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Questions tagged [reference-request]

This tag is used if a reference is needed in a paper or textbook on a specific result.

176
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12answers
24k views

Is there an introduction to probability theory from a structuralist/categorical perspective?

The title really is the question, but allow me to explain. I am a pure mathematician working outside of probability theory, but the concepts and techniques of probability theory (in the sense of ...
29
votes
2answers
3k views

Similarities between Post's Problem and Cohen's Forcing

Remark: I have since learned that G.H. Moore addresses this question in the third reference listed at the end of this post, beginning on p. 157 in which he cites a letter from Kreisel to Gödel dated 4/...
152
votes
48answers
53k views

Ways to prove the fundamental theorem of algebra

This seems to be a favorite question everywhere, including Princeton quals. How many ways are there? Please give a new way in each answer, and if possible give reference. I start by giving two: ...
53
votes
4answers
7k views

$C^1$ isometric embedding of flat torus into $\mathbb{R}^3$

I read (in a paper by Emil Saucan) that the flat torus may be isometrically embedded in $\mathbb{R}^3$ with a $C^1$ map by the Kuiper extension of the Nash Embedding Theorem, a claim repeated in this ...
13
votes
3answers
1k views

Hecke equidistribution

For a prime $p\equiv 1\pmod{4}$, we can write $p=a^2+b^2=N(a+bi)$. Therefore $$ a+bi=p^{1/2}e^{i\varphi} $$ where $\varphi\in [0,2\pi]$. I know that Hecke proved that $\varphi$ is equidistributed. I ...
14
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2answers
1k views

On a result attributed to W. Ljunggren and T. Nagell

I've read in a number of places that, building on previous work of T. Nagell, W. Ljunggren proved in 1 that the Diophantine equation $$\frac{x^{n}-1}{x-1} = y^{2}$$ doesn't admit solutions in ...
9
votes
1answer
473 views

Reference for Wang Tile

I am working on projects in solving ground state of generalized ising models. One recent work involves tiling with basic tiles that filled the whole lattice. For example, we could obtain results: ...
5
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1answer
448 views

coloring in lattice

This is a mathematical question raised from engineering and physics: Is there some established mathematical approach in filling a physical lattice with some colored basis (black and white here)? For ...
319
votes
78answers
144k views

Proofs without words

Can you give examples of proofs without words? In particular, can you give examples of proofs without words for non-trivial results? (One could ask if this is of interest to mathematicians, and I ...
44
votes
9answers
5k views

Fundamental groups of noncompact surfaces

I got fantastic answers to my previous question (about modern references for the fact that surfaces can be triangulated), so I thought I'd ask a related question. A basic fact about surface topology ...
27
votes
4answers
5k views

Why are the integers with the cofinite topology not path-connected?

An apparently elementary question that bugs me for quite some time: (1) Why are the integers with the cofinite topology not path-connected? Recall that the open sets in the cofinite topology on a ...
14
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5answers
5k views

totally disconnected and zero-dimensional spaces

When do the notions of totally disconnected space and zero-dimensional space coincide? From what I gather, there are at least three common notions of topological dimension: covering dimension, small ...
19
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6answers
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Erik Westzynthius's cool upper bound argument: update?

Version 2 of this writeup is available, and includes a newer and simple upper bound thanks to MathOverflow 88777 as well as indirect references to future writeups. Details of further work ...
5
votes
1answer
194 views

Terminology for a monoid $H$ s.t. $xy \in H^\times$ only if $x, y \in H^\times$

The title has it all. Is there any consolidated terminology for referring to a (multiplicative) monoid $H$ such that $xy \in H^\times$ (if and) only if $x, y \in H^\times$? Here is a short list of ...
32
votes
14answers
7k views

Explicit computations using the Haar measure

This question is somewhat related to my previous one on Grassmanians. The few times I've encountered the Haar measure in the course of my mathematical education, it's always been used in a very ...
29
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10answers
4k views

Determining a surface in $\mathbb{R}^3$ by its Gaussian curvature

A curve in the plane is determined, up to orientation-preserving Euclidean motions, by its curvature function, $\kappa(s)$. Here is one of my favorite examples, from Alfred Gray's book, Modern ...
50
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1answer
4k views

Probability that a stick randomly broken in five places can form a tetrahedron

Edit (June 2015): Addressing this problem is a brief project report from the Illinois Geometry Lab (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign), dated May 2015, that appears here along with a foot-...
18
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2answers
1k views

Integer-distance sets

Let $S$ be a set of points in $\mathbb{R}^d$; I am especially interested in $d=2$. Say that $S$ is an integer-distance set if every pair of points in $S$ is separated by an integer Euclidean distance. ...
10
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2answers
2k views

Riemann zeta function at positive integers and an Appell sequence of polynomials related to fractional calculus

I was exploring some raising and lowering operators related to an infinitesimal generator for fractional integro-derivatives and found an Appell sequence of polynomials, i.e., an infinite sequence of ...
21
votes
3answers
629 views

Kasteleyn's formula for domino tilings generalized?

It seems a marvel when a bunch of irrational numbers "conspire" to become rational, even better an integer. An elementary example is $\prod_{j=1}^n4\cos^2\left(\pi j/(2n+1)\right)=1$. Kasteleyn's ...
8
votes
1answer
792 views

Uniform boundedness of an $L^2[0,1]$-ONB in $C[0,1]$

Assume that we have an orthonormal basis of smooth functions in $L^2[0,1]$. Are there useful practical criteria to determine whether the sup-norm of the basis functions has a uniform bound? I am sure ...
11
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1answer
2k views

What is the source of this E̶r̶d̶ő̶s̶ quote?

Namely, the following one "All problems appeared once in the [American Mathematical] Monthly." I remember reading it several years ago... When I first posed the question, I believed that I had ...
6
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1answer
222 views

Any two bivariate algebraically dependent polynomials are always in the same ring generated by some bivariate polynomial?

If $f(x,y)$ and $g(x,y)$ are two algebraically dependent polynomials over some field $k$, is it true that there exists a bivariate polynomial $p(x,y)$ such that both $f(x,y)$ and $g(x,y)$ are in the ...
8
votes
1answer
226 views

Loday's characterization and enumeration of faces of associahedra (Stasheff polytopes)

From "The multiple facets of the associahedra" by Loday: Let us consider the formal power series $$f(x) = x+a_1 x^2 +a_2 x^3 + \cdots+ a_n x^{n+1} + \cdots$$ and let $$ g(x) = x+b_1 ...
4
votes
1answer
246 views

$\sum_{k=1}^n\frac{\sin kx}{k^\alpha} >0\quad\text{for all}\ n=1,2,3,\ldots\ \text{and}\ 0<x<\pi, \text{and}\ \alpha \ge 1$

The Fejer-Jackson inequality as follows: $$\sum_{k=1}^n\frac{\sin kx}k>0\quad\text{for all}\ n=1,2,3,\ldots\ \text{and}\ 0<x<\pi.$$ I conjecture that the inequality as follows holds: $...
2
votes
1answer
396 views

On comparing two almost injective divisor maps

Edit 2018.08.08 This answer https://mathoverflow.net/a/307881 will be updated to give recent information about S, especially a forthcoming preprint. End Edit 2018.08.08 In an introductory post on ...
103
votes
4answers
40k views

What are “perfectoid spaces”?

This talk is about a theory of "perfectoid spaces", which "compares objects in characteristic p with objects in characteristic 0". What are those spaces, where can one read about them? Edit: A bit ...
36
votes
8answers
14k views

Roadmap for studying arithmetic geometry

I have read Hartshorne's Algebraic Geometry from chapter 1 to chapter 4, so I'd like to find some suggestions about the next step to study arithmetic geometry. I want to know how to use scheme ...
110
votes
7answers
12k views

Topology and the 2016 Nobel Prize in Physics

I was very happy to learn that the work which led to the award of the 2016 Nobel Prize in Physics (shared between David J. Thouless, F. Duncan M. Haldane and J. Michael Kosterlitz) uses Topology. In ...
36
votes
6answers
8k views

Why are local systems and representations of the fundamental group equivalent

My question: Let X be a sufficiently 'nice' topological space. Then there is an equivalence between representations of the fundamental group of X and local systems on X, i.e. sheaves on X locally ...
28
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6answers
6k views

Algebraic stacks from scratch [closed]

I have a pretty good understanding of stacks, sheaves, descent, Grothendieck topologies, and I have a decent understanding of commutative algebra (I know enough about smooth, unramified, étale, and ...
15
votes
9answers
5k views

Maxwell's equations and differential forms

Is there a textbook that explains Maxwell's equations in differential forms? What I understood so far is that the $E$ and $B$ fields can be assembled to a 2-form $F$, and Maxwell's equations can be ...
31
votes
5answers
7k views

Are nontrivial integer solutions known for $x^3+y^3+z^3=3$?

The Diophantine equation $$x^3+y^3+z^3=3$$ has four easy integer solutions: $(1,1,1)$ and the three permutations of $(4,4,-5)$. Elsenhans and Jahnel wrote in 2007 that these were all the solutions ...
25
votes
10answers
8k views

Uniformization theorem for Riemann surfaces

How does one prove that every simply connected Riemann surface is conformally equivalent to the open unit disk, the complex plane, or the Riemann sphere, and these are not conformally equivalent to ...
51
votes
6answers
5k views

Is the Mendeleev table explained in quantum mechanics?

Does anybody know if there exists a mathematical explanation of the Mendeleev table in quantum mechanics? In some textbooks (for example in "F.A.Berezin, M.A.Shubin. The Schrödinger Equation") the ...
32
votes
6answers
2k views

Measures of non-abelian-ness

Let $G$ be a finite non-abelian group of $n$ elements. I would like a measure that intuitively captures the extent to which $G$ is non-commutative. One easy measure is a count of the non-commutative ...
15
votes
5answers
4k views

Hahn-Banach without Choice

The standard proof of the Hahn-Banach theorem makes use of Zorn's lemma. I hear that, however, Hahn-Banach is strictly weaker than Choice. A quick search leads to many sources stating that Hahn-Banach ...
18
votes
4answers
4k views

Classification of finite groups of isometries

Consider the problem of classifying the finite groups of isometries of $\mathbb{R}^n$. For $n=2$ it is cyclic and dihedral groups. For $n=3$ they are well known, probably from Kepler and are related ...
12
votes
5answers
4k views

Subset of the plane that intersects every line exactly twice

In a comment to this question, Tim Gowers remarked that using the axiom of choice, one can show that there exists a subset of the plane that intersects every line exactly twice (although it has yet to ...
19
votes
1answer
5k views

Fourier transform of the unit sphere

The Fourier transform of the volume form of the (n-1)-sphere in $\mathbf R^n$ is given by the well-known formula $$ \int_{S^{n-1}}e^{i\langle\mathbf a,\mathbf u\rangle}d\sigma(\mathbf u) = (2\pi)^{\nu ...
19
votes
1answer
13k views

Eigenvalues of the product of two symmetric matrices

This is mostly a reference request, as this must be well-known! Let $A$ and $B$ be two real symmetric matrices, one of which is positive definite. Then it is easy to see that the product $AB$ (or $BA$...
14
votes
4answers
2k views

Fourier decay rate of Cantor measures

For $0<\theta<\frac{1}{2}$, denote by $C_\theta$ the Cantor set with dissection ratio $\theta$, i.e. the Cantor set obtained from dissection parttern $(\theta, 1-2\theta,\theta)$. It is known ...
11
votes
5answers
2k views

Measure theory treatment geared toward the Riesz representation theorem

I'm looking for recommendations for books (or lecture notes) that develop measure theory in sufficient detail to state and prove the Riesz representation theorem (which is the characterization of the ...
12
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4answers
691 views

Good introduction to statistics from a algebraic point of view?

There are already lots of questions on this subject like Is there an introduction to probability theory from a structuralist/categorical perspective? Is there a combinatorial/topological treatment ...
10
votes
2answers
518 views

Good introductory references on moduli (stacks), for arithmetic objects

I've studied some fundation of algebraic geometry, such as Hartshorne's "Algebraic Geometry", Liu's "Algebraic Geometry and Arithmetic Curves", Silverman's "The Arithmetic of Elliptic Curves", and ...
8
votes
1answer
661 views

Obtaining non-normal varieties by pushout

In his answer to this MO question, Karl Schwede claimed that every non-normal variety can be obtained by an appropriate pushout diagram, as sketched in that answer. This would give substance to the ...
25
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4answers
2k views

What is the definition of a large cardinal axiom?

In different books one can find different implicit definitions for a large cardinal axiom. My question is that which one of these definitions are more popular or standard amongst set theorists? Any ...
19
votes
1answer
1k views

Short proof of $\frak p=t$

It is known for a while now that $\frak p=t$, as a result of Malliaris-Shelah. The original paper draws from model theoretic methods. I've heard rumors that there was a proof which was purely set ...
13
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3answers
760 views

Reference Request: Unit Fraction, equally spaced denominators not integer

I've been looking at unit fractions, and found a paper by Erdos "Some Properties Of Partial Sums Of The Harmonic Series" that proves a few things, and gives a reference for the following theorem: $$\...
16
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5answers
2k views

Morse-Kelley set theory consistency strength

I've come across several references to MK (Morse-Kelley set theory), which includes the idea of a proper class, a limitation of size, includes the axiom schema of comprehension across class variables (...