# Questions tagged [real-analysis]

Real-valued functions of real variable, analytic properties of functions and sequences, limits, continuity, smoothness of these.

3,093
questions

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**1**answer

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### How to determine whether a multivariate function is bounded or not

Suppose there is a function $f:\mathbb{R}_+^n\mapsto \mathbb{R}$. Are there any systematic ways to determine whether the range of $f$ is bounded or not?
For example, there is a function $f(x,y)=-x^2+...

**2**

votes

**2**answers

653 views

### Power function inequality

Let $x$ and $p$ be real numbers with $x \ge 1$ and $p \ge 2$ . Show that $(x - 1)(x + 1)^{p - 1} \ge x^p - 1$ .
I recently discovered this result. I am sure it is known, but it is new to me. It is ...

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vote

**1**answer

2k views

### Modified Lebesgue differentiation theorem

Let $\Omega\subset \mathbb{R}^n$ an open set and $u:\Omega\to \mathbb{R}$ be a (locally) $L^1$-function. Then it is well known that the Lebesgue differentiation theorem holds: For almost every $x\in \...

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votes

**1**answer

6k views

### Can the supremum of continuous functions be discontinuous on a set of positive measure? [closed]

Given a sequence of continuous functions $f_n(x)$, all defined on a compact set $D$ and assuming $f_n(x)$ is uniformly bounded. Let $f(x) = sup_n f_n(x)$.
It is clear that $f(x)$ is not necessarily ...

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206 views

### Elementary analysis: reference request

Given the continuous maps $[0,\infty) \to \mathbb R$ define the following "truncation at level $K$ operator", $T$:
$T(f)(t) = f(\min(t, S_f))$, where $S_f = \inf \{ s : f(s) \ge K \}$
So essentially ...

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**0**answers

215 views

### Idea behind choosing $\small f(x)$ as $c^{s}x^{p-1} \frac{[\theta(x)]^{p}}{(p-1)!}$ in the proof that $\pi$ is transcendental [closed]

I am going through the article at this link, where the author proves that: "$\pi$ is $\text{transcendental}$ over $\mathbb{Q}$". Although, I understand the proof, I have some doubts.
At page $6$, the ...

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783 views

### $L^1$ norm of the Fourier transform of a truncated Gaussian

I asked this question on Math StackExchange recently but the only useful comment I got was that this could be a good question for Math Overflow. Here it goes:
Consider the Gaussian $G(x):=e^{-x^2}$ ...

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1k views

### Almost everywhere differentiability for a class of functions on $\mathbb{R}^2$

A while ago, I came across the following problem, which I was not able to resolve one way or the other.
Let $f,g\colon\mathbb{R}^2\to\mathbb{R}$ be continuous functions such that $f(t,x)$ and $g(t,...

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votes

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441 views

### implicit function theorem for algebraic sets

We know by the standard Implicit Function Theorem that
If $f:\mathbb R^4\rightarrow\mathbb
> R^2$ is a polynomial (or in fact any
continuously differentiable function),
then there is a ...

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**1**answer

167 views

### Can symmetrizing a contraction increase the speed of convergence?

Dear community,
I have a problem which is very simple to state but seems to be hard to answer.
Statement of the problem
Let $f$ and $g$ be two symmetric, real functions in $n$ and $m$ variables, ...

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votes

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824 views

### reverse mathematics strength of “Lipschitz functions are somewhere differentiable”

What is the reverse mathematics strength of
"For all Lipschitz functions $\; f : \mathbb{R} \to \mathbb{R} \;$, $\;$ there exists a real number $x$ such that $f$ is differentiable at $x$." ?
(...

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**0**answers

158 views

### minimizing the integral of a function over square sets.

Hi!
I'm interested in some problems, but to be honest i'm not sure of the field they belong to.
Let $h(x,y)$ be a bivariate function on $X^2$, where $X$ is some nice topological space (for instance $...

**2**

votes

**1**answer

871 views

### A singular value inequality

Let $s_1,s_2: \mathbb{R}^{2\times 2} \mapsto \mathbb{R}_+$,
$s_{1}\left(\cdot\right)\ge s_{2}\left(\cdot\right)\ge 0$, be the
singular values of a $2\times2$ matrix. Is it true that
$$\left|s_{1}\...

**63**

votes

**9**answers

5k views

### Taking “Zooming in on a point of a graph” seriously

In calculus classes it is sometimes said that the tangent line to a curve at a point is the line that we get by "zooming in" on that point with an infinitely powerful microscope. This explanation ...

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**3**answers

503 views

### Closure of singular points

Let $f(x,y)$ be a complex degree $d$ polynomial that has this particular
form.
$$ f = \frac{f_{02}}{2} y^2 + \frac{f_{21}}{2} x^2 y +
\frac{f_{12}}{2} x y^2 + \frac{f_{03}}{6} y^3 + \frac{f_{40}}{...

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**2**answers

1k views

### Does the Weierstrass function have a point of increase?

Problem
The Weierstrass function $W(x)$ is given by
$W(x)=\sum_{n\geq 0} a^n \cos(b^n \pi x)$
where $0< a <1$ and $b$ is an odd integer such that $ab > 1+3\pi/2$.
A function $f:\mathbb{R}\...

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vote

**1**answer

401 views

### density of a set

let $S=\{\sin (n)|n \in N\}$. We can prove $S$ is dense in $[-1,1]$. So is the set $\{\sin( n^2)|n \in N\}$; but the set $\{\sin (n^3)| n \in N\}$ is not dense in $[-1,1]$. How to prove this?

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322 views

### Convergence Question [closed]

If $\alpha _{n}\rightarrow \alpha$, then how does one show that for any j=1,2,... and $\epsilon> 0$, if $sup\int \left | x \right |^{j+\epsilon }d\alpha _{n}<\infty$, then $\int x^{j}d\alpha _{n}...

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**2**answers

1k views

### How to prove the Hahn-Banach constructively

I am just wondering, how to prove the Hahn-Banach theorem constructively for a finite dimensional normed vector space.
Thanks in advance for any helpful answers.

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votes

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308 views

### Is there a sufficient criteria to guarantee that $\lim_{n} a_{nn} = \lim_{m} \lim_{n} a_{mn}$ ?

Let $a_{mn}$ be a sequence in some $\mathbb{R}^k$. We know in advance that
$$\lim_{n} ~a_{nn} = L_1, \qquad
\lim_{m}~ \lim_{n} ~a_{mn} = L_2 $$
exist. Is there a sufficient criteria to conclude ...

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votes

**1**answer

948 views

### Real analytic function, injective, non surjective and preserving the rationals ?

I'd like to prove the non-existence of a real analytic function, injective, non-surjective
that sends rationals to rationals.
Is it a classical result ? If not, any hints on how to prove it ?
Thanks ...

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votes

**3**answers

841 views

### A definite integral

Hello,
I am trying to find an explicit form of the following definite integral. I have tried Mathematica and it failed to give an answer. I am wondering whether anyone knows this integral. It might ...

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**2**answers

1k views

### Continuity of a convolution (Version 2)

Hello,
This problem bothers me for some time. Suppose that
$\mu$ is a non-negative Radon measure (or positive linear functional of the space of continuous functions with compact support);
$\psi$ is ...

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votes

**2**answers

2k views

### Does a bounded real function have an analytic continuation [closed]

Consider the function $f:[0,1]\rightarrow\mathbb{R}$, where
$f$ is real-analytic on the open interval $(0,1)$
$f$ is bounded on the closed interval $[0,1]$ (ie. there is some constant $C$ such that $-...

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vote

**1**answer

240 views

### Conformal Extension from a closed set to open

Let $Q = \{(x,y): x,y\geq 0\} $ be the 1st quadrant of $\mathbb R^2$, and $f$ is a function defined on it such that all the partial derivative(any order) of $f$ exists and continuous. By Whitney ...

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1k views

### An interesting doubly infinite series

Let $0<\mu<1$ and $\alpha:=1-\mu^2$. Consider the function
$$f(x):=x\sum_{k=-\infty}^\infty\mu^{4k}e^{-\alpha\mu^{4k}x}-\frac{1}{x}\sum_{k=-\infty}^\infty\mu^{4k}e^{-\alpha\mu^{4k}/x},$$
...

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**0**answers

208 views

### Monotonicity of a certain parametric integral

I would like to ask for some help (hints, ideas) in solving the following problem:
Given integer $n>0$ and real $\alpha>0,\beta>1$ we want to show, that
if we define for any $x\in\mathbb{R}...

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votes

**0**answers

294 views

### Function space between uniform continuity and Hölder continuity

Can you give an example of a complete metric vector space of uniformly continuous functions that is strictly contained between the set of uniformly continuous functions on $\mathbb R^d$ and the Hölder ...

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315 views

### Gauge integral of the derivative of a function except on a set of measure 0.

For the entire question, the interval I am integrating over is $[0,1]$.
Background: In order to exhibit an isometry from $L^2[0,1]$ into $l^2$, I need to either assume absolute continuity over some ...

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**1**answer

503 views

### Acceleration via smoothing

Is the following approach to accelerating the rate of convergence of $(1+1/2+\dots+1/n)- \ln n$ (with $n=1,2,3,\dots$), and other sequences like it, in the literature?
Let $f(t)=(\sum_{1 \leq n \leq ...

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367 views

### A question about zeros of Tate type integral

Fix a positive integer $n$. Fix a continuous character $\chi$ of $\mathbb{R}^*$ with the form $\chi(x)=sign(x)|x|^t$ for some complex number $t$. If $\phi$ is a Schwartz function on $\mathbb{R}$, let $...

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426 views

### Multiplying functions on the unit square as generalized matrices

Consider the $\mathbb{R}$-vector space of sufficiently nice real-valued functions on the unit square $I^2$, where "sufficiently nice" could be taken to mean any one of a number of things - say ...

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**1**answer

392 views

### Taylor Series Remainder

Suppose I have a $C^\infty$ smooth function $f$ defined on the reals.
I can apply Taylor's formula and get the local expression
$$
f(x) = \sum_{i=0}^l\frac{f^{(i)}(0)}{l!}x^i+ f^{(l+1)}(\xi(x))x^{l+...

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votes

**1**answer

3k views

### Is point to set distance continuous?

Assume $\mathbf{d}:\mathbb{R}^n\times\mathbb{R}^n\rightarrow\mathbb{R}_0^+$ is a metric such that the function $\psi(x)=\mathbf{d}(x,y)$ for any $y\in\mathbb{R}^n$ is continuous in the Euclidean ...

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votes

**1**answer

972 views

### Hausdorff dimension of graphs .

Is there an easy way to calculate the Hausdorff dimension of the graph of a real "elementary" function, like $f(x)=\sin(1/x)$ ?

**4**

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**1**answer

293 views

### ordered fields with the bounded value property, without choice

In his answer to my question ordered fields with the bounded value property, Ali Enayat showed that if one assumes the countable axiom of choice, then there exists a non-Archimedean ordered field $F$ ...

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**1**answer

2k views

### Interpolating between piecewise linear functions, with a family of smooth functions

Let $[a,b)\subset\mathbb R$, and $F,G:[a,b)\to\mathbb R$ two decreasing piecewise linear functions so that $F(x)\leq G(x)$ for any $x\in[a,b)$. We assume that:
there is a number $k\in\mathbb N-\{0\}$ ...

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**1**answer

572 views

### Numerically finding a Mercer expansion for a given covariance kernel

Let $c(r)$ be a nice, continuous function with compact support. For example, $c(r) = \tfrac 1 5 (1-r)^{11} \big( 5 + 55r + 239 r^2 + 429 r^3 \big)$ for $r \in [0,1]$, and $c(r) = 0$ otherwise.
On ...

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**1**answer

3k views

### Every real function has a dense set on which its restriction is continuous

The title says it all: if $f\colon \mathbb{R} \to \mathbb{R}$ is any real function, there exists a dense subset $D$ of $\mathbb{R}$ such that $f|_D$ is continuous.
Or so I'm told, but this leaves me ...

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**2**answers

2k views

### a different nested intervals theorem

Is there any literature on (and a standard name for) the proposition that for any arbitrary-cardinality collection of closed intervals in the reals that is nested (in the sense that, given any two of ...

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**1**answer

215 views

### a closed-form for mean/integral, but weighting positive differences between values and “mean” differently from negative differences?

Given a curve $f(x)$ (for $x \in [0,1]$), and a line $y=a$, let $U$ be the total area below $f$ and above $a$, and let $L$ be the total area above $f$ and below $a$. If $L=U$, this means that $a =\...

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487 views

### Estimating the Hausdorff measure of a subset of the sphere

Let $f: S^{n-1}\to \mathbb{R}$ be a continuous function ($S^{n-1}\subset \mathbb{R}^n$ is the unit sphere), $f(a)>0$ and $f(b)<0$ for certain points $a,b\in S^{n-1}$. By continuity these ...

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votes

**1**answer

835 views

### ordered fields with the bounded value property

Say that an ordered field $F$ satisfies the bounded value property if, for all $a < b$ in $F$ and for every continuous function $f$ from $[a,b]_F := ${$x \in F: a \leq x \leq b$} to $F$, there ...

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**3**answers

683 views

### truth vs. provability for ordered fields

In Propositions equivalent to the completeness of the real numbers I started by asking "Can anyone point me to a reasonably comprehensive article (or book chapter) explaining which basic theorems of ...

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738 views

### A dual theory to the theory of currents?

The k-currents are defined as dual space to the spaces of all smooth k-forms.
(These monsters are used to work with the minimal k-surfaces.)
Assume I want to look at the generalized k-forms;
they can ...

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votes

**2**answers

568 views

### Reference for proof that $C_b^* = rba$

The following theorem seems to have folk status:
The topological dual of the space $C_b(X)$ of bounded continuous functions on a topological space $X$ is isomorphic to the space $rba(X)$ of finite, ...

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**1**answer

706 views

### Some infinite products related to prime numbers.

Let $P$ be the set of all odd prime numbers. I am looking for all $s\in(1,\infty)$ for them
$
A=\prod_{p\in P} (1+\frac{1}{(p-1)^s})^{p-1}
$
exists (i.e. is finite). I know that it should be ...

**3**

votes

**1**answer

405 views

### Vanishing on Bad Sets

Let $f: \Bbb{R}^n \rightarrow \Bbb{R}$ be a non-negative function that vanishes on a set $\Omega$ that is compact and has positive measure. What is the minimial amount of regularity required of $f$ to ...

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**2**answers

832 views

### Characterization of Weakly measurable functions

I wonder if we can characterize weak measurability of a function taking values in a Banach space using sequence of step functions (functions that have finite range) just like how we define strong ...

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votes

**2**answers

615 views

### Darboux function on $[0,1]$ with interesting property

I have proved a few years ago the following proposition:
There exists $f: [0,1] \to [0,1]$ with Darboux property such that there exist $A,B \subset[0,1]$ with $A\cap B=\emptyset,\ A \cup B=[0,1]$ ...