# Questions tagged [schemes]

The first purpose of schemes theory is the geometrical study of solutions of algebraic systems of equations, not only over the real/complex numbers, but also over integer numbers (and more generally over any commutative ring with 1). It was finalized by Alexandre Grothendieck, during the 1950s and the 1960s.

227
questions with no upvoted or accepted answers

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### Why “open immersion” rather than “open embedding”?

When topologists speak of an "immersion", they are quite deliberately describing something that is not necessarily an "embedding." But I cannot think of any use of the word "embedding" in algebraic ...

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### Mikhalkin's tropical schemes versus Durov's tropical schemes

In Mikhalkin's unfinished draft book on tropical geometry, (available here) (page 26) he defines a notion of tropical schemes. It seems to me that this definition is not just a wholesale adaptation of ...

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### Are all formal schemes *really* Ind-schemes?

I'm trying to understand whether there's a fully faithful functor $LRS \supset FormalSch \to IndSch$ and in what sense. Here's my progress so far:
Let $\mathsf{A}$ be the category of adic rings. The ...

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### History of the functor of points

Until now, I thought the functor of points approach was introduced by Grothendieck at the 1973 Buffalo seminar.
However, in this note by Lawvere the author writes:
"I myself had learned the ...

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### Weierstrass division theorem for henselian rings

Let $A$ be an henselian local noetherian ring. There is an old result of Lafon ("Anneaux henséliens et théorème de préparation" (1967)), which says that if $A$ is analytically normal and of ...

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### Reference for limits of schemes with non-affine transitions?

Inverse systems of projective schemes appear in several contexts, for example:
in constructing the Zariski-Riemann space of a projective variety,
in studying subvarieties of a projective variety ...

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### What are the Newton groupoids from Drinfeld's paper on the Grinberg-Kazhdan theorem?

The paper the Grinberg-Kazhdan formal arc theorem and the Newton groupoids by Drinfeld seems to contain many interesting things which are beyond me. For now, I am trying to get some intuition for the ...

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### universally open and connected fibers

Let $A$ be a coherent ring, and consider the map:
$Spec(A[[t]])\rightarrow Spec(A)$,
in particular, we know that it's flat. Is it universally open? Does it have connected fibers?
N.B: Easy if A is ...

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### A Hartogs-type criterion for flatness

Let $U$ be a smooth affine connected variety over $\mathbb C$ and let $V\subset U$ be an open whose complement is of codimension at least two.
Now, let $Y$ be a smooth quasi-affine connected variety ...

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### Arithmetic zeta function and local zeta functions

For the arithmetic zeta function of (say) a nonsingular projective variety $X$, one has the following Euler product
\begin{equation}
\zeta_X(s) = \prod_{p\ \mbox{prime}}\zeta_{X\vert\mathbb{F}_p}(s),
...

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### Two definitions of smoothness?

This is confusing, there appear to be possibly two definitions of smoothness in algebraic geometry for a morphism $f: X \rightarrow Y$ of schemes of finite type over an arbitrary field $k$.
...

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### Algebraic geometry “over the function field” of the base

This is vaguely similar to, but quite different from, this question.
In the above linked question the focus is on fields of large cardinality per se. Here we fix a base field $k$ (say algebraically ...

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### Weil homotopy theory

In algebraic geometry, we have something called Weil cohomology theories, which formalize the notion of a "good" cohomology theory of smooth projective varieties. I believe that for $l$-adic ...

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### Invariants of etale topological type that are not homotopy invariants

Artin--Mazur theory attaches etale homotopy type to reasonable schemes. Associated to this homotopy type are certain invariants of the scheme, such as etale fundamental group and higher homotopy ...

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### Do residues commute with transverse base change?

Fix a number $n > 0$. Given a smooth $\mathbb{Z}[1/n]$-scheme $X$ (i.e., a smooth scheme such that $n$ is invertible in its ring of functions), we may consider the étale sheaf $\mu_n$ on $X$ which ...

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### What Spec-like functors are there?

The real spectrum functor is an analog of Spec for partially ordered commutative rings and real closed fields in place of commutative reals and algebraically closed fields. I was hoping that there ...

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### $\Bbb A^1$-Localisation of Schemes, and $\Bbb A^1$-Rigid Schemes

Question 1: Are there some publications or preprints that provide $\Bbb A^1$-fibrant replacements of certain classes of (smooth) schemes?
Of course, smooth schemes that are $\Bbb A^1$-fibrant are $\...

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### What is the left adjoint to base change of schemes?

Restriction of Scalars and Functoriality of Presheaves.
Let $\phi\colon R\longrightarrow S$ be a morphism of rings. There is associated to $\phi$ a natural functor from $\mathrm{Alg}_S$ to $\mathrm{...

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### Relation between $\mathrm{Proj}(A[tI])$ and $\mathrm{Proj}(A[tJ])$ for ideals $I$ and $J$ of $A$ with $I^2 \subset J \subset I$

Let $k$ be a field and $A$ a noetherian local $k$-algebra.
Let $I$ and $J$ be two ideals of $A$ with $I^2 \subset J \subset I$.
Let $A[tI] = \bigoplus\limits_{i\geq 0} t^i I^i$ and $A[tJ] = \...

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### Where is the local structure theory of étale morphisms needed?

In Stacks 02GH it is mentioned étale morphisms are locally standard étale. This seems to be the analogue of the local form of local diffeomorphisms in the smooth category. In the latter, local ...

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### Comparison of sheaves of modular forms

Let $\pi:E\to X$ the universal generalized elliptic curve over the compactified modular curve, with zero section $e: X\to E$. Now consider the following two sheaves on $X$:
$e^*\Omega^1_{E/X}$ and $\...

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### Is the stack of varieties with a big line bundle algebraic

In Starr's paper https://www.math.stonybrook.edu/~jstarr/papers/moduli4.pdf the folk result that the fibred category of pairs $(X\to S, L)$, where $S$ is an affine scheme, $X\to S$ is flat proper ...

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### If $X,Y$ are regular and of finite type over $S$, can $X\times _S Y$ be embedded into a regular $S$-scheme?

It seems to be well-known (see Is there an example of a variety over the complex numbers with no embedding into a smooth variety?) that a general finite type $S$-scheme does not embedd into a regular $...

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### Does one need l to be invertible in S in order to consider the l-adic cohomology of S-schemes and motives?

When Ivorra defines the $l$-adic realization of $S$-motives (i.e. of Voevodsky's motives over a scheme $S$) he demands $l$ to be invertible in $S$. Is this condition really necessary? What happens ...

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### Ever seen a ringed group?

A locally ringed space is a common generalization of schemes and various manifolds. I am wondering about a locally ringed group which should be a common generalization of group schemes and various Lie ...

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### Use of Flattening Stratification part 2 (Nitsure's construction of Hilbert and Quot schemes)

I study Nitin Nitsure's paper Construction of Hilbert and Quot Schemes (arXiv:math/0504590) and have some problems with the content of imposed universal property (F) in the section "Use of ...

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### Algebraic spaces as quotients of schemes (Definition from wikipedia)

I think that wikipedia article on Algebraic spaces contains a serious content error in the part on the definition of Algebraic spaces as quotients of schemes and I would like to discuss if it is ...

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### Algebraic Space: Two equivalent constructions

According to Wikipedia
there are two common ways to define algebraic spaces:
they can be defined as either quotients of schemes by étale
equivalence relations,
or as sheaves on a big étale site that ...

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### When do the spectra of overrings glue to a proper morphism?

This question is motivated by the construction of blowups.
Let $A \subset K$ be a commutative domain and its fraction field, and let $\{A_i\}$ be some finite collection of overrings in between.
Let $X ...

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### Schemes admitting a cover by isomorphic affine opens

Let $X$ be a Noetherian integral scheme. When does $X$ have a cover by affine open subschemes that are isomorphic as abstract schemes?
Does there exist an example when we have a cover by $n$ ...

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### Compact quasi-coherent sheaves

Let $X$ be a scheme. What are the compact objects in the category of quasi-coherent $\mathcal{O}_X$-modules? All references seem to discuss the derived category but I need the abelian category.

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### Schemes monomorphing into affine scheme of dimension 1

Let $Y$ be an affine scheme of Krull dimension 1. Let $X\rightarrow Y$ be a monomorphism in the category of schemes. If $X$ is connected, is $X$ necessarily affine? What if we assume that $Y$ is a ...

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### Cohomology groups on small fppf site and small etale site are not the same

Let $F$ be a quasi-coherent sheaf on a scheme $X$. Is there an example where cohomology groups of $F$ on small fppf site of $X$ and small etale site of $X$ are not isomorphic?

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### Basic questions about crystals and Grothendieck connections

I have a few basic questions about Grothendieck connections and crystals. I know it's bad practice to ask a bunch of different questions at once, however I feel they naturally come bundled together. ...

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### Injective sheaf of $\mathcal{O}_X$ modules

I am trying to verify that:
A sheaf of $\mathcal{O}_X$ modules $\mathcal{F}$ is an injective object in the category of $\mathcal{O}_X$ modules iff their local rings $\mathcal{F}_x$ are injective $\...

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### Geometry of schemes by Eisenbud and Harris

I have some background of algebraic geometry.
I am now trying to study schemes from book Geometry of schemes by Eisenbud and Harris.
I was checking recommendations for books on algebraic geometry ...

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### A course on modern algebraic geometry from “The Stacks Project”

I hope this question is viable for this site. I'm sincerely sorry, if you think it isn't.
For a lot of time, "EGA" by Alexander Grothendieck and Jean Dieudonne was "the" reference on the basics of ...

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### Which locally ringed spaces are schemifiable?

(most of this question is re-asking Schemification (schematization?) of locally ringed spaces, which did not get answered)
Given a locally ringed space $X$, say that a schemification of $X$ is a ...

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### Equivalent definitions of the Hasse invariant

As probably many others before me, I got stuck in verifying all the nice properties of the Hasse invariant.
Let me start by recalling one definition:
Let $E\to S$ be an elliptic curve in ...

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### Differential Geometry of (Non-Abelian) Gerbes in the language of Brylinski

Context
In an effort to have a definition for connection on a non-abelian gerbe, in the style of Brylinski, I am reading Breen and Messing's Differential Geometry of Gerbes [BM]. It seems that there ...

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### formal smooth morphism with a formal smooth source

Let $f:X\rightarrow Y$ a morpism between $k$-schemes ( $k$ a field).
We suppose that X is formally smooth and f is formally smooth and surjective.
Do we have that $Y$ is formally smooth?
Or if it's ...

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### Is the pushout of smooth varieties along a smooth closed subvariety again a variety?

The following question is motivated by a desire to find a rough analog in algebraic geometry of the usual notion of gluing of smooth bordisms.
Suppose k is an algebraically closed field of ...

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### Category of the smooth formal p-groups over a local ring

Fontaine showed in Asterisque 47-48 that the category of finite dimensional smooth formal $p$-groups over the ring $A=W(k)$ of the Witt vectors over a finite field $k$ is anti-equivalent to the ...

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### What is known about “singularity types” in the Murphy's Law sense?

In his "Murphy's Law" paper, Vakil gives a definition equivalent to the following:
The singularity type of a pointed scheme $(X,p)$ its equivalence class, under the following equivalence relation: $...

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### Zariski tangent space of a scheme as the vector space of derivations

A standard lemma says that for a scheme $X$ of finite type over an algebraically closed field $k$ the set of derivations $\mathcal{O}_{X,x} \to \kappa(x)=k$, is isomorphic to the Zariski tangent ...

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### Do all the main properties of constructible and perverse sheaves (in an 'arithmetic' situation) follow from results of Gabber?

This question is a continuation of Bad behaviour of perverse sheaves over 'general' bases?
Let $S$ (for example) be a finite type separated scheme over $\mathbb{Z}$. I would like: (1) to ...

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### Artin's “On Isolated Rational Singularities of Surfaces”

My question refers to M. Artin's paper "On Isolated Rational Singularities of Surfaces"; more precisely the proof of Thm 4 on page 133. Here the relevant excerpt:
The Setting: Let $\bar{V}=Spec(A)$ ...

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### An application of Grothendieck's version of Hensel's Lemma

Assume $R$ is a Henselian local ring with $k=R/m_R$ ($m_R$ is the unique maximal ideal of $R$) and $G$ a finite flat group scheme over $R$. We denote by $G_k= G \otimes_R k$ the closed fiber.
There ...

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### Finding a cover of the Hilbert functor, that corresponds to a cover of the Grassmannian

Let $\mathrm{Grass}_{k+1,n+1}:\mathrm{Sch}^{\circ}\rightarrow\mathrm{Set}$ be the Grassmann functor, which maps a scheme $S$ to the set:
$$\left\{\mathscr{U}\subseteq\mathscr{O}_S^{n+1}:\,\,\mathscr{...

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### Why are algebraic schemes called algebraic?

In scheme theory, an algebraic scheme is the data of a scheme + a morphism of finite type to the spectrum of a field. Where does the term "algebraic scheme" come from? It does not seem intuitive to me ...