# Questions tagged [real-analysis]

Real-valued functions of real variable, analytic properties of functions and sequences, limits, continuity, smoothness of these.

2,703
questions

**5**

votes

**1**answer

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### Hanner's inequalities: the intuition behind them

Hanner's inequalities in the theory of $L^p$ spaces (see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hanner's_inequalities) look hard to come-up with at the first glance. Their proof (say, the one in Lieb & Loss ...

**6**

votes

**1**answer

730 views

### Inverse function theorem for DC-functions

I would like to have an inverse (or/and) implicite function theorem for DC-functions.
It seems that I have right definitions, but I fail to prove it...
Definitions:
Let $h:\mathbb R^n\to\mathbb R$ ...

**-3**

votes

**1**answer

464 views

### A problem regarding definition of p-norm [closed]

Let ${\bf x}=(x_1,...,x_n)$, the p-norm of x is $(|x_1|^p+...+|x_n|^p)^{1/p}$. If one of the components of x is 0, there will be exponential of the form $0^p$. If p is an irrational, $x^p$ is only ...

**13**

votes

**7**answers

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### Real analysis has no applications?

I'm teaching an undergrad course in real analysis this Fall and we are using the text "Real Mathematical Analysis" by Charles Pugh. On the back it states that real analysis involves no "applications ...

**17**

votes

**12**answers

3k views

### Looking for an interesting problem/riddle involving triple integrals.

Does anyone know some good problem in real analysis, the solution of which involves triple integrals, and which is suitable for second semester Analysis students?
Thanks!

**3**

votes

**2**answers

633 views

### Analyzing the solution to a second-order, non-linear ODE

Let $\psi : [0,\infty] \to \mathbb R$ be a strictly positive, continuously differentiable function, and consider the non-linear ODE $$\ddot x = - \frac{1}{4} \frac{\psi'(x)}{\psi(x)} \left( \dot x^2 - ...

**2**

votes

**2**answers

1k views

### Examples of deterministic processes of quadratic variation which are of unbounded variation

In [Föllmer 81] (English translation to be found here) writes: "The class of processes of quadratic variation is clearly larger than the class of semimartingales: Just consider a deterministic process ...

**5**

votes

**1**answer

330 views

### The set of non-smooth points of a convex function is (m - 1)-rectifiable

I am looking for a reference to the following result.
Let $f:\mathbb R^m\to\mathbb R$ be a convex function.
Then $f$ is differentiable at all points of outside of a countable union of $(m-1)$-...

**73**

votes

**8**answers

10k views

### Why is Lebesgue integration taught using positive and negative parts of functions?

Background: When I first took measure theory/integration, I was bothered by the idea that the integral of a real-valued function w.r.t. a measure was defined first for nonnegative functions and only ...

**4**

votes

**4**answers

4k views

### The characteristic (indicator) function of a set is not in the Sobolev space H1

Is it true that the characteristic
(indicator) function of a subset of
Euclidean space with finite positive
measure is never in the Sobolev space
$H^1 = W^{1,2}$ And if so, what is the best/...

**7**

votes

**3**answers

3k views

### Are there sigma-algebras of cardinality $\kappa>2^{\aleph_0}$ with countable cofinality?

A standard homework in measure theory textbooks asks the student to prove that there are not countably infinite $\sigma$-algebras. The only proof that I know is via a contradiction argument which ...

**4**

votes

**1**answer

843 views

### Is the absolutely continuous image of a nowhere dense set is also nowhere dense?

Let $f: [a, b] \subseteq \mathbb{R} \to \mathbb{R}$ be an absolutely continuous map. Does $f$ map a nowhere dense subset of $[a, b]$ to a nowhere dense set?
Remarks:
The answer is "no" if $f$ is ...

**35**

votes

**8**answers

9k views

### Can Cantor set be the zero set of a continuous function?

More generally, can the zero set $V(f)$ of a continuous function $f : \mathbb{R} \to \mathbb{R}$ be nowhere dense and uncountable? What if $f$ is smooth?
Some days ago I discovered that in this proof ...

**9**

votes

**2**answers

696 views

### Partition of R into midpoint convex sets

We say that a subset $X$ of $\mathbb{R}$ is midpoint convex if for any two points $a,b\in X$ the midpoint $\frac{a+b}{2}$ also lies in $X$.
My question is: is it possible to partition $\mathbb{R}$ ...

**2**

votes

**0**answers

340 views

### What is this effect in Fourier/additive synthesis called?

Hi, I have re-synthesized a cyclic function additively, and I added a fixed offset to the frequency of each partial. So if the function was $\sum a_{n} sin(2 \pi x * n)$ and its frequencies were $n*f_{...

**14**

votes

**6**answers

2k views

### What's a natural candidate for an analytic function that interpolates the tower function?

I know that there are analytic functions whose composition with itself is the exponential function, the so-called functional square root of the exponential function, with the additional property that ...

**5**

votes

**0**answers

535 views

### continuous selection of a multivalued function?

The title is probably a bit too broad. I frequently encountered the following situation: suppose I need to select a solution to a linear equation from a compact set. Can I make this selection ...

**24**

votes

**4**answers

10k views

### About the Riemann integrability of composite functions

When I was teaching calculus recently, a freshman asked me the conditions of the Riemann integrability of composite functions.
For the composite function $f \circ g$, He presented three cases:
1) ...

**10**

votes

**2**answers

2k views

### Continuous function from $[0,1]$ to $[0,1]$

Does there exist a continuous function $f:[0,1]\rightarrow [0,1]$ such that $f$ takes every value in $[0,1]$ an infinite number of times?

**0**

votes

**1**answer

357 views

### a unique solution ? iteration involving conditional distributions

consider the following mappings, G and T,
$y(s) = Gx(s)=\exp\left[\sum_{s'}p(s'|s)\log x(s') \right]$
$z(s) = Ty(s)=\sum_{s'}q(s'|s)y(s')e^{-r(s')}$
where $0< x(s)\leq 1$ ,$r(s)<0$ , $s,s'\in ...

**7**

votes

**1**answer

1k views

### Can a continuous, nowhere differentiable function have specified “shape” at every point?

I'm a bit embarrassed to admit that:
a) This is a rather unmotivated question.
b) I can't remember whether or not I've asked this before, but searching doesn't seem to turn anything up so ...
...

**4**

votes

**6**answers

3k views

### existence of antiderivatives of nasty but elementary functions

In discussing with my honors calculus class the fact that some continuous elementary functions do not have an elementary antiderivative, I realized I was unsure whether every discontinuous elementary ...

**2**

votes

**1**answer

813 views

### Text/structure for an analysis course for students with pre-existing understanding of some applied aspects of analysis

Greetings,
I'm teaching a one-off course (perhaps never to be repeated) in a curriculum that's in transition, and I'm looking for advice on a textbook, or stories from people who have taught similar ...

**90**

votes

**9**answers

27k views

### solving $f(f(x))=g(x)$

This question is of course inspired by the question How to solve f(f(x))=cosx
and Joel David Hamkins' answer, which somehow gives a formal trick for solving equations of the form $f(f(x))=g(x)$ on a ...

**6**

votes

**8**answers

5k views

### Best way to teach concept of real numbers using a hands-on activity?

I know a middle school math teacher looking for some suggestions for hands-on activities to teach the concept of real numbers. I'm new to this site, so this may be a little off topic.

**6**

votes

**4**answers

3k views

### completeness axiom for the real numbers

Do any treatises on real analysis take the following as the basic completeness axiom for the reals?
"Let $A$ and $B$ be set of real numbers such that
(a) every real number is either in $A$ or in $B$;
...

**12**

votes

**1**answer

2k views

### Hausdorff Dimension and Hölder Continuity

Suppose we have a curve γ : [0,1] -> ℝn. It is well known that if this curve is Hölder continuous for some exponent α then the Hausdorff dimension of γ[0,1] is bounded above ...

**13**

votes

**1**answer

899 views

### Which functions are Wiener-integrable?

I'm looking for either a few precise mathematical statements about Wiener integrals, or a reference where I can find them.
Background
The Wiener integral is an analytic tool to define certain "...

**4**

votes

**2**answers

320 views

### Embeddings of Weighted Banach Spaces

Let be $d$ a positive integer, $\Omega=\mathbb{R}^{\mathbb{Z}^d}$ and fix $R\geq 2$. We define weighted Banach spaces
$$ \Omega_p:=\left\{ x\in \Omega\left| \left[\sum_{i\in\mathbb{Z}^d}\frac{|x_i|^...

**3**

votes

**1**answer

326 views

### “exchange” of real analyticity and integration

Sorry for the impreciseness of the title. It is merely meant for an analogy.
Exchange of limiting operations and integrations are basically derived from Lebesgue's dominated convergence theorem. For ...

**2**

votes

**0**answers

476 views

### When deRham curve is bijection?

Motivation: Suppose we have deRham curve. From wikipedia:
Consider some metric space $(M,d)$ (generally $R^2$ with the usual euclidean distance), and a pair of contraction mappings on M:
$d_0:\ M \...

**9**

votes

**0**answers

382 views

### Evaluating Shintani cone zeta functions

Hi everyone
I am trying the evaluate sums of the form
$$ \sum_{n_1>0,n_2>0,\ldots,n_m>0} \frac{1}{\big((a_{1,1}n_1 +\ldots +a_{1,m}n_m)^k \ldots (a_{m,1}n_1+ \ldots +a_{m,m}n_m)^k\big)}$$
...

**6**

votes

**3**answers

1k views

### Dependence of error on mesh for Riemann sums

Suppose $f$ is continuous on $[a,b]$ with $I = \int_a^b f(x)\: dx$,
and for every $\epsilon > 0$ let $\delta(\epsilon)$ be the largest
$\delta > 0$ such that every Riemann sum arising from a ...

**5**

votes

**1**answer

575 views

### Approximation of a Sobolev function that has vanishing trace on the reduced boundary of a Caccioppoli (i.e. finite perimeter) set

For $\Omega\subset\mathbb{R}^N$ open and bounded, let $W^{1,p}(\Omega)$ denote the usual Sobolev space of $L^p(\Omega)$ functions with weak partial derivatives in $L^p(\Omega)$ and $W_0^{1,p}(\Omega)$ ...

**6**

votes

**4**answers

546 views

### Explicit bounds for the asymptotics of oscillatory integrals

Recall the following theorem (c.f. LC Evans, M Zworski, "Lectures on semiclassical analysis", Theorem 3.15, depending on the version):
Theorem: Let $\varphi: \mathbb R^n \to \mathbb R$ be smooth and ...

**8**

votes

**1**answer

868 views

### Why is this generality in Vitali's Lemma useful?

In Vitali's Lemma it uses outer measure rather than measure. What are some results that depend on it this theorem applying to sets with only outer measure rather than measurable sets?
Vitali's Lemma:
...

**26**

votes

**7**answers

3k views

### Rolle's theorem in n dimensions

This looks like a statement from a calculus textbook, which perhaps it should be.
"Rolle's theorem". Let $F\colon [a,b]\to\mathbb R^n$ be a continuous function such that $F(a)=F(b)$ and $F'(t)$ ...

**2**

votes

**1**answer

1k views

### How can we use the bounded convergence theorem in this proof of the Riesz Representation Theorem?

I'm studying the proof of the Riesz Representation Theorem as it appears in Ch. 6 of Royden's Real Analysis. When I looked on the web I noted there are a few different theorems that go by the name "...

**2**

votes

**2**answers

293 views

### Bibliography for topologies defined by a family of seminorms

Hello
I am trying to learn more about Fréchet spaces (in order to study the theory of distributions) and was wondering what people thought was the best resource.
Thank you very much.

**11**

votes

**2**answers

693 views

### Inequality in Gaussian space — possibly provable by rearrangement?

The following problem arose for my collaborators and me when studying the computational complexity of the Maximum-Cut problem.
Let $f : \mathbb{R} \to \mathbb{R}$ be an odd function. Let $\rho \in [...

**3**

votes

**5**answers

1k views

### Cardinality of Equivalence Classes of Cauchy Sequences

What's the cardinality of a single equivalence class of Cauchy sequences in ℚ?
To clarify, I'm not asking for the cardinality of the real numbers, but for the cardinality of the set of Cauchy ...

**2**

votes

**3**answers

876 views

### How can I measure the Morse index in infinite dimensions?

Let $V$ be a vector space over $\mathbb R$, and $a: V\otimes V\to \mathbb R$ a symmetric bilinear pairing. Recall that the Morse index of $a$ is the maximal dimension of any subspace $V_- \subseteq V$...

**2**

votes

**4**answers

2k views

### Splitting a space into positive and negative parts

Let $V$ be a vector space over $\mathbb R$. A symmetric bilinear pairing on $V$ is a linear map $a: V\otimes V \to \mathbb R$. Because $\mathbb R$ is characteristic not-two, I will freely confuse ...

**4**

votes

**2**answers

601 views

### Decomposition of Hölder continuous functions

Let $\alpha\in(0,1)$ and $\eta\in\Lambda_0^\alpha(\mathbb{R})$ be a compactly supported Hölder continuous function of order $\alpha$. I would like to show that, for any $n\in\mathbb{N}$, it is ...

**20**

votes

**4**answers

1k views

### Which is the correct ring of functions for a topological space?

There is a fact that I should have learned a long time ago, but never did; I was reminded that I did not know the answer by Qiaochu's excellent series of posts, the most recent of which is this one.
...

**38**

votes

**4**answers

11k views

### Integrability of derivatives

Is there a (preferably simple) example of a function $f:(a,b)\to \mathbb{R}$ which is everywhere differentiable, such that $f'$ is not Riemann integrable?
I ask for pedagogical reasons. Results in ...

**3**

votes

**1**answer

234 views

### Asymptotically multiplicative functions and matrices

Hi,
Let $\mathbb{N}_{cop}^2$ denote the set of all pairs of coprime natural numbers. A function $f:\mathbb{C}\rightarrow\mathbb{C}$ is called asymptotically multiplicative, iff $\epsilon_{m,n}:=f(mn)...

**64**

votes

**15**answers

13k views

### f(f(x))=exp(x)-1 and other functions “just in the middle” between linear and exponential

The question is about the function f(x) so that f(f(x))=exp (x)-1.
The question is open ended and it was discussed quite recently in the comment thread in Aaronson's blog here http://scottaaronson....

**27**

votes

**26**answers

42k views

### Text for an introductory Real Analysis course.

Any suggestions on a good text to use for teaching an introductory Real Analysis course? Specifically what have you found to be useful about the approach taken in specific texts?

**62**

votes

**9**answers

12k views

### Why do functions in complex analysis behave so well? (as opposed to functions in real analysis)

Complex analytic functions show rigid behavior while real-valued smooth functions are flexible. Why is this the case?