# Questions tagged [reference-request]

This tag is used if a reference is needed in a paper or textbook on a specific result.

14,454
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### Infinite tensor product of Hilbert spaces [duplicate]

Recently while reading an article I came across the usage of infinite tensor product of Hilbert spaces. I have got a basic understanding of doing computations in infinite tensor product while reading ...

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### Reference request: Gaussian measures on duals of nuclear spaces

I am interested in constructive quantum field theory where Gaussian measures on duals of nuclear spaces (specifically, the space of tempered distribution $\mathcal{S}'(\mathbb{R}^n)$) play a key role. ...

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### Special Darboux chart for tranverse Lagrangians

In the notes of Fukaya-Oh-Ohta-Ono (Lagrangian intersection Floer theory), Chapter 10 §54.1, it is stated:
Let $L_{1}$ and $L_{2}$ be a pair of oriented Lagrangian submanifolds in $(M, \omega)$ that ...

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### Why is the length spectrum called a spectrum?

Given a hyperbolic surface $X$, one considers the multiset of lengths of closed primitive geodesics. This multiset is called the length spectrum $\mathcal{L}(X)$.
Question: is $\mathcal{L}(X)$ a ...

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### GIT quotient of a reductive Lie algebra by the maximal torus

Let $G$ be a connected complex reductive group with Lie algebra $\mathfrak{g}$. One knows a lot about the GIT quotient $\mathfrak{g}/\!/G$: the invariant ring is a free polynomial algebra on $\mathrm{...

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### Quasimode construction on a compact Riemannian manifold

Let $M$ be a closed Riemannian manifold, $\Delta$ be the usual Laplace-Betrami operator on $M$ and $\gamma : [0, L] \to M$ be a stable elliptic periodic geodesic of length $L$. I have heard in several ...

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### Connection of principal fiber bundles — history

I wonder who was the first to discover the notion of principal fiber bundle and its connection (gauge field in the physical language). Wikipedia cites the book by Steenrod (1951). But was he the ...

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### Models of second-order arithmetic closed under relative constructibility

I know little to nothing about second-order arithmetic and its subsystems. However, I would like to understand when a model of (a subsystem of) second-order arithmetic ($\mathsf{Z}_2$) is downward ...

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### Best approximation rates of various classes of functions by truncated Fourier series

Let $f\in C([-1,1]^d)$ have periodic boundary, $N$ be a positive integer, and let $S_N(f)$ be the best approximation of $f$ by its truncated Fourier expansion truncated approximation
$$
S_N(f):=\sum_{...

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### Reference-Request: Had this replacement principle been investigated before?

Replacement$^*$: If $\varphi$ is a formula with at least two variables occuring free, in which $``x,y"$ do not occur free, then:
$$\forall a \forall b \forall c \forall d \ ( \varphi(a,b) \land \...

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### Sylow subgroups of the restricted Burnside group $\mathrm{RB}(d,n)$?

$\DeclareMathOperator\RB{RB}$What is known about the Sylow subgroups of the restricted Burnside groups $\RB(d,n)$ ?
I am looking for a reference.
In fact my question is slightly more general. Recall ...

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### Statistical invariants of Riemannian manifolds

$\DeclareMathOperator\diam{diam}\DeclareMathOperator\rad{rad}\DeclareMathOperator\iso{iso}\DeclareMathOperator\com{com}\DeclareMathOperator\con{con}$A cheap way of defining invariants of Riemannian ...

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### Plethysm and wreath product

I am looking for a proof about the link between plethysm and wreath product. It is a well-known fact, being use extensively in many papers, but I can't find a good reference. Everything that follows ...

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### One more question on biharmonic functions

Let $w$ be a function $\mathbb R^n\to \mathbb R$ with the following properties:
$w$ is globally $\alpha$-Hölder continuous, $\alpha \in (0,1)$;
$w$ is biharmonic on $C=\{w>0\}$;
$w$ is subharmonic ...

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### Are these fast convergent series for $\log(2)$, $\log(3)$ and $\log(5)$ already known and proven?

Updated on Feb.16.2024
Fortunately for three of these series, Eqs. (1), (3) and (4), I have found a proof using classical methods which I placed in the Answers section below. (I doubt that there is a ...

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### Irreducible projective representations of finite abelian groups

I want to know if there is a description of all irreducible complex projective representations of an arbitrary finite abelian group. I have seen this for particular cases such as those given here and ...

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### Cohomology of $S$-arithmetic groups with trivial coefficients such as $H^n(\rm{PGL}_2(\mathbb{Z}[1/N]);\mathbb{Z})$

As $\rm{PSL}(2,\mathbb{Z})=(\mathbb{Z}/2\mathbb{Z})*(\mathbb{Z}/3\mathbb{Z})$, its cohomology groups $H^n(\rm{PSL}(2,\mathbb{Z});\mathbb{Z})$ are easy to get.
Let $N$ be a product of distinct primes.
...

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### Reference for the 'Brownian Representation Formula'

I am reading a paper ('Hydrodynamics of the N-BBM Process', by De Masi, Ferrari, Presutti, Soprano-Loto) which quotes the 'Brownian representation formula' to represent the solution of a free boundary ...

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### Reference for rigorous interacting many-body quantum mechanics

Are there good references for (both zero and finite time) interacting systems of quantum many-body theory? More precisely, I would be interested in references discussing the following topics:
Second ...

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### Preservation of cardinals implies preservation of cofinalities when $V=L$?

Kunen mentions the result stated in the title. It would be much appreciated if someone can give a reference for this. Thank you!

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### Equivalence class of parametrized surfaces which induce the same current

Suppose $M$ is a smooth manifold of dimension $n \geq 2$. A $k$-current is a linear functional on compactly supported smooth forms on $M$, denoted $T: \Omega^k_c(M) \to \mathbb{R}$.
Let $X: [0,1]^2 \...

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### Is the Borel-Cantelli Lemma applicable here? [duplicate]

Consider $(X_{n})_{n\in\mathbb{N}}$ a sequence of random variables taking values in the set $\mathbb{Z}_{\geq 0}$ where $\mathbb{P}(X_{n} = i) > 0 $ for every $i\in\mathbb{Z}_{\geq0}$ which are ...

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### Reference Request: Factorization method for polynomials whose maximum absolute value of coefficient is 1

So, today I came up with a method for factoring polynomials whose coefficients are either $-1$ or $1.$
Let me explain with examples.
Example No. 1. Factorize $P(x)=x^8+x^7+1$
Solution. It is known ...

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### Derivative of Moreau envelope in Hilbert space with respect to regularization parameter $\lambda$ using Hopf-Lax formula?

Let $\mathcal H$ be a Hilbert space, $f \colon \mathcal H \to (- \infty, \infty]$ a proper, convex, lower semi-continuous function and $\lambda > 0$.
The $\lambda$-Moreau envelope of $f$ is
$$
f_{\...

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### Compact objects in slice categories of finitely presentable categories

Given a locally finitely presentable category $\mathscr C$ and an object $X \in \mathscr C$, it is not so hard to show that a morphism $(X \to Y)$ is compact in $\mathscr C_{X/}$ if it can be obtained ...

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### References on semigroup actions

I posted this question on Math Stack Exchange about 10 days ago, but received no answer (https://math.stackexchange.com/q/4843881/1223994).
I would like to ask for references on semigroup actions on ...

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### Classifying space of centralizer

$\DeclareMathOperator\Map{Map}\newcommand{\B}{\mathrm{B}}\newcommand{\h}{\mathrm{h}}$Let $f:G\to H$ be a morphism of topological groups and let
$$H^{\h G}:=\Map_G(\mathrm{E}G, H)$$
be the homotopy ...

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### Analytic properties of $L$-functions attached to a compatible system of $\ell$-adic Galois representations

Let $F$ and $E$ be number fields, $G_F$ be the absolute Galois group of $F$, and $S$ be a finite set of primes of $F$. For $\lambda$ a prime of $E$ we denote by $\ell$ its residual characteristic. We ...

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### Reference request: choiceless cardinality quantifiers

There is a substantial literature on the logic of cardinality quantifiers. (E.g., the quantifier $Q_\alpha$ where $M \vDash Q_\alpha x \, \varphi (x)$ iff $\vert \{a \in M : M \vDash \varphi[a] \} \...

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### Triangular and pentagonal numbers in $q$-series

Consider the following two infinite series
$$\sum_{n\geq0}a(n)q^n=\prod_{k\geq1}\frac1{(1-q^k)^2(1-q^{5k})^2} \,\,\,\, \text{and} \,\,\,
\sum_{n\geq0}b(n)q^n=\prod_{k\geq1}\frac1{(1-q^k)^2(1-q^{7k})^2}...

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### A more complete set of open problems

Over time, there have been a number of posts on open problems remaining in different fields of math, both here and on the MathSE. So I had the idea of trying to construct a “list of lists” of problems ...

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### Groups with prescribed Ulm invariants

In Kaplansky's book infinite abelian groups he provides (through some exercises) a complete classification of $p^{\infty}$-torsion countable abelian groups in terms of Ulm invariants. In other words ...

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### Virtual fibring of $\mathrm{Out}(F_2\times F_2)$

A finitely generated group $G$ is said to virtually fibre if there is a finite index subgroup $H\leq G$ and a non-trivial map $\varphi:H\to\mathbb{Z}$ with $\ker(\varphi)$ finitely generated.
I want ...

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### Formal neighborhood of isolated singularity via DAG

I work over a field of characteristic $0$, denoted $k$. Let $f:\mathbf{A}^{d+1}\rightarrow\mathbf{A}^{1}$ have an isolated singularity at $0$, and let $\widehat{Z}$ denote the formal neighborhood of $...

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### Algebraic area of Brownian half-plane excursion

Is anything known about the distribution of the algebraic area, à la Lévy's stochastic area, of a Brownian excursion in the half-plane? To be precise, letting $x>0$, we consider the path $(X_t,Y_t)...

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### The diophantine equation $ \sum_{n=1}^{N} \frac{1}{x_{n}} = \prod_{k=1}^{N} \left(1-\frac{1}{x_{k}} \right) $

Background
I wonder if there are any rational numbers such that their Egyptian fraction (sum) representations are equal to their Egyptian product analogue. In other words, I am curious1 about ...

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### Green's function for a linear PDE initial value problem

For $x\in\mathbb{R}^{n}$ and $t\in[0,\infty)$, consider the linear PDE initial value problem
$$\dfrac{\partial u}{\partial t} = \left(a \Delta - \dfrac{b}{|x|}\right)u, \quad u(x,0) = u_0(x)\quad\text{...

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### Oscillatory integrals with critical points clustering on a submanifold of positive codimension

In Stein's manuscript "Harmonic Analysis: Real-Variable Methods, Orthogonality and Oscillatory Integrals", oscillatory integrals with discrete critical points are proven. I heard that you ...

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### Isotopic diffeomorphisms of the sphere

Assume that $f:\mathbb{S}^n\to\mathbb{S}^n$ is a diffeomorphism and assume that there is an orientation preserving diffeomorphism $F:\mathbb{R}^{n+1}\to\mathbb{R}^{n+1}$ such that $F|_{\mathbb{S}^n}=f$...

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### Conditions for completely positive maps to act homomorphically across multiple subalgebras

For a completely positive (CP) map $u: A \to A'$ of $C^*$-algebras $A, A'$, the concept of multiplicative domains characterizes the largest subalgebra of $A$ on which $u$ behaves as a $*$-homomorphism....

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### Upper bound Hölder norm of the solution to the non-linear PDE $\partial_t u (t, x) = \Delta_x \{ |\sigma (u (t, x))|^2 u(t, x) \}$

We fix $T>0$ and let $\mathbb T := [0, T]$. Let $\sigma : \mathbb R \to \mathbb R$ belong to the Hölder space $C^{1, \alpha}_b (\mathbb R)$ for some $\alpha \in (0, 1)$. Let $u : \mathbb T \times \...

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### Characters of finite fields - Reference request

Let $\mathbf{F}_q$ ($q=p^f$) be a finite field. We are interested in the characters $\chi: \mathbf{F}_q\rightarrow \mathbf{K}$ ($\chi(0)=0$) where the $ \mathbf{K}$ is an alg.closed field of ...

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### Looking for Lawvere's "Closed categories and biclosed bicategories" lecture notes

The nLab page on closed bicategories reads
Closed bicategories were introduced by Lawvere in unpublished lecture notes Closed categories and biclosed bicategories (1971).
This work has also been ...

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### Reference Request: Local decomposition of GGP period integrals of cuspidal forms on unitary groups

Setup: Let $E/F$ be a CM-extension of global number fields. Let $(V,\phi)$ be an Hermitian space of dimension $n$ over $E$. Let $(V^{\flat}, \phi^{\flat})$ be a subspace of $V$ of dimension $n-1$ on ...

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### Reference for isomorphism between group cohomology and singular cohomology

Let $G$ be a (discrete) group, $X$ a topological space that works as a classifying space for $G$, and $\mathcal{L}$ a local system on $X$ with stalk $L$. It is a fairly standard result that
$$ H^i(G, ...

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### Clarifying a result of Klingenberg

I am looking for some clarification on a result of Klingenberg. For context, I have a complete Riemannian manifold for which I would like to compute a lower bound on the injectivity radius at each ...

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### What did Rota mean by "one can define cumulants relative to any sequence of binomial type"?

This question is cross-posted from MSE.$\newcommand{\E}{\mathbb{E}}$
Near the end of "Finite Operator Calculus" (1976), G.C. Rota writes:
Note that one can define cumulants relative to any ...

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### Sylow subgroups of the free product of profinite groups

I am interested in the Sylow subgroups of the profinite completion of a free product of finite groups.
Is the following naive expectation true ? I assume things like this should be well-known, and am ...

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### Beck's original formulation of the precise tripleability theorem. Reference when considering reflexive pairs?

Thanks to MO's user Varkor, we have access to Beck's original untitled manuscript where Beck first stated his precise tripleability theorem. Up to terminological isomorphism, the PTT as stated in p. 3 ...

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### Reference request heat equation with moving interface

Let $T,\sigma_1,\sigma_2>0$, $\lambda:[0,T]\to\mathbb{R}$ a continuous function and consider the following Cauchy problem on $[0,T]\times \mathbb{R}$:
$$
\begin{cases}
u_t = \sigma_1^2u_{xx} ~~~~\...