# Questions tagged [real-analysis]

Real-valued functions of real variable, analytic properties of functions and sequences, limits, continuity, smoothness of these.

3,078
questions

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**1**answer

248 views

### Shift operator that generates separable orbit

Suppose, that $f$ is bounded measurable function, $T_h(f)(x) = f(x+h)$ is the shift operator.
How to prove, that if the whole orbit $T_h(f):\, h\in\mathbb{R}$ has a dense, countable subset $T_{n_k}(f)$...

**3**

votes

**0**answers

298 views

### functions on intervals with endpoints

Would most analysts say that $(2/3) x^{3/2}$ is an antiderivative of $x^{1/2}$ on $[0,\infty)$, or
just on $(0,\infty)$?
More generally, is there a standard interpretation of the assertion "$F$ is an ...

**1**

vote

**0**answers

169 views

### Eigenvalues of a Parametrized Family of Linear Functions

Suppose that we have a family of linear functions $L(\alpha) : \mathbb{R}^n \rightarrow \mathbb{R}^n$, where $\alpha$ is a positive real number.
For each $\alpha$, it is given that $L(\alpha)$ is a ...

**22**

votes

**2**answers

826 views

### Codimension of Measurable Sets

I am currently teaching an advanced undergraduate analysis class, and the following question came up.
Intuition suggests that "most" subsets of $[0,1]$ are not Lebesgue measurable. However, the ...

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vote

**1**answer

535 views

### This limit converges to the partial derivative?

Let a function $f:X \times \mathbb{R} \rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ continuous, with $X \subset \mathbb{R}$ compact, and supose that $\partial_2 f(x,t)$ exists for all $x \in X$ and is continuous. (here $\...

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**0**answers

347 views

### Independent Events Inducing Probability Measures

Let $\mathcal{F}$ be a sigma algebra over $\Omega$ and $M$ the set of all probability measures on $\mathcal{F}$. Let $\mathcal{C}$ be some collection of pairs $(A,B)$ with $ \ A,B\in\mathcal{F}$. Now ...

**10**

votes

**3**answers

2k views

### Hilbert's 17th Problem for smooth functions

Consider an open subset $U \subseteq \mathbb{R}^n$ and a smooth function $f\colon U \longrightarrow \mathbb{R}$ with $f(x) \ge 0$ for all $x \in U$.
It is then known (if I remember correctly: by ...

**40**

votes

**7**answers

8k views

### Are some numbers more irrational than others?

Some irrational numbers are transcendental, which makes them in some sense "more irrational" than algebraic numbers. There are also numbers, such as the golden ratio $\varphi$, which are poorly ...

**17**

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**4**answers

9k views

### How did Bernoulli prove L'Hôpital's rule?

To prove L'Hôpital's rule, the standard method is to use use Cauchy's Mean Value Theorem (and note that once you have Cauchy's MVT, you don't need an $\epsilon$-$\delta$ definition of limit to ...

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votes

**1**answer

814 views

### Lebesgue's Majorized Convergence Theorem

Can anyone point me to an explanation and a proof of this theorem?
For reference, it is mentioned in Kolmogorov's almost everywhere divergent function in $L$ as given in Zygmund, volume I. In the ...

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votes

**1**answer

1k views

### An application of Baire category theorem

Hi,
Does somebody know a proof (or a reference) for the following statement:
Let $f:\mathbb{R} \rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ be an infinitely differentiable function. Suppose that for all $x$, $f^n(x)=0$ ...

**42**

votes

**3**answers

5k views

### The Hardy Z-function and failure of the Riemann hypothesis

David Feldman asked whether it would be reasonable for the Riemann hypothesis to be false, but for the Riemann zeta function to only have finitely many zeros off the critical line. I very rashly ...

**10**

votes

**1**answer

686 views

### Nondifferentiability set of an arbitrary real function

A theorem by Zygmunt Zahorski states that a necessary and sufficient condition for a subset of $\mathbb{R}$ to be the nondifferentiability set of a continuous real function is that it is the union of ...

**8**

votes

**3**answers

731 views

### Strange real functions

I know there are a lot of strange functions $f~:~\mathbb R \to \mathbb R$.
I'm looking for an "elementary but complete" exposition of a result discovered by W. Sierpi\'nski and A. Zygmund in "Sur une ...

**42**

votes

**4**answers

2k views

### Smooth functions for which $f(x)$ is rational if and only if $x$ is rational

A friend of mine introduced me to the following question: Does there exist a smooth function $f: \mathbb{R} \to \mathbb{R}$, ($f \in C^\infty$), such that $f$ maps rationals to rationals and ...

**2**

votes

**0**answers

738 views

### Controlling the Lipschitz norm of the limit of a sequence of functions

Consider the Fréchet space $\Omega = C(\mathbb R^d)$ of real-valued continuous functions equipped with the seminorms $$\|f\|_D := \sup_{x,y \in D} \left\{ |f(x)|, \tfrac{|f(x)-f(y)|}{|x-y|} \right\}, \...

**19**

votes

**1**answer

1k views

### If $f:R^n \to R$ is a smooth real-valued function such that $\nabla f : R^n \to R^n$ is a diffeomorphism, what can one conclude about the behavior of $f(x)$ at infinity?

This question may seem peculiar, so let me preface it by saying that it arose while I was trying to understand Legendre transformations better, and in that context it is fairly natural. Anyway, ...

**36**

votes

**9**answers

31k views

### Is square of Delta function defined somewhere?

Hello, every one. I am wondering whether any one knows that whether the square of Dirac Delta function is defined some where?
In the beginning, this question might look strange. But by restricting ...

**5**

votes

**1**answer

671 views

### Does a log-concave function on a convex set extend continuously to the boundary?

Let $U$ be an open convex set in a locally convex space $X$, and let $f : U \to [0,1]$ be a log-concave function on $U$ (i.e., bounded and real-valued). Under what conditions does $f$ have a ...

**19**

votes

**4**answers

2k views

### Why is there no Borel function mapping every countable set of reals outside itself?

A choice function maps every set (in its domain) to an element of itself. This question concerns existence of an anti-choice function defined on the family of countable sets of reals. In an answer to ...

**6**

votes

**1**answer

747 views

### Quantitative bounds for multivariate central limit theorem

Hi,
For the univariate central limit theorem, the Berry-Esseen theorem gives a quantitative bound on the rate of convergence of distributions to the Normal distribution under Kolmogorov distance:
...

**77**

votes

**20**answers

10k views

### Proofs of the uncountability of the reals.

Recently, I learnt in my analysis class the proof of the uncountability of the reals via the Nested Interval Theorem. At first, I was excited to see a variant proof (as it did not use the diagonal ...

**9**

votes

**2**answers

673 views

### Asymptotic difference between a function and its “binomial average”

(I posted this question on Math.SE a few weeks ago. I got a few comments, but nothing definite, and so I thought I would try MO.)
The origin of this question is the identity
$$\sum_{k=0}^n \binom{n}{...

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votes

**1**answer

2k views

### Functions whose antiderivative behaves like xf(x)

I'm wondering if a classification of analytic functions, $f\,$ (it may be that $C^1$ is enough, but I'm not taking any chances, if you have a reason why I only need to consider a larger class of ...

**1**

vote

**2**answers

283 views

### Finite interpolation by nondecreasing indefinitely differentiable functions in a finite-dimensional space

Some time ago, I asked about inite interpolation by
a nondecreasing polynomial here at Finite interpolation by a nondecreasing polynomial. This turned out to be an already solved problem; it also ...

**1**

vote

**0**answers

541 views

### Is there a Real valued function with image of every open interval the whole real line [duplicate]

Possible Duplicate:
Function with range equal to whole reals on every open set
Hello,
My problem is the following
"Is there a Real valued function with image of every open interval the whole ...

**25**

votes

**2**answers

3k views

### Does Arzelà-Ascoli require choice?

Inspired by a recent Math.SE question entitled Where do we need the axiom of choice in Riemannian geometry?, I was thinking of the Arzelà--Ascoli theorem. Let's state a very simple version:
...

**71**

votes

**5**answers

6k views

### Does pointwise convergence imply uniform convergence on a large subset?

Suppose $f_n$ is a sequence of real valued functions on $[0,1]$ which converges pointwise to zero.
Is there an uncountable subset $A$ of $[0,1]$ so that $f_n$ converges uniformly on $A$?
Is there a ...

**9**

votes

**3**answers

706 views

### local behavior of a finite Borel measure

Let $\mu$ be a finite Borel measure on $\mathbb{R}^n$. I am interested in how does $\mu(B(x,r))$ behave, where $B(x,r)$ is the open ball of radius $r$ centered at $x$. For instance, as far as I recall,...

**42**

votes

**2**answers

6k views

### “Closed-form” functions with half-exponential growth

Let's call a function f:N→N half-exponential if there exist constants 1<c<d such that for all sufficiently large n,
cn < f(f(n)) < dn.
Then my question is this: can we prove that no ...

**5**

votes

**2**answers

546 views

### Sturm chain analogue for exponential polynomials?

I'm going to define an exponential polynomial of degree $k$ as a function $f$ of the form
$f(x) = \sum_{i=1}^k c_ie^{\alpha_ix}$ ($\alpha_i$s real).
My first question is: is there an algorithm for ...

**9**

votes

**2**answers

504 views

### construction of a random measure with a given mean

Let me first pose a trivial question.
Given a Borel probability measure $\mu$ on the real line, is it possible to construct a purely atomic random measure $M$ whose mean is $\mu$?
The answer is ...

**2**

votes

**1**answer

387 views

### What is the regularity of the argument of a complex function?

Let $\psi=f+ig=\rho e^{i\theta}$ be a complex function on some open subset of $\mathbb{R}^n$, where $f,g,\rho$ and $\theta$ are real-valued. I happened to find that the identity of differentiation for ...

**7**

votes

**4**answers

1k views

### The non-convergence of f(f(x))=exp(x)-1 and labeled rooted trees

This question is closely related to MO f(f(x))=exp(x)-1 and other functions “just in the middle” between linear and exponential. Consider $e^{e^x-1}$, this is the generating function of the Bell ...

**22**

votes

**3**answers

5k views

### Dual of bounded uniformly continuous functions

Let $(X,d)$ be a metric space, and let $C_u(X)$ be the Banach space of bounded uniformly continuous functions on $X$ (with the uniform norm). How can I characterize its dual space $C_u(X)^*$?
I ...

**1**

vote

**3**answers

545 views

### $H^{-1}$ conservative gradient flow and $L^2$ projection

Consider Cahn-Hilliard (see this) equation hich is known as the $H^{-1}$ gradient flow of Cahn-Hilliard energy functional, also it is easy to verify that this equation is mass preserving i.e. measure ...

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vote

**2**answers

577 views

### Sharp upper bounds for sums of the form $\sum_{p \mid k} \frac{1}{p+1}$

Are there known sharp upper bounds (in terms of $k$ or $\omega(k)$, the number of distinct prime divisors of $k$) for sums of the form $\sum_{p \mid k} \frac{1}{p+1}$ for $k > 1$ subject to the ...

**18**

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**3**answers

2k views

### Do convex and decreasing functions preserve the semimartingale property?

Some time ago I spent a lot of effort trying to show that the semimartingale property is preserved by certain functions. Specifically, that a convex function of a semimartingale and decreasing ...

**2**

votes

**1**answer

571 views

### Geometrical structure of critical points of harmonic functions

For a harmonic function $\Phi$ on a simply connected subset $\Gamma$ of $\mathbb{R}^3$, define a guide curve $\gamma: I \mapsto \Gamma$ of $\Phi$ as a simple regular $C^1$ curve such that
all point ...

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votes

**2**answers

751 views

### Is the inclusion of Lebesgue spaces compact?

[Disclaimer: this may be a very trivial question; it certainly looks like it ought to have been studied and understood. I started thinking about it this morning when writing some notes for Rellich-...

**2**

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**0**answers

395 views

### Can any antidifference (indefinite sum) of a function be expressed in elementary functions and generalized polygamma function if its integral can be expressed in elementary functions?

If the integral or multiplicative integral of a function can be expressed with elementary functions, does it mean its indefinite sum (antidifference) or indefinite product respectively can be ...

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2k views

### Is a real power series that maps rationals to rationals defined by a rational function?

Suppose that the function $p(x)$ is defined on an open subset $U$ of $\mathbb{R}$ by a power series with real coefficients. Suppose, further, that $p$ maps rationals to rationals. Must $p$ be defined ...

**5**

votes

**3**answers

722 views

### Monotone injection of an ordinal into $[0,1]$

This is related to my recent question and would provide a natural positive answer to Question 2. I am sure this must be known to experts.
Question: Is there a monotone injection $(\omega_1,<) \...

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votes

**0**answers

914 views

### Proofs of Baire category theorem

I would like to have a list of proofs of the fact that the real line is not meager (also very useful would be a reference to such a list, if it already exists somewhere).
My motivation is the ...

**4**

votes

**2**answers

662 views

### Possible subsets of reals that equal the set of continuity of a function

This should be an easy question, but I don't quite know how to approach it. It may be somewhat related to the concepts mentioned in the context of this past question, though it was motivated mainly by ...

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**32**answers

70k views

### Why do we teach calculus students the derivative as a limit?

I'm not teaching calculus right now, but I talk to someone who does, and the question that came up is why emphasize the $h \to 0$ definition of a derivative to calculus students?
Something a teacher ...

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votes

**2**answers

2k views

### Power series with non-integer exponents

Motivation:
For the sake of concreteness, I'll state a very particular context, but my question is a little more general. I'm trying to find a function $\gamma\colon [0,\delta) \to [0,\delta')$ that ...

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votes

**1**answer

2k views

### Gluing two diffeomorphisms together

A fundamental construction in a first course on manifolds is to build a smooth function $\psi\colon \mathbb{R} \to \mathbb{R}$ with the property that for some $0<\delta<\epsilon$ we have
$\psi(...

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**3**answers

1k views

### Can there be two continuous real-valued functions such that at least one has rational values for all x?

Of course, no continuous real valued non-constant function can attain only rational or irrational values, but can there be a pair of nowhere-constant continuous functions f and g such that for all x, ...

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**2**answers

339 views

### Inf of a mutivariate function

Let $f(x_1,\ldots , x_n) = \frac{x_1}{x_2+x_3} + \frac{x_2}{x_3+x_4} + \cdots + \frac{x_n}{x_1+x_2}$, defined for $x_i>0$.
Is there $(x_1, \ldots ,x_n)\in {\mathbb{R}^*_+}^n$ such that $f(x_1,\...