# Questions tagged [real-analysis]

Real-valued functions of real variable, analytic properties of functions and sequences, limits, continuity, smoothness of these.

2,484 questions

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110 views

### Given these conditions, can a function be defined that is well defined a.e.?

I have two functions, and I want to combine them to define a certain function.
Suppose for every fixed $e$ in $(0, ∞)$, we have a function $g_e (x): \mathbb{R} \to [0,\infty]$ that is well defined a....

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41 views

### Limiting a sequence of moment generating functions [migrated]

I was trying to solve the following problem:
Let $\{X_n\}_{n=1}^{\infty}$ be a sequence of independent random variables with the probability mass function $P\{X_n = \pm1 \} = \frac{1}{2}$, $n \in \...

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**1**answer

64 views

### Exterior cone condition for $\mathrm{supp}\, u$ and Lebesgue points of $u$

Let $u:\mathbb{R}^n \to \mathbb{R}$ be an $L^1$ function with compact support. Let $\bar x \in \partial \mathrm{supp}\, u$ and assume that $\mathrm{supp} \, u$ satisfies the exterior cone condition at ...

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88 views

### Are these conditions enough to ensure joint measurability?

Suppose $f(x, e): \mathbb{R} \times (0, \infty)\to [0,\infty]$ is right continuous in $x$, and monotone increasing in $e$. Is $f$ jointly measurable?

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116 views

### a question of definite integral [closed]

1.$$\int_{0}^{1} \frac{1}{1+e^{-(x+\ln(u/(1-u)))/\tau}}\, du$$
2.$$\frac{1}{\sqrt{2}\pi}\int_{-\infty}^{+\infty}\frac{e^{-u^{2}/2}}{1+e^{-(x-u)/\tau}}\,du$$
please help me. I tried to use MATLAB but ...

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**1**answer

1k views

### Are continuous functions almost completely determined by their modulus of continuity?

Given a function $f: \mathbb{R}\to\mathbb{R}$, we define its left modulus of continuity, $L(f): \mathbb{R} \times (0, \infty)\to [0,\infty]$ by
$$L(f)(x, e) := \sup \{d \ge 0 \,:\, f((x, x+d)) \...

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133 views

### a Kernel free asymptotic for a sampling operator

Let $\Pi=\left\{ t_{k}\right\} _{k\in\mathbb{Z}}$ a sequence of real numbers such that $-\infty<t_{k}<t_{k+1}<+\infty$ for every $k\in\mathbb{Z}$, $\lim_{k\rightarrow\pm\infty}t_{k}=\pm\infty$...

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101 views

### Constructing an infinite chain of subsets of 'hyper' algebraic numbers?

This question is cross posted from MSE.
Let $F$ be a subset of $\mathbb{R}$ and let $S_F$ denote the set of values which satisfy some generalized polynomial whose exponents and coefficients are ...

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56 views

### On the convergence of an integral of Hardy's maximal function

Let $f:\mathbb{R}\times \mathbb{R}^N \to \mathbb{R}^N$ be an $L^1$ function.
Assume that
$$\mathcal M f(x,y) = \sup_{r< \bar r}\frac{1}{B_r(y)} \int_{B_r(y)} f(x,z)dz \to 0 $$ as $\bar r \to 0$ ...

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41 views

### Singular integral of the composition of the Hilbert transform and fractional Laplacian

Given $0<s<1$, we can define the Fractional Laplacian by
$$\Lambda^{-s}f(x):=(-\Delta)^{-s/2}(x)=\int_{-\infty}^{+\infty}|x-y|^{-1+s}f(y)dy$$
or by means of Fourier transform as $$\widehat{\...

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110 views

### Prove conjugation law for Exp(z) using only Exp(x + y) = Exp(x)Exp(y) [closed]

Starting with just the property $E(x + y) = E(x)E(y)$, one can prove quite a lot of the main properties of the exponential function on real numbers. For example, $E(0) = 1$, and $E'(X) = E(X)$, and $E(...

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113 views

### Kantorovich duality with pseudometrics

The usual framework for the Kantorovich duality in optimal transport theory uses Polish spaces as ground spaces for the distributions that should be transported. Are there results available that ...

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36 views

### Potential for a Monotone Operator

[Cross-posted from math.stackexchange]
I have a question about understanding the proof of Theorem 4.11 in the paper A Potential Theory for Monotone Multivalued Operators (accessible here). The ...

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**1**answer

190 views

### Oscillation operator of a function

Call a function from $[0, 1]$ to itself a box function.
Given any box function $f$, define its oscillation function $Of$ as $$Of(x) = \lim _{d \to 0} \sup _{y, z \in B_d (x)} |f(y) - f(z)| \, .$$ ...

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83 views

### Final time maps of IVP's approximating functions $X\subseteq\mathbb{R}^n\to\mathbb{R}^n$

I originally posted this question on the Mathematics StackExchange and got told to consider putting it on here, on MathOverflow. I will word the question a bit differently:
Let $X$ be a compact $k$-...

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**1**answer

93 views

### Can we find the $a$ value?

We have the following limit with and $a
\in \mathbb{R}$ and $
u \in \mathbb{R}$ . And here, ${\lfloor x \rfloor}$ is floor function
$$\lim_{u \rightarrow \infty}
\frac{f(a)-\int_1^u ( {x-...

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vote

**1**answer

105 views

### Extending continuous functioms defined on the irrationals

Lavrentieff proved a Theorem which implies that every real valued continuous function defined on a dense subset $D\subseteq \mathbb R$ admits a continuous extension to some $G_\delta $ subset of $\...

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61 views

### Conditions for the embeddig of the space $L^\infty(I, W^{1,2}(U))$ into $L^\infty(I \times U)$

Let $I$ be a compact interval of $\mathbb{R}$ and $U$ be a bounded subset of $\mathbb{R}^2$.
If $f \in L^\infty(I, W^{1,2}(U))$, what (non-trivial) condition ($L^p$-estimate on $f$ or decay-like ...

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94 views

### The blow-up rate of a nonlinear oscillator

(Related to this Math.SE question.)
For $p>1$, let $u$ be a solution to $$\tag{1}\frac{d^2 u}{dt^2} + u = |u|^{p-1}u$$ that blows up at $T>0$, that is $$\lim_{t\nearrow T}u(t)=+\infty.$$
...

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95 views

### Is every finite graph isomorphic to the proximity graph of some $S\subseteq \mathbb{R}^n$?

This is the question that I should have asked before asking this older question.
If $(X,d)$ is a metric space, we associate with it a simple, undirected graph, called its proximity graph $G(X,d)$ ...

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60 views

### Notions of $\beta$-Hölder smoothness when $\beta\in (1,2]$: are they equivalent?

I posted the following question on StackExchange a few months ago (https://math.stackexchange.com/questions/2898620/notions-of-beta-h%C3%B6lder-smoothness-when-beta-in-1-2-are-they-equivalent), but ...

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37 views

### A special integral equation of Volterra type

Let $a,f \in L^2(0,t)$ (where $t \leqslant 1$), and consider the following integral equation:
$$
f(t)\int_0^t a(s)\,ds + \int_0^t a(t - s) f(s) \, ds = 0
$$
My question is : under what condition ...

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297 views

### Can a vector-function $v:\mathbb{R}^n\to \mathbb{R}^n$ be an eigenvector of its own Jacobian matrix?

Good morning,
I've came across this question, which has been puzzling me for some days. Suppose we are given a vector-valued function $v:\mathbb{R}^n\to \mathbb{R}^n$, $v(x)=\left( v_1(x),\dots, v_n(...

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**1**answer

79 views

### Multidimensional improper Riemann integrals with oscillatory kernels: Existence

I have asked this question three weeks ago here
https://math.stackexchange.com/questions/2998601/does-this-oscillatory-integral-exist/2998930#2998930
but received no relevant answers.
Let $n\geq 2$ ...

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49 views

### A comparison between a function and its convolution

Assume that $f$ is a $L^p$ integrable function for $1\le p\le P_0$, with $P_0$ a positive constant. L is a smooth compactly supported function. Define $L_\epsilon(x) = 1/\epsilon^n L(x/\epsilon)$. Is ...

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49 views

### Existence of a function satisfying some integral conditions

I need help to prove the existence of a real function $h(x) \in C^1$ with condition that near zero $h(x) \sim \ln(x)$ and near infinity $\lim h(x)_{x \to \infty} = \infty$ such that following ...

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109 views

### How to show that this function is continuous (Geometric Measure Theory)

I want to prove that the function $F: \mathbb{R}_+ \to \mathbb{R}$ defined by
$$F(t)=\int_{\{d=t\}} g \, d\mathcal{H}^{n-1}$$
is continuous if $g:\Omega \subset \mathbb{R}^n\to \mathbb{R}$ is ...

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**1**answer

78 views

### A question on a special “metric”

Suppose we have a function $F: [a,b]^n \to \mathcal{M}_{n \times n }(\mathbb{R})$ where $\mathcal{M}_{n \times n }(\mathbb{R})$ is the space of $n \times n$ real matrices, a compact set $B \subset \...

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54 views

### Proof of a technical fact in the book of Schapire and Freund on boosting

Disclaimer: I asked this question on math.stackexchange.com two weeks ago but it has not been answered yet so I figured that I might as well try to also post it here.
I am currently looking at ...

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**1**answer

101 views

### When do supremum and expectation commute?

This is an alternative form of the question in When do maximum and expectation commute?
When we looking for conditions on $G(t,x(t))$ such that
$$
\sup\limits_{t\in [0,N]}E[G(t,X(t))]=E[\sup\limits_{...

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44 views

### Does lattice mod preserve direction?

For high enough dimension $n$ there are lattices $L_n$ in $\mathbb{R}^n$ whose Voronoi partition's base regions encompass all but a negligible proportion of a $(1-\varepsilon)$-ball, and also nearly ...

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54 views

### Vector fields whose divergence is Gaussian

Let f be the pdf of a $n$ dimensional $N(0,C)$ distribution i.e up to a multiplicative constant, $f(x) = \exp(-\frac{1}{2} x'C^{-1}x)$.
Which vector fields $F$ are so that ${\rm div} (F)= f$ ?

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123 views

### $L^1$-continuity estimate for ODE solutions in terms of $L^1$ distance of vector fields (only one of them being Lipschitz)

Consider the following ODE initial value problems
\begin{align*}
&\frac{d}{dt}\Phi(t,x) = \boldsymbol{F}(t,\Phi(t,x)), & t \in [0,T], \ \ x \in \mathbb{R}^N,\\
&\Phi(0,x) = x, & x \in ...

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666 views

### “Insanely increasing” $C^\infty$ function with upper bound

Let $C^\infty$ denote the collection of functions $f:\mathbb{R}\to\mathbb{R}$ such that for every positive integer $n$, the $n$-th derivative of $f$ exists. For $f\in C^\infty$ we set
$f^{(0)} = f$, ...

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**1**answer

131 views

### Optimal control theory of PDEs

This is a somewhat openly phrased question because I am not quite sure what has been done in that direction.
Imagine one has two evolution equations
$$\partial_t u = p(x,\partial_x,f)u$$
$$\...

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**1**answer

130 views

### Quantitative finite speed of propagation property for ODE (cone of dependence)

Consider the following ODE initial value problem
\begin{align*}
&\frac{d}{dt}\Phi(t,x) = \boldsymbol{F}(t,\Phi(t,x)), & t \in [0,T], \ \ x \in \mathbb{R}^N,\\
&\Phi(0,x) = x, & x \in \...

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**1**answer

165 views

### Simple but entangled inequalities

Do there exist functions $F,G$ on $[0,1]$ with $0\le F,G< 1$, such that for all $x, y\in [0,1]$ with $x+y\le 1$, the following hold?
1) $G(x)\le x$,
2) $G(1)<1$,
3) $F(x)>0$ if $x>0$,
...

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**1**answer

81 views

### About exchanging min and max and correctness of an inequality

Let $v_i \in \mathbb{R}^{n}, \ i=1, \ldots, m, \ \ $ $\mathcal{S}$ a convex polyhedron and $x \in \mathbb{R}^{n}$ be given. Consider the following solution $(s^{*},i^{*})$ to the problem
\begin{...

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**0**answers

67 views

### Generalization of regularly varying functions

A continuous function $L :\mathbb{R}_+ \to \mathbb{R}_+$ is called regularly varying (at infinity) if for all $a > 0$,
$$
\lim_{x\to \infty} \frac{L(ax)}{L(x)}= g(a)
$$
for some function $g(a)&...

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**1**answer

265 views

### A moment inequality

Let $\chi(s)=\int_{0}^{1}x(t)^{s}f(t)dt$,
where $x(t)$ and $f(t)$ are real valued continuous functions for
$t\in[0,1]$, and $f(t)\geq0$.
Is it possible to show that
$\left(\chi(0)\chi(2)-\chi(1)^{2}...

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**1**answer

133 views

### Convolution with Schwartz class function

Let $f, g\in \mathcal{S}(\mathbb R)$ (Schwartz class function), $\delta_0$ (dirac delta distribution).
Consider distribution as follows:
$$H(x, y)= f(x)g(x)\delta_0(y)-f(y)g(y)\delta_0(x), \ (x, y\...

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**3**answers

406 views

### For what sets does the Lebesgue Differentiation Theorem hold in one dimension?

Lebesgue's differentiation theorem states that if $x$ is a point in $\mathbb{R}^n$ and $f:\mathbb{R}^n\rightarrow\mathbb{R}$ is a Lebesgue integrable function, then the limit of $\frac{\int_B f d\...

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**1**answer

160 views

### Does the Lebesgue Differentiation Theorem hold for regular polytopes?

Lebesgue's differentiation theorem states that if $x$ is a point in $\mathbb{R}^n$ and $f:\mathbb{R}^n\rightarrow\mathbb{R}$ is a Lebesgue integrable function, then the limit of $\frac{\int_B f d\...

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**1**answer

218 views

### Is $\frac{\sin |\xi|}{|\xi|}$ in range of Fourier Transform for $n \ge 3$?

Does there exist $f \in L^1(\mathbb{R}^n)$ s.t., $\displaystyle \widehat{f}(\xi) = \frac{\sin |\xi|}{|\xi|}$ in case of dimension $n \ge 3$?
It is known that for $n = 2$, the function $\displaystyle ...

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**1**answer

91 views

### A question about real convex functions

This is a follow-up of a popular exercise found in Rudin's Real and Complex analysis.
It is known that if a continuous function $f:\left]a,b\right[\to \bf R$ satisfies the inequality $f((x+y)/2)\le 1/...

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**0**answers

41 views

### What can we say about the Bargmann transform of bounded function?

Let $f, g\in \mathcal{S}(\mathbb R)$. Then the convolution of two Schwartz class function is again Schwartz class function, that is, $f\ast g \in \mathcal{S}(\mathbb R).$
Now we define
$$ H(t)= H(...

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**1**answer

224 views

### Meaning of Alberti rank-one theorem

Heuristically what does Alberti's rank-one theorem imply about the structure of a $\mathrm{BV}$ vector field $\boldsymbol{b}$?
Is it rigorously fair to say that the level lines of $\boldsymbol{b}$ ...

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**1**answer

130 views

### On the continuity and injective-ness of Gauss quadrature scheme for numerical integration, with weight function identically $1$

Fix an integer $n\ge 2$. Let $[a,b]$ be an interval and $f: [a,b]\to \mathbb R$ be a continuous function and for $x_1,...,x_n$ being the Gaussian Quadrature nodes in $[a,b]$, and Gaussian Quadrature ...

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**1**answer

604 views

### Expressions for the inverse function of f(x) = ln(x)e^x

Can the inverse of $ ln(x)e^x $ be finitely expressed in terms of the Lambert-W function or any other well-known transcendental functions? It is clear that a closed-form elementary function expression ...

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**1**answer

153 views

### Is it possible to find $f$ such that : $f$ is absolutely integrable, $f'$ is absolutely integrable and such that $f$ is not $1/2$-Hölder

I am trying to find a function $f: \mathbb{R}^+ \to \mathbb{R}^+$ that fullfils the following conditions
$$f \in \mathcal{C}^1(\mathbb{R}^+,\mathbb{R}^+)$$
$$\int_{\mathbb{R}^+} f \in \...