# Questions tagged [real-analysis]

Real-valued functions of real variable, analytic properties of functions and sequences, limits, continuity, smoothness of these.

3,094
questions

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### Example showing that area is discontinuous in the 2-variation seminorm

The $p$-variation seminorm (where $p \ge 1$) of a continuous curve $\alpha: [0,1] \to \mathbb{R}^2$ is defined as the supremum over all partitions $t_0 = 0 \le t_1 \le \cdots \le t_n = 1$ of:
$\left(\...

**15**

votes

**3**answers

7k views

### the dual space of C(X) (X is noncompact metric space)

It is well known that when $X$ is a compact space (or locally compact space), the dual space of $C(X)=\{f |f:
X\rightarrow \mathbb{C} \text{ is continuous and bounded} \}$ is $M(X)$, the space of ...

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votes

**0**answers

245 views

### Jacobian of the inversion map

Let $F:Tr(n,\mathbb{R})\cap GL_n(\mathbb{R})\rightarrow Tr(n,\mathbb{R})\cap GL_n(\mathbb{R})$ be the map which sends a matrix $A$ to its inverse $A^{-1}$. If we consider $F$ as a function from $(\...

**5**

votes

**1**answer

529 views

### Cosets of groups of functions

Let's consider an interval $I\subseteq\mathbb R$, and let $\mathcal F(I)$ be the set of bijective functions $f:I\to I$ so that the graph of $f$ is a analytic curve in $I\times I$.
The set $\mathcal ...

**4**

votes

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105 views

### rank of a C^1 map

I saw this three star problem in Hirsch ..
If we have open sets $U \subset R^3$ ,$V \subset R^2$ and $f:U \to V$ is $C^1$ and onto...Prove there is at least one point in $U$ where $f$ has full rank
...

**5**

votes

**2**answers

516 views

### Asymptotic behaviour of $\int f(t)^a\cos(at)dt$

Are there any known necessary or sufficient conditions such that
$$\lim_{a\rightarrow \infty}\int_{-1}^1f(t)^a\cos(at)dt=0$$
where $f:[-1,1]\rightarrow[1,\infty)$ is an even smooth concave real ...

**24**

votes

**4**answers

2k views

### “Converse” of Taylor's theorem

Let $f:(a,b)\to\mathbb{R}$. We are given $(k+1)$ continuous functions $a_0,a_1,\ldots,a_k:(a,b)\to\mathbb{R}$ such that for every $c\in(a,b)$ we can write $f(c+t)=\sum_{i=0}^k a_i(c)t^i+o(t^k)$ (for ...

**2**

votes

**1**answer

286 views

### A raceway problem

Let $f(x)=\sin x$, and $g(x)=\sin x + 1$. Consider a set
$S=\{(x,y)| f(x)\leq y \leq g(x), x\in [0,2\pi]\}$. This set $S$ can be considered as "Raceway"
My question is finding the shortest path in $S$...

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votes

**0**answers

652 views

### Sigma algebra generated

Let $\mathcal{L} \subset \mathbb{R}$ the Lebesgue sigma algebra and $\mathcal{B} \subset \mathbb{R}^{n}$ the Borel sigma algebra. I'll denotes by $\mathcal{L} \times \mathcal{B}$ the smallest sigma ...

**3**

votes

**1**answer

837 views

### Ratio sum comparison on operators

It is known by the Lidskii inequality, that $\sum_{i=1}^n \left|s_i(S)-s_i(T)\right|\le\sum_{i=1}^n s_i(S+T)$,
where $s_i(S)$ is the $i$-th singular value of $S$.
How would one prove that
$$\sum_{i=1}^...

**10**

votes

**2**answers

914 views

### Does Rolle's Theorem imply Dedekind completeness?

I think the answer to the title question is "yes", but Gerald Edgar, in his comment on Does antidifferentiability of continuous functions imply Dedekind completeness? , points out an article (actually ...

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votes

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2k views

### Is there dual space of the distributions $\mathcal{D}'(R)$?

Dear MOs,
Let $\mathcal{D}(R):=C_c^\infty(R)$ be the smooth functions with compact support. Its dual space is the space $\mathcal{D}'(R)$ of distributions. This space $\mathcal{D}(R)$ has its weak *-...

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votes

**0**answers

292 views

### Does antidifferentiability of continuous functions imply Dedekind completeness?

Let $R$ be an ordered field, and let $I$ be {$x \in R: a < x < b$} for some $a < b$ in $R$. Define notions of $R$-continuity and $R$-differentiability for functions $f : I \rightarrow R$ by ...

**3**

votes

**3**answers

524 views

### Every positive polynomial with rational coefficients is above a completely Q-factorized nonnegative polynomial ?

This question was originally asked in stackoverflow (https://math.stackexchange.com/questions/103941/every-positive-polynomial-is-above-a-completely-q-factorized-positive-polynomial) but as it has ...

**1**

vote

**1**answer

327 views

### Property Sigma Algebra [closed]

Is the set { $ \cup_{i \in \mathbb{N}} C_{i} \times D_{i} : C_{i} \in \mathcal{L} \ , D_{i} \in \mathcal{B}^{n} \ $ } a sigma algebra on $\mathbb{R} \times \mathbb{R}^{n}$ ?

**7**

votes

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2k views

### Absolute continuity on $R^{n}$

I know the definition of absolute continuity if there is a function $f:(a,b)\rightarrow R$.
I wonder what is an analogy of this concept if we have a function $f:A\rightarrow R$, where $A\subset R^{n}$ ...

**10**

votes

**2**answers

2k views

### Multi-dimensional moment problem

Let $\mu$ be a measure on $\def\r{\mathbb{R}}\r^n$, $1\le n \le \infty$. Given a (finite) multi-index $\bar{i} = (i_1, i_2, \ldots)$, one can define the moment
$$ m_{\bar i} = \int x_i^{i_1} x_2^{i_2}...

**0**

votes

**1**answer

963 views

### surjective function from non-measurable sets

let $V$ be the vitali set and let $g:V\to\mathbb R$ be a surjective function. then the fuction $f:\mathbb R\to\mathbb R$ such that $f(x)=g([x])$ will be a function that is surjective in any interval ...

**16**

votes

**3**answers

3k views

### Which functions have all derivatives everywhere positive?

Consider the class of functions from $\mathbb R$ to $\mathbb R$, such that the function is positive everywhere and its $n$th derivative is positive everywhere for all $n$.
The only examples I can ...

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vote

**3**answers

557 views

### Does complete monotonicity of f imply log-concavity of f?

Let f be a completely monotonic function with $f(0)=1$, that is,
$ f:[0, \infty) \rightarrow (0,1] $. My question is:
Is f log concave, that is, is $(logf)''<0$ or equivalently $ f f''< f'^2 $....

**1**

vote

**2**answers

941 views

### Is there a periodic function without minimum period such that all the possible periods are irrationals? [closed]

Let $f:\mathbb R\to\mathbb R$ be a periodic function. We say $f$ is without minimum period if, $\forall t$ such that $f(x+t)=f(x)\forall x$, there is a $t'$ such that $0<t'<t$ and $f(x+t')=f(x)\...

**11**

votes

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2k views

### analysis over non-Archimedean ordered fields

Can anyone suggest any good references for (or any experts on) analysis over non-Archimedean ordered fields, such as the field of rational functions in one variable (ordered at 0, or if you prefer at ...

**11**

votes

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1k views

### Implicit function theorem at a singular point?

Let $F:\mathbb{R}^2 \rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ be three times continuously differentiable in some open neighborhood $\mathcal{U}$ of $(0,0)$. Suppose that $F(0,0) = F_x(0,0) = F_y(0,0) = F_{xy}(0,0) = 0$ ...

**0**

votes

**1**answer

534 views

### Difference between spaces of integrable functions w.r.t Lebesgue measure and Borel measure [closed]

Is there a difference between
$L^p(\mathbb R,\mathfrak B,\beta)$ and $L^p(\mathbb R,\mathfrak L,\lambda)$ ?
Here I denoted by $\lambda$ the Lebesgue measure, defined on the Lebesgue
$\sigma$-algebra $\...

**4**

votes

**2**answers

1k views

### Stone-Weierstrass for monotone functions

Let $\; f : [0,1] \to \mathbb{R} \;$ be continuous and non-decreasing. $\;\;$ Let $\epsilon$ be a real number such that $\; 0 < \epsilon \;$.
Does it follow that that there exists a real ...

**0**

votes

**1**answer

330 views

### Under what condition will this set contain a limit point of [0,1)?

Let $T_1,T_2,....T_n$ be numbers such that
$T_k= k$ no. of digits in decimal expansion of an irrational number, say $\alpha$, starting from $(\frac{k(k-1)}{2}+1)^{th}$ digit in the decimal expansion. ...

**0**

votes

**1**answer

299 views

### Modulo dynamics on [0,1)

For $T: \mathbb{R} \mapsto \mathbb{{R}_{+}}$, we have $\{ {T}^{n}(\theta)\ mod \ 1\} \subset [0,1)$. (where ${T}^{n}(\theta)$ means applying $T$ $n$ times on $\theta$, not the $n$th power of $T(\...

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votes

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3k views

### Bounded sequences with divergent Cesàro mean

It is well known that there are bounded sequences with divergent Cesàro mean, i.e., a bounded $a_n$ for which $$\lim_{N\to\infty} c_N = \frac{1}{N}\sum_{n=1}^N a_n$$ does not exist. A simple example ...

**1**

vote

**1**answer

1k views

### On an eigenvalue inequality

Let $\lambda_1 (\cdot)$ be the larger absolute value
eigenvalue of a $2\times2$ matrix and $\lambda_2 (\cdot)$
the smaller absolute value eigenvalue of a $2\times2$ matrix, i.e.
$|\lambda_1 (\cdot)| \...

**5**

votes

**3**answers

4k views

### Zeros of “exponential” function

Define ${f}_{i}(x) = \sum_{j=1}^{i} (-1)^{i-j}{i \choose j}j^x$, where $i=1,2,3,...$ and $x \in \mathbb{R}$.
For integer $x \geq i$, ${f}_{i}(x)$ reduces to ${f}_{i}(x)=i!S(x,i)$, where $S(x,i)$ is ...

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votes

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553 views

### On the uncountability of zero sets

If $f$ is any real-valued function, we define its zero set $Z_f = \{ x : f(x) = 0 \}$. Obviously, the zero set of a nice function can be uncountable. e.g., if $f(x) = 0$ on an uncountable domain.
I ...

**1**

vote

**2**answers

391 views

### A smoothness of $f(\sqrt[p] x)$

Let $f: \mathbb{R} \rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ be a smooth function let $p \in \mathbb{N}$, $p \geq 2$.
Assume that $f^{(k)}(0)=0$ for all $k \notin p \mathbb{N}$. Is it true that then $g(x)=f(\sqrt[p] x)$...

**3**

votes

**1**answer

414 views

### Hausdorff measure on product spaces of p-adic integers

This question came up (unexpectedly) in a problem I was working on a few years ago. It may not be too difficult but I never got around to figuring out the answer, because all I needed at that time was ...

**2**

votes

**0**answers

6k views

### Dual space of continuous functions

Let $C_b(\Omega,V )=$ { $ f:\Omega\rightarrow V $ } is the Banach space of all bounded continuous functions in Banach space $V$ with a norm $\|\cdot\|$ defined as $\|f\|_\infty=\sup _{x\in\Omega}\|f(x)...

**4**

votes

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3k views

### Ratio of Sequences Sum Inequality

I have two real sequences $a_1,a_2,\dots,a_n$ and $b_1, b_2, \dots, b_n$, with $a_i > 0$ and $1 \leq b_i < n$, and I'm looking for a lower bound of $\sum_i \frac{a_i}{b_i}$ in terms of $\sum_i ...

**2**

votes

**1**answer

251 views

### Quotients of perfect powers separated by an integer

Let $a_n=\frac{(n+1)^{n+2}}{n^n}$ and $b_n=\frac{(n+2)^{(n+1)}}{(n+1)^{n-1}}$. Then it is easy to see that $a_n \leq b_n$ for all integers $n\geq 1$ (because the sequence $(1+\frac{1}{n})^n$ is ...

**5**

votes

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1k views

### non-maximal prime ideal in the ring of continuous functions

Let $A=C(0,1)$ be the ring of continuous real valued functions on the open interval $(0,1)$. It is not too difficult to show that if $\mathfrak{m}\subseteq A$ is a maximal ideal with residue field $A/\...

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votes

**2**answers

345 views

### Heights of several interesting posets

Let the height of a poset $P$ be the supremum of ordinals that are order types of all well-ordered subsets of $P$ (with order inherited from $P$).
Define several sets of total functions, in each ...

**4**

votes

**1**answer

610 views

### Does such a smooth function exist?

I am looking for a $C^\infty $ function $g:\mathbb{R}^3\to \mathbb{R}^3$ such that $g(x)=0$ for $|x|\le 1$ and $g(x)=x$ for $|x|\ge 2$. Certainly such $g$ can be constructed, but I also want it to ...

**8**

votes

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916 views

### Fourier transform of x2 invariant measure

Let $T:\mathbb{R}/\mathbb{Z}\rightarrow \mathbb{R}/\mathbb{Z}$ be the map defined by $T(x)=2x$, and suppose that $\mu$ is a $T$ invariant and ergodic Borel probability measure on the space, which is ...

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votes

**1**answer

430 views

### Showing the derivative of this function is equal to $0$ a.e [closed]

Define $f:[0,1]\to [0,1]$ by $f(0)=0$, and $$f(x)=\sum\limits_{r_n\le x} 2^{ -n }$$ with $0\lt x\le 1$ where $[r_n]_{n\in \mathbb{Z^+} } = \mathbb{ Q} \cap (0,1) $.
How to show that the derivative $...

**21**

votes

**3**answers

3k views

### Prime ideals in the ring of germs of continuous functions

We all know that the ring of germs of continuous functions at a point on, say $\mathbb{R}$, has a unique maximal ideal- namely, those functions that vanish at that point.
Can anyone think of a single ...

**3**

votes

**2**answers

2k views

### mean value theorem for operators

This might be a trivial question but I am not very familiar with the subject matter. I was wondering if some sort of mean value theorem works for operators on function spaces. Say $F: \mathcal{S_1} \...

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vote

**2**answers

2k views

### Continuation of a smooth function

Setting
Suppose I have two bounded open domains $\Omega' \subset \Omega \subset \mathbb{R}^n$ (I'm particularly interested in case n = 2 or n = 3). We assume that all boundaries of domains are $C^\...

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votes

**0**answers

840 views

### Guessing game with guess cost

This is a question about Problem 328 on the website Project Euler. A description of the problem is provided in the previous link. I was wondering if there has been any research done on this question. ...

**2**

votes

**0**answers

472 views

### Characterization of weak Lebesgue spaces [closed]

I would be interested to know whether the following is true:
Let $\Omega$ be a bounded open set in $\mathbf{R}^n$. Let $g$ be a nonnegative function $g : \Omega \to \mathbf{R}$. If there is a ...

**10**

votes

**4**answers

4k views

### The metric space associated to a measure space

Let $(X, \mathcal{A}, \mu)$ be a measure space such that $\mu(X) < \infty$. We say that two measurable sets $A$ and $B$ are equivalent if $\mu (A \Delta B) = 0$. The equation $$ d(A,B) = \mu (A \...

**8**

votes

**2**answers

737 views

### Patching together homeomorphisms: how badly can it fail?

Suppose we have a set $X$ with $X=U \cup V$. If we pick a permutation $f$ of $U$ and a permutation $g$ of $V$ which agree on the intersection $U \cap V$, we can coalesce them into one big endo-map $F$ ...

**19**

votes

**2**answers

1k views

### Constants for Rolle's Theorem applied to polynomials

Rolle's Theorem states that $f(1/2)=f(-1/2)+f'(x)$ has a root in the open real
interval $(-1/2,1/2)$ if $f$ is continuous and differentiable. How large can the absolute value of such a root
$\xi$
be ...

**0**

votes

**1**answer

206 views

### Special functions on the unit disk

Let $\mathbb{D} = \{ (x,y) \in \mathbb{R}^2 \mid x^2 + y^2 < 1 \}$ be the unit disk.
We say a function $f : \mathbb{D} \rightarrow \mathbb{D}$ is a winner if it satisfies the following:
1) it is a ...