**2**

votes

**0**answers

121 views

### Is there a model of ZF+ACC where transfer fails for the definable hyperreals?

A decade ago Kanovei and Shelah constructed a definable hyperreal field. The ultrapower used exploits a fairly large index set so that it is clear that the usual proof of Los and transfer does not go ...

**2**

votes

**0**answers

96 views

### Circular reasoning in proof of bounded comprehension

Theorems II.3.7 and II.3.9 in Simpson's Subsystems of Second-Order Arithmetic appear to be circular. Specifically, theorem II.3.7 seems to make implicit use of theorem II.3.9.
[Theorem II.3.9 is the ...

**2**

votes

**1**answer

171 views

### Transfer with minimal choice

Let FUF postulate the existence of a Free UltraFilter on $\mathbb{N}$ and ACC the axiom of countable choice. Consider the superstructure on $\mathbb{R}$ and its inclusion in the bounded ultrapower. ...

**12**

votes

**2**answers

252 views

### Can noncomputable sets be distinguishable in $RCA_0$?

Say that a set $X\subseteq\omega$ is distinguishable if there is some Turing machine $\Phi_e$ which, when given two sets exactly one of which is $X$, can determine which set is $X$. Formally, $X$ is ...

**7**

votes

**1**answer

253 views

### Proof-theoretic ordinals after liberalizing induction to $RCA_0$

This is kind of a follow-up to this question.
For a class $\Gamma$ of second-order formulas (here either $\Sigma_n^0$ or $\Sigma_n^1$), let $X\Gamma$ be a formal theory consisting of $RCA_0$ together ...

**31**

votes

**2**answers

4k views

### Why is this new result such a big deal?

This popular article reports a recent result in reverse mathematics, showing that a certain theorem in Ramsey theory is provable from RCA$_0$, the base theory in SOSOA. Then there are a bunch of ...

**11**

votes

**0**answers

494 views

### What is known about the reverse mathematics of algebraic number fields?

I know work on the reverse mathematics of countable algebraic field extensions including Galois theory, notably including Dorais, Hirst, and Shafer http://arxiv.org/pdf/1209.4944v2.pdf. But algebraic ...

**6**

votes

**1**answer

275 views

### Are there first order theories of interest to an algebraist or at least a model theorist of large cardinal consistency strength?

I am wondering if there are some first order theories of algebraic structures or structures of interest to model theorists of large cardinal consistency strength or at least unexpectedly high ...

**12**

votes

**2**answers

630 views

### Complementation of $\omega$-regular languages in reverse mathematics

Does anyone know where Büchi's theorem that $\omega$-regular languages are closed under complementation fits into the reverse-mathematics classification scheme? That is, is it equivalent over $\...

**5**

votes

**1**answer

300 views

### Constructive compactness for countable models?

The compactness theorem for countable (Tarski?) models is equivalent to the weak König's lemma by a result of H. Friedman and others as noted here, in the context of classical logic. The weak König's ...

**7**

votes

**7**answers

388 views

### Strength of Bishop style constructive mathematics vs $\mathsf{RCA}_0$

This question came out of this other MO question of mine. My question is
Is there a formal comparison between $\mathsf{RCA}_0$ and $\mathsf{BISH}$ (Bishop style constructive mathematics as used ...

**2**

votes

**2**answers

188 views

### Compactness for countable models?

How and where is it proved that WKL$_0$ proves the compactness theorem for countable models? (This is a follow-up to a comment of F. Dorais.)

**4**

votes

**1**answer

82 views

### Proving moduli of uniform continuity in RCA_0

Simpson's Subsystems of Second Order Arithmetic (pp. 134ff.) uses RCA$_0$ to prove various theorems of analysis for all continuous functions with a suitable modulus of uniform continuity. And he ...

**4**

votes

**2**answers

142 views

### What can be achieved by liberalizing induction for $RCA_0$?

$RCA_0$ has $\Delta_0$-comprehension and $\Sigma_1$ induction. Let $X\Sigma_{n}$ be $RCA_0$ plus $\Sigma_n$-induction and let $X\Sigma_{\omega}$-induction be $RCA_0$ plus the full induction schema.
...

**6**

votes

**1**answer

94 views

### Does $WKL_0$ provide more comprehension than $RCA_0$?

$WKL_0$ extends $RCA_0$ with the statement that any infinite subset of the infinite binary tree has an infinite branch. Does $WKL_0$ Prove that there are sets which are not proven to exist by the $\...

**5**

votes

**1**answer

339 views

### What are key $\Sigma^0_2$ or $\Pi^0_3$ theorems?

I am researching a logical system that is limited to $\Pi^0_2$ sentences and I am busy to prove that FOL + PA is a conservative extension of that system. Meaning that with $\Sigma^0_n$ sentences (that ...

**29**

votes

**3**answers

3k views

### What is the reverse mathematical strength of the fundamental theorem of algebra?

Reverse mathematics (RM) is that area that tries to pin down exactly which axioms are necessary to prove theorems, given some weak base theory. Harvey Friedman has pointed out several times (on the ...

**24**

votes

**3**answers

1k views

### Reverse mathematics of (co)homology?

Background
Exercise 2.1.16b in Hartshorne (homework!) asks you to prove that if $0 \rightarrow F \rightarrow G \rightarrow H \rightarrow 0$ is an exact sequence of sheaves, and F is flasque, then $0 \...

**6**

votes

**1**answer

197 views

### Degree of unsolvability of finding a open approximation to a Borel set, given its Borel code

It is well known that every Borel set has the property of Baire. That is, for every Borel set $B$, there is an open set $U$ and a sequence of dense open sets $D_n$ such that for every $x\in \cap_n ...

**1**

vote

**1**answer

124 views

### Formal definition of arithmetic transfinite recursion

Recently I have been trying to find the definition of the subsystem $ATR_0$ of second-order arithmetic. Only "definitions" I have found were quite vague, like informal definition on Wikipedia which ...

**7**

votes

**3**answers

454 views

### Does the Feferman-Schutte analysis give a precise characterization of Predicative Second-Order Arithmetic?

A definition is called impredicative if it involves quantification over a domain that contains the thing being defined. For instance, if you define hereditary property to be a property which applies ...

**5**

votes

**1**answer

541 views

### Why is adopting Russell's Axiom of Reducibility as strong as eliminating the Ramified Hierarchy?

In order to respond to concerns of impredicativity, Bertrand Russell developed a system of ramified second-order logic, which is like regular second-order logic except the comprehension schema is ...

**7**

votes

**1**answer

298 views

### The definition of < in Robinson's Q

I recently had to explain how the basic axioms in Simpson's Subsystems of Second Order Arithmetic were interpretable in Robinson's Q. Most of the axioms are actually the same, except that Simpson ...

**13**

votes

**1**answer

557 views

### Higher recursion theory and reverse mathematics: What is to $\Pi^1_1-CA_0$ as $RCA_0$ is to $ACA_0$?

There is an extremely rich and well-understood analogy between "recursively enumerable" and "$\Pi^1_1$" - indeed, this is the starting point of metarecursion theory, and $\alpha$-recursion theory in ...

**4**

votes

**1**answer

328 views

### Necessity of omega-models in second order arithmetic

Are there examples of independence results over subsystems of true second order arithmetic that cannot be established using omega-models? To rule out trivial examples, let us assume that the base ...

**8**

votes

**2**answers

401 views

### Proof complexity of two directions of equivalency?

This question is not precise, but I believe has a precise formulation.
Consider a mathematical theorem which gives an equivalency between two conditions. As an extreme example:
\begin{theorem}
A ...

**7**

votes

**0**answers

167 views

### Strength of claims about extensions of partial preorders and orders to linear ones

Consider these two axioms:
Every partial order extends to a linear order.
Every partial preorder (reflexive and transitive relation) extends to a linear preorder while preserving strict orderings: i....

**5**

votes

**1**answer

140 views

### Attribution of an equivalence of the existence of omega-models of RCA0

There are many well-known equivalences in reverse mathematics between statements of the form "Every set is contained a countable coded $\omega$-model of $T$" and $S$, where $S, T$ are subsystems of ...

**11**

votes

**1**answer

351 views

### Harvey Friedman's strict reverse mathematics vs. Cook-Nguyen's V$^0$

Harvey Friedman posted several manuscripts [1] proposing a program for "strict" reverse mathematics, in the sense that the base theory should be mathematically natural and coding-free.
In them he ...

**4**

votes

**2**answers

431 views

### Reverse Math of High Sets?

Is there a standard principle in reverse math that is known to be equivalent (over $RCA_0$) to the existence of a set of high (Turing) degree? I'm interested in the general case, but would be happy to ...

**8**

votes

**2**answers

868 views

### Sperner's lemma and Tucker's lemma

In their article "A Borsuk-Ulam Equivalent that Directly Implies Sperner's Lemma" (American Mathematical Monthly, April 2013), Nyman and Su write "[W]e are unaware of a direct proof that Tucker's ...

**9**

votes

**0**answers

394 views

### “Hard” separation results in reverse mathematics (or similar)

This is a fairly broad question. In particular, I specify 5 questions (Q1, Q2.1, Q2.2, Q3, Q4) which for me all fall under one umbrella. Since this is unreasonably broad, I'm really interested in an ...

**2**

votes

**0**answers

544 views

### What is the role of the (formalized) omega rule in Ramified Analysis?

In the 1960's, Feferman and Schutte did groundbreaking proof-theoretic work to find out the strength of predicative systems of second-order arithmetic. They used the ramified theory of types, a ...

**2**

votes

**0**answers

418 views

### Is there a notion of “predicative given the real numbers”?

A definition is called impredicative if it involves quantification over a domain that contains the thing being defined. For instance, if you define hereditary property to be a property which applies ...

**6**

votes

**1**answer

137 views

### Is 0' of PA degree relative to a non-low set?

Definitions:
A set $X$ is of PA degree relative to a set $Y$ if every infinite $Y$-computable binary tree has an infinite $X$-computable path.
A set $X$ is low if $X'$ is computable from $\emptyset'$....

**7**

votes

**0**answers

330 views

### Fragments of Morse—Kelley set theory

Morse—Kelley set theory (hereafter MK) is the impredicative counterpart of von Neumann—Bernays—Gödel set theory (NBG), where formulas containing class quantifiers are permitted in the comprehension ...

**5**

votes

**2**answers

443 views

### Did Gödel prove that the Ramified Theory of Types collapses at $\omega_1$?

Second-Order Arithmetic is considered impredicative, because the comprehension scheme allows formulas with bound second-order variables that range over all sets of natural numbers, including the set ...

**3**

votes

**2**answers

379 views

### What is the proof-theoretic ordinal of Hyperarithmetical Comprehension?

As I discuss in my answer here, it seems to me that Solomon Feferman shows, on pages 10-11 of his seminal 1964 paper "Systems of Predicative Analysis", that if you consider predicative second-order ...

**5**

votes

**1**answer

377 views

### First order consequence of a combinatorial principle

(Base theory $RCA_0$)The principle says there exists a function g such that g dominates any X-recursive function for any X in the model.
i.e. For any $f\le_T X$, $\exists b\in M$ such that $g(a)>f(...

**4**

votes

**4**answers

416 views

### Strength of some claims about finitely additive measures on infinite sets?

Assume ZF. Consider the claim:
(1) For any infinite set $\Omega$, there is a finitely additive probability measure $\mu:2^\Omega\to[0,1]$ with $\mu(A) = 0$ whenever $|A|<|\Omega|$.
Then (1) is ...

**7**

votes

**0**answers

316 views

### What is known of the reverse math of Riemann-Roch?

I hope this is not too trivial, but I think this may be well known to someone (not me).

**24**

votes

**4**answers

2k views

### In what rigorous sense are Sperner's Lemma and the Brouwer Fixed Point Theorem equivalent?

I understand that one can give a proof of each of these propositions assuming the truth of the other. But this seems a bit squishy to me, since there is a trivial sense in which any two true theorems ...

**3**

votes

**1**answer

258 views

### Reverse mathematics, Ramsey theorem and mass problem

If we look at reverse mathematics statements as mass problems, considering the class of solutions of an instance, it is known that Weak König's lemma has a maximal instance in the sense that there is ...

**17**

votes

**2**answers

1k views

### Prospects for reverse mathematics in Homotopy Type Theory

Reverse mathematics, as I mean here, is the study of which theorems/axioms can be used to prove other theorems/axioms over a weak base theory. Examples include
Subsystems of Second Order Arithmetic ...

**4**

votes

**1**answer

220 views

### Who first proved there's an $\omega$-model of $\mathsf{WKL}_0$ in which all sets are low?

I am trying to pin down: who first proved that $\mathsf{WKL}_0$ has an $\omega$-model in which every set is of low degree? As shown in Simpson's Subsystems of Second Order Arithmetic (Theorem IX.2.17),...

**12**

votes

**1**answer

766 views

### Reverse mathematics of Hilbert's Theorem 90

What is known, and what is published, on the reverse mathematics of the nest of results called Hilbert's Theorem 90?

**8**

votes

**1**answer

209 views

### Strength of $\Delta_1^0$ subset of $2^\mathbb{N}$ as finite union of specific basic open sets.

This question is to find the Reverse Mathematical strength of writing $\Delta_1^0$ (clopen) subset of $2^\mathbb{N}$ as a finite union $\bigcup_{\sigma \in F} [|\sigma|]$ where $F \subset 2^{<\...

**6**

votes

**1**answer

419 views

### Is the equivalence between a $\Sigma^0_1$ and a $\Pi^0_1$ formula defining the same recursive set provable in a sufficiently strong arithmetic ?

Let $A$ be a recursive set. $A$ is recursively enumerable, so $A$ may be defined by a $\Sigma^0_1$ formula, i.e. by $\exists \overrightarrow{a} \phi (\overrightarrow{a}, n)$, where $\phi$ contains no ...

**4**

votes

**1**answer

123 views

### About infinite subset of halting probability and 1-random set

Let $\Omega$ be the halting probability (see (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chaitin's_constant) and R. Downey, and D. Hirschfeldt (2010), Algorithmic Randomness and Complexity for reference). If A is ...

**13**

votes

**5**answers

2k views

### Consistency strength needed for applied mathematics

Given that we can never proof the consistency of a theory for the foundations of mathematics in a weaker system, one could seriously doubt whether any of the commonly used foundational frameworks (ZFC ...