# Questions tagged [real-analysis]

Real-valued functions of real variable, analytic properties of functions and sequences, limits, continuity, smoothness of these.

2,703
questions

**0**

votes

**0**answers

36 views

### Stochastic Fixpoint Approximations of Contractions

Context/Introduction
Consider a contraction $f\colon\mathbb{R}^S\to\mathbb{R}^S$ with $f(X^*)=X^*$ where function evaluation at a certain position is only possible with some stochastic error. Where Y(...

**5**

votes

**1**answer

195 views

### Is there any continuous ternary function which can not be represented by composition of continuous binary functions?

Let $f : X^3 \rightarrow X$.
If $X$ is $\mathbb Z$, then there will be a couple of functions $g,h$ from $\mathbb Z^2$ to $\mathbb Z$ that satisfies $f(x,y,z) = g(h(x,y),z)$ since there is a bijection ...

**3**

votes

**0**answers

138 views

### Largest weak(-like) topology with respect to which continuous functions are dense in the space of Borel functions

Let $X$ denote the space of bounded Borel functions $f\colon [0,1] \to \mathbb{R}$. Let $M$ denote the space of finite Borel measures on $[0,1]$. What is the largest family $F \subset M$ such that for ...

**7**

votes

**1**answer

211 views

### Compactness of set of indicator functions

Let $\chi_A(x)$ denote an indicator function on $A\subset [0,1]$. Consider the set
$$K=\{\chi_A(x): \text{ A is Lebesgue measurable in }[0,1]\}.$$
Is this set compact in $L^\infty(0,1)$ with respect ...

**-2**

votes

**1**answer

162 views

### About infinite products and Euler Gamma functions [closed]

I am interested in knowing how to calculate infinite products like (or reading any reference about it):
$$\prod_{j=1}^{\infty}\left( 1-\left( \frac{x}{a+j\pi} \right) ^2 \right)$$
Inserting it into ...

**1**

vote

**2**answers

155 views

### Integral formula involving Legendre polynomial

I would like a proof of the following equation below, where $(P_n)$ denotes Legendre polynomials. I guess this formula to hold; I checked the first several values.
\begin{equation}
\int_{-1}^{1}\sqrt{...

**0**

votes

**0**answers

65 views

### Does there exist $\alpha>0, \beta\in (0,1)$ such that $\dfrac{\sum_{k=1}^n a_k}{n}\le \alpha (a_1\cdots a_n)^{1/n} + \beta \max_i(a_i)$ holds?

Let $a_1\ge a_2\ge \cdots\ge a_n\ge 0$ be given non-negative numbers. My question is the following:
Is there any $\beta \in(0,1),\ \alpha>0$, such that $$\dfrac{a_1+\cdots+a_n}{n}\le \alpha (a_1\...

**3**

votes

**1**answer

204 views

### On convex functions which are non constant on every segment

I have been studying for the last few weeks the paper Dirichlet problem for demi-coercive functionals by Anzellotti, Buttazzo and Dal Maso. In this work the authors introduced and studied the ...

**1**

vote

**1**answer

118 views

### Trajectory leaving a set

Consider the differential equation $\dot{x}=f(x)$, where $f: \mathbb{R}^2 \to \mathbb{R}^2$ is smooth. Given a set $A \subset \mathbb{R}^2$, are there some results saying that whenever $x(0) \in A$, ...

**2**

votes

**1**answer

82 views

### Uniformly Converging Metrization of Uniform Structure

This is related to trying to resolve the currently faulty second part of my answer to this question, but is by itself a purely real analysis question.
Let $X$ be a set with a uniform structure ...

**4**

votes

**1**answer

284 views

### Nearly eventually almost periodic functions

Call a function $f: [0, \infty) \to \mathbb R$ nearly eventually almost periodic with period $p > 0$ if for a.e. $x \in [0, p)$, the sequence ${f(x + np)}_{n \in \mathbb N}$ converges.
Suppose $f: ...

**6**

votes

**2**answers

270 views

### Maximize $L^p$ norm over sphere

For $p \in \mathbb{R}$, consider the function
$$F_p(\lambda_1, \dots, \lambda_n) = \lambda_1^p + \dots + \lambda_n^p.$$
My goal is to maximize this function under the constraints that
$$ \lambda_1^2 +...

**1**

vote

**1**answer

239 views

### Prove that $x^{y^x}>y^{x^y}$ for $x>y>0.$ [closed]

Let $x>y>0$. Prove that $$x^{y^x}>y^{x^y}.$$
My attempts:
Let $1>x>y>0$.
In this case it's enough to prove that $$y^x<x^y$$ or
$$x\ln\frac{1}{y}>y\ln\frac{1}{x},$$ which is ...

**2**

votes

**1**answer

100 views

### How to compute volume of parametric regions?

I guess this is something pretty standard in calculus, but I was unable to google the answer.
Assume I have unit hypercube $C_n = [0,1]^n$. I also have a function $f : \mathbb{R}^n \to \mathbb{R}^{n+...

**6**

votes

**3**answers

287 views

### Computing the volume of a simplex-like object with constraints

For any $n \geq 2$, let
$$D_n [r , (a_1, b_1 ) , \ldots , (a_n, b_n) ] =
\{ (x_1 , \ldots , x_n ) \in \mathbb R^n \mid
\sum_i x_i = r \mbox{ and } b_i \geq x_i \geq a_i \, \forall i \},$$
where $r \...

**4**

votes

**1**answer

101 views

### Construct a dense family in $W^{2,2}(\Omega)\cap W^{1,2}_0(\Omega)$ based on distance functions

Let $\Omega$ be a sufficiently regular domain, for example $\Omega=B(0,r)$, $r>0$, and $m(x)=\textrm{dist}(x,\partial \Omega)$ be the distance to boundary function.
Suppose $\mathcal{F}$ is a ...

**2**

votes

**1**answer

214 views

### An isoperimetric inequality for curve in the plane?

Let $f(x,y)=0$ be a (smooth) simple closed curve $C$ on the plane and $R$ the region bounded by $C$ (appropriately oriented). Assume the origin lies in the interior of $R$.
QUESTION. Let $r=\sqrt{x^...

**4**

votes

**0**answers

85 views

### Perturbation theory compact operator

Let $K$ be a compact self-adjoint operator on a Hilbert space $H$ such that for some normalized $x \in H$ and $\lambda \in \mathbb C:$
$\Vert Kx-\lambda x \Vert \le \varepsilon.$
It is well-known ...

**9**

votes

**2**answers

347 views

### Small uncountable cardinals related to $\sigma$-continuity

A function $f:X\to Y$ is defined to be
$\sigma$-continuous (resp. $\bar \sigma$-continuous) if there exists a countable (closed) cover $\mathcal C$ of $X$ such that the restriction $f{\restriction}C$ ...

**2**

votes

**1**answer

165 views

### Generalised raindrop function

Given a sequence of reals $(a_n)_{n > 0}$, let $f: [0, 1] \to R$ be the generalised raindrop function defined:
$f(x) = a_q$ if $x$ is rational, with denominator $q$ in lowest form; $0$ otherwise.
...

**0**

votes

**1**answer

113 views

### Reference request: Baire class 2 functions

There are many articles on Baire 1 functions, but not many on Baire 2 and above. Where can I find a nice comprehensive survey of them?

**2**

votes

**1**answer

351 views

### Formal group law and Koenigs function conjecture?

Let $f(x,y)$ be a symmetric real function and a formal group law
$$G(x + y) = f(G(x),G(y)). \tag{1}$$
Consider the equation
$$ h(2x) = f(h(x),h(x)) = A(h(x)). \tag{2}$$
This equation has many ...

**7**

votes

**1**answer

512 views

### Eventually almost periodic functions

Call a function $f: [0, \infty) \to \mathbb R$ eventually almost periodic with period $p > 0$ if for all $x \in [0, p)$, the sequence ${f(x + np)}_{n \in \mathbb N}$ converges.
Suppose $f: [0, \...

**2**

votes

**1**answer

60 views

### Decaying of a certain ratio of binomial sums

Consider the two sequences
$$a(n)=\sum_{k=1}^n\binom{n}k\sum_{j=1}^{k/2}\binom{k}{2j}\frac{(2j)!}{j!}$$
and
$$b(n)=\sum_{k=0}^n\binom{n}k^2k!$$
QUESTION. Is this true?
$$\frac{a(n)}{b(n)}\...

**5**

votes

**1**answer

148 views

### Binomial Distributions and Inequality

Suppose $c>2$ is a real number, and $x$ solves equation $f(\frac{1}{2}+x,m,2m)=(2m+1)cx$ for some $m>0$ integer number, where $f$ is probability mass function for binomial distribution, with ...

**0**

votes

**1**answer

84 views

### “Find a representation [using Mellin transform] of 𝑓(𝜇,𝛽) as Gauss hypergeometric function in variable 𝜇”

This is a follow-up to the first comment (by Nemo) to the posting Compute the two-fold partial integral, where the three-fold full integral is known . (I also just asked this as a comment to that ...

**1**

vote

**1**answer

351 views

### Convergence of a certain sum

Suppose $ g_i: [0, 1] \to \Bbb R$, $i\in\Bbb N$, are $C^1$ functions and that there is some $c > 0$ such that for every $0 < \epsilon < c$, the functions
$$
s(\epsilon)_i := \sum_{k=0}^i {\...

**10**

votes

**1**answer

275 views

### Estimation of the Gromov–Wasserstein distance of spheres

Let $(X,d_X,\mu_X)$ and $(Y,d_Y,\mu_Y)$ be two metric measure spaces. A probability measure $\mu$ over $X\times Y$ is called a coupling if $(\pi_1)_\sharp \mu=\mu_X$ and $(\pi_2)_\sharp \mu=\mu_Y$. We ...

**6**

votes

**1**answer

166 views

### Eigenvalue estimates for operator perturbations

I edited the question to a general mathematical question, since I found the answer in Carlo Beenakker's reference and think that my initial question was mathematically misleading.
What was behind ...

**2**

votes

**1**answer

161 views

### Corollary of the Malgrange Preparation Theorem

(This question was previously posted on MSE and I decided to post it here too.)
Let $f:\mathbb{R}\times \mathbb{R}^n \to \mathbb{R}$ be a smooth function, such that
$$f(0,0)=0,\ \frac{\partial f}{\...

**-1**

votes

**1**answer

61 views

### On probabilistic extension for Bernstein polynomials

Suppose $X_m\sim p_m(x)$ is a discrete distribution on $[0,1]$ where the value takes multipliers of $\frac{1}{m}$ (e.g., $p_m(x=\frac{k}{m})=\frac{1}{m+1})$. Suppose $p(x)=\lim\limits_{m\rightarrow\...

**1**

vote

**1**answer

119 views

### Expansion of an integral

I have an integral of the form
$$ I=\int_0^{\infty}{dx}\ln \bigg(1+\exp(-\frac{f(x)}{a})\bigg) $$ where $a$ is a positive constant and $f(x)$ is a regular and positive function such that $I$ is finite ...

**8**

votes

**4**answers

269 views

### Defining the value of a distribution at a point

Let $\omega\in D'(\mathbb R^n)$ be a distribution and $p\in \mathbb R^n$. If there is an open set $U\subset \mathbb R^n$ containing $p$ such that $\omega|_U$ is given by a continuous function $f\in C(...

**7**

votes

**0**answers

384 views

### A discontinuous construction

Suppose we have an uncountable family of functions $f_r: [0, 1] \to R$ indexed by $r \in [0, 1]$ such that for each $r$, there exists a unique $x$ in $[0, 1]$ such that $f_{r}$ is positive on $x$ and $...

**8**

votes

**1**answer

320 views

### Simultaneous Riemann Rearrangement

Here all functions are $\mathbb R \to \mathbb R$.
Fix $M$ a positive integer. For $i = 0, 1, ..., M,$ let $f_0 = Id$, and the other $f_i$ be continuous functions such that for all $0 \leq k < M$, $...

**0**

votes

**1**answer

131 views

### A functional equation in real analysis

For what function $u:[0,1]\rightarrow R$ with bounded derivative, such that $\forall p\in[0,1]$,
$\lim\limits_{n\rightarrow\infty}\sum\limits_{k=0}^n\binom{n}{k}p^k(1-p)^{n-k}u(\frac{k}{n})=u(p)$
...

**1**

vote

**0**answers

73 views

### Coboundary in the slow mixing systems

Given dynamical system $(X, T, \mu)$, $\mu$ is probability, $\mu \circ T =\mu$, $T$'s transfer operator $P$ is defined by following relation: $\int (P a) \cdot b d\mu= \int a \cdot (b \circ T) d\mu$ ...

**0**

votes

**1**answer

72 views

### Inequality involving product-of-minus vs minus-of-product for positive integers

I'm encountering this inequality for dimensionality reduction problem. The simplified form looks as follows:
Consider positive integers $a_1$, $a_2$, $b_1$ and $b_2$ where $a_1>b_1$ and $a_2>...

**12**

votes

**3**answers

2k views

### Does anyone recognize this inequality?

In some paper the authors make use of the following inequality without further explanation: Let $x\in\mathbb{R}^n$ with $x_1\le\cdots\le x_n$ and $\alpha\in[0,1]^n$ with $\sum_{i=1}^n \alpha_i=N\in\{1,...

**4**

votes

**3**answers

167 views

### A Riccati type integral inequality

Let $x(t),t\in [1,\infty)$ be a nondecreasing positive function satisfying the following inequality:
$$
x'(t) \le \int_t^{+\infty} x(s)\frac{k(s)}{s^2}\,ds,
$$
for any $t \ge 1$, where $k(t),t\in [1,\...

**2**

votes

**1**answer

122 views

### Must $q$ be analytic?

I have a continuous function $q:\mathbb{R}^+ \to \mathbb{R}^+$. An interesting property of this function is that
$$F(s) = \frac{e^{-q(s)}q(s+1)}{1-e^{s-q(s)}}$$
which also takes $\mathbb{R}^+ \to \...

**2**

votes

**0**answers

177 views

### Shattering with sinusoids

Let $d \geq 2$ and $K$ some positive integer. Consider distinct points $\theta_1, \ldots, \theta_K\in \mathbb{T}^d$ and (not necessarily distinct) $z_1, \ldots, z_K \in \{-1,1\}$ such that $\sum\...

**1**

vote

**1**answer

64 views

### Good UPPER bounds for $\log(\sum_{i=1}^n p_ie^{z_i})-\sum_{i=1}^np_iz_i$ where $(p_i)_i$ is a probability vector

Let $x=(z_1,\ldots,z_n)$ be real vector and $(p_1,\ldots,p_n)$ be a probability vector.
Question
$\log(\sum_{i=1}^n p_ie^{z_i})-\sum_{i=1}^np_iz_i \le ???$
Observation
This paper allows us to ...

**3**

votes

**1**answer

84 views

### A problem with sequences with composition of $\log$s

If $(a_n)_{n \ge 1}$ is a non-negative sequence s.t., $$\sum\limits_{n = c_k}^\infty \frac{a_n}{\log^{(k)} n} < \infty, \, \forall k \ge 1 \overset{?}{\implies} \sum\limits_{n \ge 1} a_n < \...

**1**

vote

**1**answer

139 views

### Why is this series summable?

Let $\delta, \epsilon \in \mathbb{R}$, $\delta >0$, $\epsilon >0$.
Let $\{ a_k\}^\infty$,$\{ b_k\}^\infty$ be sequences of positive integers such that
$\lim \sup_{k \rightarrow \infty} \frac{...

**4**

votes

**1**answer

161 views

### Graphs that are not $\mathbb{R}^2$-realizable

We say that a finite, simple, undirected graph $G=(V,E)$ is $\mathbb{R}^2$-realizable if there is an injective map $\varphi:V\to \mathbb{R}^2$ such that for $v\neq w \in V$ we have $\{v,w\} \in E$ if ...

**4**

votes

**2**answers

173 views

### Can one realize this as an ergodic process?

Consider the lattice $\mathbb Z^2$ and take iid random variables $Y_e$ on all edges $e$ of the graph.
We then define random variables $X_i:=\sum_{e \text{ adjacent to } i}Y_e.$
In other words: For ...

**5**

votes

**1**answer

126 views

### Estimate of the difference quotients in terms of an $L^{1,\infty}$ function

Let $f \colon \mathbb R^d \to \mathbb R$ be a measurable function. Consider the following property:
(P) there exist a negligible set $N \subset \mathbb R^d$ and function $T_f \in L^p(\mathbb R^d)$ ...

**11**

votes

**0**answers

142 views

### Maximizing an integral w.r.t. a measure on the unit sphere

I would like to know if the answer to the following question is known.
Let $d \ge 3$. What is the value of
$$
\theta(d) := \max_{\mu} \int_{S^{d-1}} \int_{S^{d-1}} \cdots \int_{S^{d-1}} |x_1 \...

**3**

votes

**0**answers

51 views

### system of Euler like ode's

I am interested in solving some linear elliptic system like
$$ -\Delta \phi(x) + \frac{C_1 \psi(x)}{|x|^\beta} =f(x)$$
$$ -\Delta \psi(x) + \frac{C_2 \phi(x)}{|x|^\alpha} =g(x)$$ in $B_1$ (the ...