# Questions tagged [random-graphs]

The study of probability distributions over graphs. For example, the Erdős–Rényi model where each edge occurs independently with equal probability.

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### positive-semidefiniteness of laplacian of signed graph

Consider a signed complete graph $G(E,V)$ with adjacency $A_{ij}=\in\{-1,+1\}$. Define the Laplacian matrix as $L:=D-A$ where $D$ is the degree matrix, $D_{ii}=\sum_{j\neq 1}A_{ij}$.
my question.
If $\...

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### Average number of cycles in a directed regular graph?

A directed random regular graph is a graph where all vertices have exactly $d_{\rm in}$ edges going in and $d_{\rm out}$ going out. If the graph is undirected, i.e. all vertices have degree $d$, then ...

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### Does "epsilon-regular" equal to "cut distance less than epsilon"?

Let $G$ be a bipartite graph (vertex number sufficient large) with bipartition $(U,W)$ and edge density $d$. Does these two statement equal?
$G$ is $\varepsilon$-regular, i.e. $\big|e_G(X,Y)-d|X||Y|\...

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### Is the probability distribution of a graphon given as a graph limit computable?

Let $G_i$ be a sequence of finite graphs that is Cauchy in the space of graphons. That is, for every $\epsilon \in \mathbb Q_+$ there is a $N \in \mathbb N$ such that $$\forall n, m > N. \delta_\...

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### Szemeredi Regularity Lemma - Reasonable Bounds

Recently, I came across the wonderful Szemeredi regularity lemma and I was wondering. Are these "natural/reasonable/standard" examples of random graphs families, for which the number of $\...

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### Evolution of the empirical mean of a list as we remove elements proportional to their value

Consider a list of $N$ integers $k_1,k_2,\dots k_N$, drawn independently from some distribution $P(k)$ with $k_i \geq 1$. We denote its mean with $\langle k\rangle=\sum_{k=1}kP(k)$. The first two ...

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### Locally "unshortable" paths in graphs

Setup: Consider a connected graph G, with diameter "d".
Informally: Trivially (by definition of diameter), taking any path $P$ any nodes $P(i) , P(i+k)$ for $k>d$ can be connected by a ...

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### Expected number of edges in the neighborhood of vertices in random graphs

Question:
given a vertex $v$ of a symmetric random graph $G$ without self loops and parallel edges, what is the expected number edges in the subgraph induced by the vertices $u\in G\setminus v:\ (u,v)...

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### Smallest dominating set

Given a graph $G$, we say $S$ is a dominating set if $S\cup \{N(x):x\in S\}=V(G)$. Let $d(n,k)$ be the smallest integer $s$ so that every $n$-vertex graph $G$ with minimum degree $k$ has some ...

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### Diameters of random bipartite graphs

Given two partite sets of vertices $U$ and $V$ of size $n$. Each vertex in $U$ uniformly randomly selects $K$ ($K$ is a constant and $K\ll n$) vertices in $V$ without replacement and connects a ...

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### Do Fagin's zero-one laws hold on stochastic block model?

Let $n$ be a positive integer (the number of vertices), $k$ be a positive integer (the number of communities), $p = (p_1, . . . , p_k)$ be a probability vector on $[k] := \{1, . . . , k\}$ (the prior ...

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### Nearest neighbors on random complete graph

Consider the complete graph on $2n$ vertices, where the ${2n \choose 2}$ edges have distinct lengths in uniform random
order. So each vertex $v$ has a nearest neighbor $N(v)$, across the shortest ...

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### Finding an easy example applying the general Lovász local lemma

Is there any easy application for the general local lemma as follows? If someone knows, please tell me the references or just post an example here. Thanks.
General Lovász local lemma: Consider a set $...

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### Erdős–Rényi random graphs — reproducing 2 inequalities

In Erdős and Renyi's 1959 paper On random graphs I
, I'm trying to reproduce, starting from Eq.\eqref{1} in their paper, the two inequalities that appear in Eq.\eqref{2}.
Eq.\eqref{1} is:
$$
P \le \...

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### Finding small connected subgraphs of a random regular graph

Fix parameters $m,f,b$. I do not believe it matters for the general form of the question, but in the problem I am examining $m,f,b$ are all powers of $2$ with $m \gg f > b$. For example $m=2^{25},f=...

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### Controlling quantity related to Laplacian pseudo-inverse of Erdős–Rényi graph

Consider an $n$-node undirected graph $G = (V, E)$ equipped with weights $W$. Let $L$ be the weighted graph Laplacian matrix, i.e. $L_{ij} = -W_{(i,j)}$ for $(i,j)\in E$ and $L_{ii} = \sum_{j:(i,j)\in ...

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### Example of random walk in a random environment (RWRE) saying things on the environment

I was wondering if anyone is aware of works/articles/examples where random walks in a random environment (RWRE) are actually used for obtaining information on the random environment.
To clarify a bit, ...

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### Benjamini-Schramm convergence: convergence on metric balls implies weak convergence?

In the famous paper by Benjamini-Schramm 2001, they consider the space of rooted graphs with uniformly bounded degrees, this space modulo rooted graph isomorphism is denoted by $\mathcal X$.
This ...

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### A question related to contiguity of random regular graphs

I am looking for a reference for the following fact. Let $r\geq 3$ be constant, let $G(n,r-2)$ be a random (simple) $(r-2)$-regular graph and let $H(n)$ be an independent random Hamiltonian cycle (on ...

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### Do finite components get smaller as supercritical random graphs with an arbitrary degree sequence get denser?

I asked this question a few weeks ago on MSE but did not receive any responses so I am going to ask a related but more specific question here.
First some notation.
Let $\mathbb{G} = \mathbb{G}(n,\...

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### Graphon convergence of uniform weighted graphs

I have a question that I need at some point my research. Suppose that the upper-triangular entries of an $n\times n$ symmetric matrix $A$ are i.i.d. Uniform$(0,1)$. Does the weighted graph with ...

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### Statistics of connected-component sizes of minimum-weight $f$-factors in random planar geometric graphs

An $f$-factor is an $f$-regular subgraph with the same vertex set $V$ and a subset of the edges $E$ of some given undirected graph $G(V,E)$
Question:
what is known about the statistical properties of ...

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### Phase-transitions for a property of random bipartite graphs

Let $N_1$, $N_2$, and $k$ be positive integers. Let $V_1$ and $V_2$ be finite sets with $|V_i| = N_i \ge 1$. Consider a bipartite graph $G=(V_1,V_2,E)$ constructed as follows. For every $x \in V_1$, ...

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### A one-sided/monotone version of min/max-stable distributions -- does this have a name?

In a couple of papers I am working on (in random graph theory) I have encountered the following property of certain probability distributions, which I will describe shortly, and I am wondering if this ...

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### Random graphs constructed by many large matchings

Let $G_{n,d}$ be $d$-regular random graph. We know that for $d \geq 3$, $G \in G_{n,d}$ a.a.s. has a $1$-factorisation when $n$ is even.
So, the resulting graph that obtained from randomly choosing $d$...

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### Connected components in random regular graphs

Suppose we take a random regular graph $G_{2n, r}$, where $n$ is large. Let us also assume that $r$ is fixed, (not dependent on $n$). Let's say that half of the vertices of the graph are colored black ...

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### Random graph uniformly sample from the special graphs

We know two basic random graph models:$G(n,p)$ and $G(n,m)$. $G(n,m)$ consists of all graphs with $n$ vertices and $m$ edges, in which the graphs have the same probability. We know that $G(n,p)$ and $...

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### Random walks on randomly evolving graphs

I am interested in analyzing a random walk on a growing tree with vertices labelled on a tree with following properties.
The number of nodes at depth $k$ is a an exponential function of $k$. One can ...

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### Probability of the random graph on $2n$ vertices having exactly $n$ vertices with degree $\ge n$

Let $G = (V, E)$ be a uniform random graph on $2n$ labeled vertices and let $S \subseteq {V}$ be the set of vertices with degree $\ge n$. Then what happens to $\mathbf{P}(|S|=n)$ as $n \to \infty$?
...

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### Diameter of component graph of uniform spanning forests on the amenable transitive graph with super polynomial growth

According to the paper Benjamini, Kesten, Peres, and Schramm - Geometry of the uniform spanning forest: transitions in dimensions 4, 8, 12 (Annals, 2004), the diameter of the component graph of the ...

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### Minimum induced subtree cover number of a graph

For an arbitrary simple finite graph $G$, without multiple edges between any two nodes and without any loop, the minimum induced subtree cover number, which is denoted by $stc(G)$, is defined to be ...

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### Union of two copies of uniform spanning forest on $\mathbb{Z}^3$ is transient? [closed]

Let $G$ be the (random) graph which is the union of two independent copies of the uniform spanning forest on $\mathbb{Z}^3$.
Question: Is (the simple random walk on) $G$ transient almost surely?

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### Probability of randomly finding a loop in a (directed) Bernoulli random graph

This problem is inspired by an activity at work, where each person was tasked with introducing another person in the onboarding class, sequentially.
Problem Statement
Given $N$ people. For each pair ...

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### What is this Ramsey problem?

Given positive integers, $n,m,r$, define $R((n,m);r)$ to be the least $N$ such that for any $r$-coloring $C:E(K_N)\to \{1,\dots,r\}$, there is some monochromatic subgraph with $n$ vertices and $m$ ...

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### Vertex degree on random graphs

Let $p = d/n$ with $d$ constant. How do I prove that, with high probability, $G_{n,p}$ contains a vertex of degree at least $(\log n)^{1/2}$,
where $G_{n,p}$ is a graph with $n$ vertices and the ...

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### Probability of (single) connecting paths in Erdos-Renyi graphs

In an Erdos-Renyi graph with labeled vertices in $(1, ..., N)$, and for any pair of vertices $(r, s)$ with $r < s$ and a length $l$ in $(1, ..., s-r)$, I am looking for the probability of
there ...

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### Quasi-random vs pseudo-random graphs

My question is somehow concerning terminology on extremal graph theory.
Is there any difference concerning the notion of quasi-random graph and the notion of pseudo-random graph? My feeling is that ...

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### Expected doubling constant of a random Erdős–Rényi graph

Consider the $G(n,p)$ random graph model where $n$ is a ``large'' positive integer and $p\in (0,1)$. We may equip every realized random graph $G$ with its shortest path distance, making it into a (...

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### Hyperbolic random geometric graphs with less clustering

The hyperbolic random geometric graph $G_{\mathbb{H}}$ consists of a $N$ uniformly random points (within a disk of radius $R$ centred at the origin) of the hyperbolic plane $\mathbb{H}$, connected ...

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### Concavity of expected size of a maximum matching (in a bipartite graph) w.r.t. edge probability

Given a n*n bipartite graph where each edge (between any two nodes on the opposite side) is formed i.i.d. with probability $p$, can we show a concavity result on the expected size of a maximum ...

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### Limit of alternating sum of factorial moments which diverge

Consider the non-negative, integer valued random variable $X$, and its $i^{\text{th}}$ factorial moment $E_{i}[X]$. Then we have that
$$
P(X=0) = \sum _{i=0}^{\infty} \frac{(-1)^i E_{r}[X]}{ i!}
$$
...

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### Lower bound on the number of balanced graphs

Let $\alpha>1$ be a constant and define $B_n$ as the number of (labeled) balanced graphs with $n$ vertices and $\left\lceil \alpha n\right\rceil $ edges. The paper Strongly Balanced Graphs
and ...

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### Likelihood ratio of non-trivial cycles in an inhomogeneous random square lattice graph embedded on a toroidal surface

Consider a square lattice (random) graph $G$ embedded on a toroidal surface. Each edge $(i, j)$ of the graph has an associated likelihood probability $p_{ij}$. The probabilities $p_{ij}$ come from a ...

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### What to do when the second moment method does not provide a sufficient bound for $P(X=0)$

We have that for a real valued random variable $X$,
$$
P(X=0) \leq \frac{\text{Var}(X)}{\left(\mathbb{E}(X)\right)^2}
$$
known as Chebyshev's inequality. Consider a random variable $X \in \{0,1,2,\...

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### Hamilton cycles in random graphs with just enough connectivity

What is the asymptotic probability that $G$ has a Hamilton cycle if $G$ is a random $n$ vertex $\frac{4}{3}n$ edge graph, with minimum degree 2 and without degree 2 vertices at distance 1 or 2 to each ...

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### Width of the critical window in a random graph

In an Erdős–Rényi random graph $G(n,p)$, the giant component emerges with thresholding function $p(n) = c/n$, where $c>1$.
When $c=1$, and $\lambda \in \mathbb{R}$, we can write or "...

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### What is the exact definition of a sharp transition?

In "Sharp threshold phenomena in statistical physics", H. Duminil-Copin, Japanese J. of Math. 14, 2019, a sharp transition of a boolean function is defined as follows:
A sequence of ...

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### Threshold function for a graph not being planar

A graph property $\mathcal{P}$ is monotone increasing if $G\in \mathcal{P}$ implies $G+e \in \mathcal{P}$, i.e., adding an edge to a graph does not destroy the property.
It is well-known that every ...

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### Selection of an n-vertex graph at random

Let's say I want to select, at random, an $n$-vertex graph $G=(V,E)$ from the set of all $n$-vertex graphs.
One way to do this would be to take the empty graph on $n$ vertices and then add each ...

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### Discrepancy of random bipartite graphs (2)

This question is a modification of the one asked here, which turned out to ask for something too strong to be true.
Given $k>0$ and a positive integer $n$, let $X, Y$ be two vertex sets of size $n$ ...