# Questions tagged [real-analysis]

Real-valued functions of real variable, analytic properties of functions and sequences, limits, continuity, smoothness of these.

2,472 questions

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### Regularity in Orlicz spaces for the Poisson equation

I see the following Lemma in :Regularity in Orlicz spaces for the Poisson equation | SpringerLink:(2007)
$$\Delta u=f \quad \quad \quad \quad (1)$$
Lemma 2: There is a constant $N_1 >1$ so that ...

**4**

votes

**1**answer

378 views

### Conserved Positive Charge for a PDE

Let $(x,t) \in \mathbb{R}^2$ and consider the following partial differential equation for the real-valued function $U(x,t)$:
\begin{equation}
\frac{\partial^2 U}{\partial t^2} = - \frac{\hbar^2}{4m^2} ...

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83 views

### Example of a function satisfying certain conditions on its derivatives

I am searching for examples of a non-negative function $f \in C^1((0,1];C^\infty _b(\mathbb{R}^n))$ (where $C^\infty _b(\mathbb{R}^n)$ is set of all smooth functions with bounded derivatives, $f(t,x)$ ...

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74 views

### A community effort: equilibrium in quitting games [closed]

This thread is in the spirit of the polymath project:
a combined effort of the community to solve a difficult open problem.
It is an activity of the European Network for Game Theory
whose goal is to ...

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vote

**1**answer

132 views

### For every table of interpolating nodes, there is a positive continuous function whose interpolating polynomials are not positive infinitely often

Fix an interval $[a,b]$. Is it true that for every table of interpolating nodes $\{x_{0,n},x_{1,n}...,x_{n,n}\}_{n=1}^{\infty}$, there exists a continuous function $f:[a,b]\to (0,\infty)$ such that ...

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**1**answer

91 views

### Is $X = \{ B \in L^\infty(\mathbb R^n,\mathbb R^n): \nabla \cdot B \in L^\infty(\mathbb R^n,\mathbb R^n) \}$ a dense subspace?

The Sobolev space $W^{1,\infty}(\mathbb R^n,\mathbb R^n)$ is not dense in $L^\infty(\mathbb R^n,\mathbb R^n)$. In fact the functions in $W^{1,\infty}(\mathbb R^n,\mathbb R^n)$ are Lipshitz, and not ...

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**5**answers

2k views

### Reference request: Oldest calculus, real analysis books with exercises?

Per the title, what are some of the oldest calculus, real analysis books out there with exercises? Maybe there are some hidden gems from before the 20th century out there.
Edit. Unsolved exercises ...

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**1**answer

111 views

### For which $n$, can we find a sequence of $n+1$ distinct points s.t. the interpolating polynomial of every +ve continuous function is itself +ve

Fix an interval $[a,b]$. For which integers $n>1$, does there exist $n+1$ distinct points $\{x_0,x_1,...,x_n\}$ in $[a,b]$ such that for every continuous function $f:[a,b] \to (0,\infty)$, the ...

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**1**answer

92 views

### An extension for lower semi continuous lower bounded real valued functions class

Let $(X,d)$ be a complete metric space. I need some explanations about the class of all functions like $f$ which have $f:X \to \mathbb{R}\cup\{ +\infty\}$, be a lower bounded and, for all $y \in X$ we ...

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**2**answers

392 views

### Does every positive continuous function have a non-negative interpolating polynomial of every degree?

Let $f:[a,b] \to (0,\infty)$ be a continuous function. Then is it necessarily true that for every $n\ge 1$, we can find $n+1$ distinct points $\{x_0,x_1,...,x_n\}$ in $[a,b]$ such that the ...

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214 views

### An integral trigonometric inequality

Problem 1. Suppose that $\xi>0$ and $\sin(2\xi)<0$.
Let $$b_\nu=(N-v+1)\tfrac{\pi}{\xi}\quad\mbox{for}\quad\nu=1,\dots,N:=\big[\tfrac{\xi}{\pi}\big].$$
Prove that
$$\mathrm{sgn}(\sin \xi)\...

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91 views

### Spectral decomposition of a combinatorial matrix/Random walks on $s$-sets

$\newcommand{\Z}{\mathbb{Z}}
\newcommand{\J}{\mathcal{J}}
\newcommand{\la}{\lambda}
\newcommand{\1}{\mathbf{1}}
\newcommand{\R}{\mathbb{R}}$
Take any $n\in[3;\infty]$. Here and in what follows, $[k;\...

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**2**answers

243 views

### Matrix rescaling increases lowest eigenvalue?

Consider the set $\mathbf{N}:=\left\{1,2,....,N \right\}$ and let $$\mathbf M:=\left\{ M_i; M_i \subset \mathbf N \text{ such that } \left\lvert M_i \right\rvert=2 \text{ or }\left\lvert M_i \right\...

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58 views

### Unboundedness of the Sobolev norm of a sequence : Does it follow from Sobolev embedding?

Let $\{f_n\}$ be a sequence of functions that are continuous and lying in $H^k(\mathbb{R}^m)$. Assuming $k>\frac{m}{2}$, and if $f_n \to f$ pointwise, where $f\in H^k(\mathbb{R}^m)$, such that $f$ ...

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**1**answer

115 views

### A specific problem on : Can bounding the Sobolev norm, bound a higher derivative?

Let $f \in H^k(\mathbb{R}^m)$, $k>\frac{m}{2}$. Given any $f$, such that $\|f\|_{H^k(\mathbb{R}^m)}<K$ , and any $\phi \in C^{\infty}(\mathbb{R}^m)\cap H^k(\mathbb{R}^m)$, such that $\|\phi\|_{...

**8**

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**0**answers

83 views

### Borel-Ecalle re-summation and resurgence: Criteria and Results

This is about the theory of Borel-$\acute{\textrm{E}}$calle re-summation and resurgence, see Refs below.
This states that the perturbative series (say of the vacuum expectation value of an operator $\...

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58 views

### $L^{\infty}-L^{\infty}$ estimates on the Schrödinger evolution

A classical estimate for solutions to Schrödinger equations are $L^1-L^{\infty}$ estimates, also known as dispersive estimates.
I wonder whether there are also $L^{\infty}-L^{\infty}$ estimates?
...

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**1**answer

153 views

### Counter example about blow-up solution of DEs

Let $f(\cdot)$ be a continuously differentiable function over $\mathbb{R}$, and $u\in L^2_{loc}(0,\infty)$, $a\in \mathbb{R}$, and $x(t)$ solves the integral of $$\dot{x}(t)=ax(t)+f(x(t))+u(t), \quad ...

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242 views

### Constant “periodization” of a function

Let $w$ be a rapidly decaying function on $\mathbb{R}$ such that
$$ \sum_{n \in \mathbb{Z}} w(x+n) = 0$$
for all $x \in \mathbb{R}$. Does that imply that $w$ is identically zero? What if we assume ...

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38 views

### Probability estimate with a Lipschitz, weak* semicontinuous function on the $\ell^\infty$ unit ball

Suppose that $X_i$ for $i=0,1,\dots$ is an i.i.d. sequence of uniformly distributed random variables taking on values in $[-1,1]$. Fix a real number $L>0$ and suppose that $f_n:[-1,1]^n\rightarrow [...

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**2**answers

218 views

### Is there a set $S\subseteq [0,1]$ with $|S|=2^{\aleph_0}$ and distinct pairwise distances?

Short version of question. Is there a set $S\subseteq [0,1]$ with $|S|=2^{\aleph_0}$ such that all points of $S$ have distinct pairwise distances?
Formal version of question. If $X$ is a set, let $[X]...

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**1**answer

202 views

### The discrete Hardy-Littlewood-Sobolev inequality

Let $p>1$, $q>1$, $0<\lambda<1$ be such that
$\frac{1}{p}+\frac{1}{q}+\lambda=2$. Suppose that
$(a_{k})\in \ell^{p}(\mathbb{Z})$ and $(b_{k})\in \ell^{q}(\mathbb{Z})$.
It is known ([1,2,3]...

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356 views

### Function of two sets intersection

Let $U$ be the set of all subsets of $[0,1]$ that are a union of finitely many closed intervals (not allowing intervals that are single points). Does there exist a function $f:U\times U\rightarrow U$ ...

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993 views

### show this nice and hard inequality with $ \prod_{i=1}^{n}|x_{i}-y_{i}|<e^{\frac{n}{2}}$

I saw the following results in a book. The author said it was not difficult to prove how I felt it was difficult to prove, so I asked here. The result comes from a book that has no electronic version....

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**1**answer

136 views

### Weak convergent $+$ strongly convergent subsequence $\Rightarrow$ strong convergence? [closed]

Let $X$ be a Hilbert space containing functions defined over a bounded region $\Omega\subset \mathbb{R}^N$. Assume $f_n\in X$ converges weakly to $f\in X$, and also has a strongly convergent ...

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**2**answers

238 views

### Bounded deformation vs bounded variation

Let $BV(\mathbb R^n; \mathbb R^n)$ be the space of (vector-valued) functions of bounded variation and let $BD(\mathbb R^n;\mathbb R^n)$ the space of functions with bounded deformation. They are made ...

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**1**answer

230 views

### Is there any Menelaus-type theorem for polynomials?

Consider $n+3$ polynomials of degree $n$, say $P_1(x) , ... P_{n+3}(x)$.
In addition, consider that there are distinct (it is not necessary that all of them be distinct) numbers $x_{ij}$ for $1 \...

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**3**answers

1k views

### Adventure with infinite series, a curiosity

It is easily verifiable that
$$\sum_{k\geq0}\binom{2k}k\frac1{2^{3k}}=\sqrt{2}.$$
It is not that difficult to get
$$\sum_{k\geq0}\binom{4k}{2k}\frac1{2^{5k}}=\frac{\sqrt{2-\sqrt2}+\sqrt{2+\sqrt2}}2.$$
...

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50 views

### Extension of a derivation on w [duplicate]

Let I be a closed left ideal of a Banach algebra A such that A has a bounded approximate identity and I just has a right approximate identity. let $D:I\to I^*$ be a derivation. Does $D$ extend to a ...

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**1**answer

116 views

### Log concavity of the maximum of dependent Gaussians

Let $Z_1,\dots,Z_n$ be dependent Gaussian random variables. Is it true that $X=\max\{Z_1,\dots,Z_n\}$ has a log-concave distribution function? This is true for the independent case, but is it true in ...

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**1**answer

177 views

### The Poisson equation

I see the following theorem in Lihe Wang's A geometric approach to the Calderon--Zygmund estimates
$$
\triangle u=f\quad in \quad \> B_2. \>\quad \quad \quad \quad (1)
$$
Lemma 7: There is a ...

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**0**answers

42 views

### Convergence to the probability generating function of a Poisson process

I'm working currently with a Poisson process trying to proove Renyi's Theorem, so far I want to show that
$\prod_{i=1}^{k_n}[z + (1-z)e^{-\mu(A_{n_i})}] \to e^{-(1-z)\mu(A)}$ as $\mu(A_{n_i}) \to 0$, ...

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163 views

### A min-max approximation

Let $n\ge 1$ be an integer, $\mathcal P_n$ be the vector space of all polynomial functions over $[a,b]$, of degree at most $n$.
My question is : Is it true that
$$\inf_{x_0,x_1,...,x_n\in[a,b], x_0&...

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**1**answer

108 views

### Removable set for Sobolev space

It is well known that if $\Omega\subset\mathbb{R}^{N}$ open, $F\subset\Omega$ closed, such that $\mathcal{H}^{N−1}(F)=0$,where $\mathcal{H}^{N−1}$ denotes (N-1) dimensional Hausdorff measure, then $W^{...

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667 views

### How does the parity of $n$ affect the properties of $\mathbb{R}^n$? [closed]

Does the parity of the dimension of $\mathbb{R}^n$ affect its structure/properties? As in, does it make a difference if $n$ is even or odd?

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37 views

### Defining Boundary Conditions for Spline Interpolation via the Euler–Maclaurin Formula

The Euler–Maclaurin formula states an interdependency between
\begin{align}
I\quad:=&\quad\int_m^nf(x) \, dx;\ m,n\in\mathbb{Z}\\[6pt]
S\quad:=&\quad\sum_{k=m}^n f(k) \\[6pt]
D\quad:=&\...

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114 views

### Lebesgue density theorem for “doubling uniformly covering collections of subsets”

I am looking for a version of Lebesgue density theorem that works when restricting to "good" collections of balls with respect to (not necessarily doubling) metric measure spaces. Specifically
Let $(...

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**1**answer

61 views

### Does differentiating an integro-differential equation results in equivalent stability of the solution?

I have a dynamical system in the form of an integro-differential equation which I want to analyze in terms of stability. To demonstrate my problem consider the following integro-differential equation:
...

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**1**answer

45 views

### Strict positive type function on hypersurface also of positive type in neighborhood?

Let $u\in C^\infty(\mathbb{R}^n\times\mathbb{R}^n)$ be symmetric and of strictly positive type on some hypersurface $S \subset \mathbb{R}^n$ diffeomorphic to $\{0\}\times\mathbb{R}^{n-1}$. This means ...

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**1**answer

180 views

### Bounded growth of functions vs bounded growth of functions on countable sets

I am wondering if the boundedness of growth can be characterized by sequences. I am not sure if I use the term "growth" correctly, or use the correct tags for this question. Here is what I mean.
Let $...

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**2**answers

227 views

### Infinite sum of reciprocals of squares of lengths of tangents from origin to the curve $y=\sin x$

This question is actually from MSE. I had to post it here due to the lack of response there even after placing a bounty. Here goes the question
Let tangents be drawn to the curve $y=\sin x$ from ...

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**0**answers

100 views

### Are $C^1$ immersions dense in $C^1$?

Let $M$ be a closed compact manifold.
Is the space of all $C^1$ immersions from $M$ to $\mathbb{R}^m$ ($m> \dim M$) dense in $C^1(M; \mathbb{R}^m)$ (in the $C^1$ topology)?

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32 views

### Existence of solutions to NLS: Local existence and boundedness

I was wondering when the following argument is valid:
Consider a nonlinear Schrödinger equation
$$i \partial_t \varphi = -\Delta \varphi+ N(\varphi)$$
where $N$ is a nonlinearity.
Often it is ...

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**1**answer

91 views

### Optimal estimate in trace norm

Let $x,y$ be vectors of some Hilbert space of unit length.
Then we can consider the projection $P_x:=\langle \bullet, x \rangle x$ and similarly $P_y.$
Assume then that we know that $\left\lVert x-...

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votes

**2**answers

605 views

### Searching for a proof for a series identity

The below identity I have found experimentally.
Question. Is this true? If so, may you provide a "slick" (or any) proof.
$$6\sum_{k=1}^{\infty}\frac{k^2q^k}{(1-q^k)^2}+12\left(\sum_{k=1}^{\infty}...

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39 views

### On different norms of the interpolating operator

Let $[a,b]$ be an interval in real line . Given any function $f:[a,b]\to \mathbb R$ and set $A \subseteq [a,b]$ of size $n+1$, there exists a unique polynomial $p_{f,A,n}(x)$ of degree $n$ such that $...

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**1**answer

67 views

### Find $p$ s.t. there is a sequence of nodes in $[0,1]$ s.t. sequence of interpolating polynomials of every continuous function converges in $p$-norm

Let $[a,b]$ be an interval in real line . Given any function $f:[a,b]\to \mathbb R$ and set $A \subseteq [a,b]$ of size $n+1$, there exists a unique polynomial $p_{f,A,n}(x)$ of degree $n$ such that $...

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**1**answer

167 views

### Strong estimates for the zeta function on natural numbers

Let $$\zeta(s) = \sum_{n = 1}^\infty \frac{1}{n^s}$$
be the Riemann zeta function (here we just consider real $s$).
We do have a description given by
$$\zeta(s) = \frac{s}{s-1}-s\int_{1}^\infty \frac{...

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**1**answer

202 views

### Background on the functional equation $F(x+1)+F(x)=f(x)$ [closed]

In the theory of indefinite sums, anti-differences and finite calculus, the following difference functional equation and its solutions are very important:
$$\bigtriangleup F(x):=F(x+1)-...

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**1**answer

90 views

### Quotient with positive second derivative in the limit?

I am studying the quotient of
$$f(\varepsilon) = \sum_{i=1}^{\infty} \frac{i^2}{2^{\varepsilon i^2}}$$
and $$g(\varepsilon) = \sum_{i=1}^{\infty} \frac{1}{2^{\varepsilon i^2}}$$
for some $\...