ps_1+(1-p)s_2: s_1\in S_1, s_2\in S_2, 0\leq p\leq 1.\}
$$
$S$ is semi-algebraic.
Can we bound the degree of $S$?
If we ...

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### Complex semi-algebraic sets

Definition. A subset $S$ of $\mathbb{R}^n$ is called semi-algebraic if $S$ is a finite Boolean combination of sets of the form $\{ x \in \mathbb{R}^n \mid p(x) \ge 0\}$, where $p \in \mathbb{R}[x]$.
...

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### The set of polytopes with given $f$-vector

Let $f=(f_0,\ldots f_n)$ be a vector in $\Bbb N^{n+1}$. Let $X$ be the set of all (ordered) $f_0$-tuples in $\Bbb R^n$ whose convex hull has $f$ as its $f$-vector. Assume that $X$ is non-empty. Is ...

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### Solutions to a system of homogeneous equations (inequalities)

Let $f_1,\ldots,f_r \in \mathbb{R}[x_1,\ldots,x_n]$ be $r$ homogeneous polynomials of the same odd degree $d$, where $d \in \{3,5,7,\ldots\}$.
For which values of $r,n,d$ there exists a real ...

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### First order decidability of limit of gradient flow?

Let $f: \mathbb{R}^n\to\mathbb{R}$ be a polynomial function, and let $p$ be a critical point. Consider the ascending manifold $A_p$ consisting of all points whose limit under the gradient flow of $f$ ...

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### Polynomials that preserve nonnegativity

A polynomial $p \in \mathbb{R}[x_1,\dots,x_n]$ is said to be positive on a subset $S$ of $\mathbb{R}^n$ if $p(x) > 0$ for every $x \in S$. The polynomial $p$ is called nonnegative if $p(x) \ge 0$ ...

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### Semialgebraic sets containing irrational power functions

Let $\alpha$ be an irrational number, and consider the set $A=\{(x,x^\alpha),x\ge 0\}\subseteq \mathbb{R}^2$, which is the graph of the function $f(x)=x^\alpha$.
I'm trying to prove/disprove the ...

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### Classification of $n$-dimensional Nash-submanifolds of $\mathbb{R}^n$

Let $M,N\subset \mathbb{R}^n$ be two open semi-algebraic subsets, and assume that $M$ and $N$ are $C^\infty$ diffeomorphic, i.e. isomorphic as smooth submanifolds of $\mathbb{R}^n$. Does this imply ...

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### Do convex closed semialgebraic hyperplane cross-sections imply semi-algebraicity?

Let $S\subset\mathbb{R}^n$, with $n\geq 3$, such that for any hyperplane $L$ one has $L\cap S$ closed, semialgebraic, and convex. Is it true that $S$ itself is semialgebraic?
A colleague explained to ...

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### Constraints on cone of semialgebraic set

Let $S$ be a (basic) semialgebraic set, for which we know the constraints (i.e. we know the polynomial inequalities and equalities which define the set). Is it necessarily the case that the cone $C = \...

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### Is a spectrahedron's boundary almost always "smooth"?

A spectrahedron is a convex set defined by a linear matrix inequality (LMI).
Is the boundary of such a set almost always smooth?
By "smooth" I mean that it admits a tangent hyperplane at any point ...

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### Connectedness of semialgebraic sets via CAD

I do not know whether there is a standard or some traditional ways to decide whether a semialgebraic set is connected or not.
One way I know is the cylindrical algebraic decomposition (CAD) algorithm. ...

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### Where do I read about semi-algebraic/analytic sets?

What's a good introduction to semi-algebraic/semi-analytic sets?
I'm coming from algebraic geometry, so ideally I'd prefer material that has a similar point of view and highlights analogies.
I've ...

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### Cross sections of semialgebric sets

Let $n$ be bigger than two, and let $A$ be a subset of the $n$-dimensional Euclidean space.
Suppose that the intersection of $A$ with any $(n-1)$-dimensional affine hyperplane is semialgebraic.
...

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### Do semialgebraic sets depend outer semicontinuously on their defining polynomials?

Consider a compact (semialgebraic) ball $B\subset \mathbb{R}^n$ and a semialgebraic set $A=A(f_1,\cdots,f_s)\subset \mathbb{R}^n$ defined through some representation in terms of polynomials $f_1,\...

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### Convexity of a certain sublevel set

Consider the polynomial of degree $4$ in variable $r$
$$ r^4 + (x^2 + y^2)\ r^2 - 2 x y\ r + x^2 y^2 $$
The discriminant of this polynomial in $r$ is the following expression
(obtained using ...

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### Moduli in semialgebraic geometry

Is there a moduli space in semialgebraic geometry analogous to the Hilbert scheme in algebraic geometry?
The sort of thing I am imagining is an object in a category of semischemes:
Ordinary schemes ...

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### Compactness of a semi algebraic set

Suppose I have a polynomial $p\in R[x_1,\ldots,x_n]$ and I look at the set $S:=\{ x\in R^n : p(x)\geq 0\}$. Are there algebraic certificates on $p$ that will certify that $S$ is compact?

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### Convexity of a specific semialgebraic set

I have an engineering problem that may be solved using semidefinite programming. I would like to know whether a given set is convex.
Let $m \in \mathbb{R}^+$ be a positive real scalar, $l \in \mathbb{...

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### Ultrafilters on the set of semialgebraic subsets of R^2

Let $R$ be a real closed field and $f: R \to R$ a map. Then let $\textrm{F}(f)$ be the set of semialgebraic subsets of $R^2$, which contain $(t,f(t))$ for all $0< t< \epsilon$ for some $\epsilon ...

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### Is the closure of a semialgebraic set mod 1 also semialgebraic?

Let $p:\mathbb{R}^n\to[0,1)^n$ be the map defined by $p(x_1,\ldots,x_n)=(\{x_1\},\ldots,\{x_n\})$, where $\{\cdot\}$ is the fractional part operator. Experimentation suggests that if $S \subseteq \...