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Questions tagged [polynomials]

Questions in which polynomials (single or several variables) play a key role. It is typically important that this tag is combined with other tags; polynomials appear in very different contexts. Please, use at least one of the top-level tags, such as nt.number-theory, co.combinatorics, ac.commutative-algebra, in addition to it. Also, note the more specific tags for some special types of polynomials, e.g., orthogonal-polynomials, symmetric-polynomials.

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512 views

Mathieu group $M_{23}$ as an algebraic group via additive polynomials

An elegant description of the Mathieu group $M_{23}$ is the following: Let $C$ be the multiplicative subgroup of order $23$ in the field $F=\mathbb F_{2^{11}}$ with $2^{11}$ elements. Then $M_{23}$ is ...
23
votes
0answers
657 views

Which sets of roots of unity give a polynomial with nonnegative coefficients?

The question in brief:   When does a subset $S$ of the complex $n$th roots of unity have the property that $$\prod_{\alpha\, \in \,S} (z-\alpha)$$ gives a polynomial in $\mathbb R[z]$ with ...
21
votes
0answers
424 views

Zero curves of Tutte Polynomials?

There is an extensive theory of the real and complex roots of the chromatic polynomial of a graph, a substantial fraction of this being due to the connections between the chromatic polynomial and a ...
19
votes
0answers
529 views

Polynomials with roots in convex position

Let $\mathcal P_n$ denote the set of all monic polynomials of degree $n$ with real or complex coefficients such that $P\in\mathcal P_n$ if for all $k\in\lbrace 0,1,\dots,n-2\rbrace$ the $n-k$ roots of ...
17
votes
0answers
202 views

GPS calculations under $L^p$ norms

GPS calculations require finding a sphere externally tangent to four given spheres, an Apollonian problem in $\mathbb{R}^3$. The center of that fifth sphere is one of the $16$ possible solutions to ...
15
votes
0answers
536 views

Solving polynomial systems with homotopy. Where is the bottleneck?

I have a polynomial system with $n+k$ unknowns ($n+k$ can be greater than 8), that is known to have a limited number of isolated solutions. I want to solve this system numerically, but if I plug it ...
15
votes
0answers
377 views

Aligned roots of irreducible polynomials

It is well known from this famous question that the roots of a random polynomial tend to be close to the unit circle. So I was wondering in a somewhat converse sense: for an irreducible polynomial, is ...
15
votes
0answers
491 views

Catalan objects associated to a univariate polynomial

Given a monic degree $n$ polynomial $f(z)$ with no double roots, and a phase $0\leq \theta < \pi$, there are natural constructions which associate to this data: a noncrossing matching on $2n$ ...
15
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856 views

Polynomials with presumably positive coefficients

After seeing that some positivity problems get their solutions on MO, I am quite enthusiastic of posing my (and not only) problem of positive flavour. In order to state it, I have to introduce the ...
14
votes
0answers
362 views

Do the coefficients of these irreducible polynomials always become periodic?

Fix $n\in\mathbb N$ and a starting polynomial (or seed) $p_n=a_0+a_1x+\dots+a_nx^n$ with $a_k\in\mathbb Z\ \forall k$ and $a_0a_n\ne0$. Define $p_{n+1},p_{n+2},\dots$ recursively by $p_r = p_{r-1}+...
14
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0answers
854 views

Is OEIS A007018 really a subsequence of squarefree numbers?

A comment in A007018 a(n) = a(n-1)^2 + a(n-1), a(0)=1 claims Subsequence of squarefree numbers (A005117). - Reinhard Zumkeller, Nov 15 2004 Is that really so? As far as I know, it is an open ...
13
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0answers
407 views

Descartes rule of signs for a noncommutative polynomial in matrix variables

Recently, while studying certain notions of "averaging" a set of input matrices, I obtained a nonlinear polynomial in matrix variables. A simple example is \begin{equation*} \mathcal{G}(X) := X^n - \...
13
votes
0answers
335 views

Are the zeros of Tutte polynomials dense in $\mathbb C^2$?

For the chromatic polynomials of graphs we have two nice theorems which describe the behavior of their zeros: Thomassen proved that the set of real zeros of all chromatic polynomials is the union of $\...
11
votes
0answers
348 views

A congruence involving roots of unity

Let $f(x) \in \mathbb{Z}[x]$ and suppose $f(\omega^j) \in \mathbb{Z}$ for all $j= 1, \dots, n$ where $\omega = e^{2 \pi i/n}$ is a primitive $n^{\text{th}}$ root of unity. Computational evidence ...
11
votes
0answers
281 views

Integrability property of polynomials in several variables

This might be very trivial, or not. Let $p\colon\mathbb{R}^n\to \mathbb{R}$ be a polynomial of even degree, at most $n-2$. Assume that $p(x)\leq 0$ for any $x\in\mathbb{R}^n$. Assume that there ...
11
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0answers
154 views

Are there efficient algorithms to factorise in $\mathbb{N}[X]$?

One way to do factorisation in $\mathbb{N}[X]$ is to use an algorithm to factorise in $\mathbb{Z}[X]$ and then to combine some factor to find a factorisation in $\mathbb{N}[X]$. Note that the ...
11
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0answers
358 views

Theorems proved using combinatorial nullstellensatz that have no other known proof

Alon's (or Alon and Tarsi's?) combinatorial nullstellensatz is a powerful algebraic tool with many applications in combinatorics and number theory. See this, this, this and this mathoverflow question. ...
11
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513 views

Evaluating products of cyclotomic polynomials at roots of unity

Are there general non-trivial conditions on $p(\cdot)$ and $n$, where $p(\cdot)$ is a product of cyclotomic polynomials and $n$ is a positive integer, such that all the coefficients of $p(\cdot)$ are ...
10
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0answers
424 views

Reciprocal polynomials with roots off the unit circle

A polynomial is called reciprocal if its coefficients read forwards are the same as those read backward - there is an obvious translation of reciprocal polynomials into cosine polynomials (since a ...
10
votes
0answers
328 views

Positivity of polynomial sequences via generating series

In this question I address the problem of proving the nonnegativity of a numerical sequence $a_0,a_1,a_2,\dots$ via generating series technique. In the notation $A(x)=\sum_{n=0}^\infty a_nx^n\ge0$ ...
10
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0answers
945 views

Dissecting trapezoids into triangles of equal area

[Lightly edited for copy and proper formatting of mathematics. -- Pete L. Clark] The Background: Let $T$ be a trapezoid. Sherman Stein, using valuation theory, showed that if $T$ is dissectible into ...
9
votes
0answers
165 views

Semi-primes represented by quadratic polynomials

According to Lemke-Oliver, irreducible quadratic polynomials $G$ with positive leading coefficient and $\rho(2)<2$, (where $\rho(m)$ denotes the number of incongruent solutions to the congruence $G(...
9
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0answers
222 views

Reference request: integral formula for $\sum_{\text{roots }\lambda}e^{-|\lambda|^2}$

Consider a polynomial $f(z)=c\prod_m(z-\lambda_m)\in\mathbb{C}[z]$. I am mostly interested in the case where this actually lies in $\mathbb{R}[z]$, but that is not essential. I wanted to find a nice ...
9
votes
0answers
145 views

Generating functions of real-rooted polynomials

Suppose $f_n(t)$ is a degree $n$ polynomial. Let $F(t,u) = \sum_n f_n(t)u^n$. What conditions on $F(t,u)$ tell us that the $f_n(t)$ are real-rooted? Similarly, are there any conditions on $F(t,u)$ ...
9
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0answers
243 views

Is a wild automorphism of $k[x_1,\ldots,x_n]$, $n \geq 3$, necessarily of infinite order?

Let $k[x_1,\ldots,x_n]$ be a polynomial ring over a field $k$ of characteristic zero. When $n=2$, it is known that every automorphism of $k[x_1,x_2]$ is tame, namely, a finite product of elementary ...
9
votes
0answers
136 views

Is there a ``Ladner's Theorem" for the PH-vs-PSPACE scenario?

Like a statement of the kind, ``If the Polynomial Hierarchy (PH) $\neq$ PSPACE then there exists $L \in PSPACE \backslash PH$ which is not PSPACE-complete"? Or is there something else that states ...
9
votes
0answers
494 views

Getting a bound via polynomial equations

When studying the existence problem of power residue deference sets, I came across the following system of polynomial equations over $\mathbb{C}$, \begin{cases} &\sum\limits_{j=0}^{m-1}x_jx_{2k-j}=...
9
votes
0answers
249 views

Symmetric Polynomials generating squares

For some n>4, can one find two symmetric polynomials $S_1$ and $S_2$ in $\mathbb{Q}[x_1,...,x_n]$ such that $S_1+x_1S_2$ is a square in $\mathbb{Q}[x_1,...,x_n]$? I have such a construction for the ...
8
votes
0answers
208 views

How localized can a polynomial be in the L1 norm?

Let $0<s<2$ be a parameter, $\Omega = [-1,1]$, and $\Omega_s\subset \Omega$ be a set of measure $s$. I would like to bound the following ratio from above: $$\sup_{p\in\mathcal{P}_n} \frac{\...
8
votes
0answers
112 views

Is there an approximate formula for the discriminant of a sparse polynomial?

Consider integer polynomials $P \in \mathbb{Z}[X] \setminus \{0\}$ of a degree $D \geq 1$ and without multiple complex roots. Let me introduce a notation $$ d(P) := \frac{1}{D} \log{|\mathrm{Disc}(P)|}...
8
votes
0answers
142 views

Nonzero subdeterminants conjecture: has anybody seen this anywhere?

I already posted this question on Mathematics StackExchange. A user there suggested that I rather post it on mathoverflow, since it is a research question. So here it is. Let $m\geq2$, $n\geq1$ be ...
8
votes
0answers
194 views

Unprovable integer identity involving exponentiation

I was thinking about Tarski's problem, and was wondering what happens if we have a theory $T$ with two sorts $N,Z$ with intended interpretations $\def\nn{\mathbb{N}}$$\def\zz{\mathbb{Z}}$$\nn,\zz$ ...
8
votes
0answers
151 views

The density of minimal polynomials

Let $K$ be a number field, i.e., a finite extension of $\mathbb{Q}$. By the primitive element theorem there exists $\alpha \in K$ such that $K = \mathbb{Q}(\alpha)$. Let $$\displaystyle S_K = \{\...
8
votes
0answers
349 views

Reduced resultants and Bezout's identity

Introduction: Given two univariate and coprime integer polynomials $f(x), g(x)$, we can always write \begin{equation} u(x)f(x)+v(x)g(x)=c \end{equation} for a (unique) pair of integer polynomials $...
8
votes
0answers
126 views

Order of zeros for sparse polynomials mod $p$

It is a fairly well known fact that sparse polynomials $f(x)$ cannot have large order zeros other than at $x=0$. If $f(x)=a_1x^{r_1}+\cdots+a_kx^{r_k}$ then at $c \neq 0$, $f$ has a zero of order at ...
8
votes
0answers
572 views

How prove this polynomial inequality from a book

Question: Let $$f(X)=(X-x_{1})(X-x_{2})\cdots (X-x_{n})$$ be an irreducible polynomial over the field of rational numbers,with integer coefficients and real zeros. Prove that $$\prod_{1\le i&...
8
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0answers
173 views

What is the probability of interpolating the Tutte polynomial of a planar graph from the values at the two hyperbolas?

The Tutte polynomial is a bivariate polynomial with positive integer coefficient which is a graph invariant and can be defined recursively. Evaluating it is $\#P$-complete even when restricted to (...
8
votes
0answers
576 views

Does anyone know this sequence of polynomials?

A referee on a paper of mine showed me the following recurrence for polynomials $P_{n,k}\in\mathbb Q[q,q^{-1}]$ for $n\geq 0$ and $0\leq k\leq n/2$. \begin{align} P_{0,0}&=1\\ \text{for $n\geq 1$}...
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0answers
841 views

What is the relation between hypocycloids and ideals in polynomial rings as alluded to in Arnold's text on teaching mathematics?

While browsing through this site, I came upon the text of Arnold: "On teaching mathematics". http://pauli.uni-muenster.de/~munsteg/arnold.html containing the phrase ... it can be said that a ...
7
votes
0answers
205 views

Is this a possible strengthening of the Lehmer conjecture?

Here is another possible refinement of the Lehmer conjecture. For $\alpha \in \overline{\mathbb{Q}}^{\times}$, let $C_{\alpha} \subseteq \mathbb{Q}(\alpha)$ be the maximal cyclotomic field contained ...
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0answers
152 views

Reference request: A commutative variant of the Exterior Algebra

Consider $A = \mathbb{R}[t_1,\ldots,t_{k}]$, the ring of real $k$-variate polynomials in the indeterminates $t_1,\ldots,t_k$. For $y\in\mathbb{R}$, define the element $p(y) \in A$ through $$ p(y) = ...
7
votes
0answers
155 views

Positivity of certain polynomial coefficients

Consider the rational functions (in fact, polynomials) $$F_n(q)=\frac1{(1-q)^{2n}}\sum_{k=0}^n(-q)^k\frac{2k+1}{n+k+1}\binom{2n}{n-k} \prod_{j=0,\,j\neq k}^n\frac{1+q^{2j+1}}{1+q}.$$ The numbers $\...
7
votes
0answers
147 views

Partition the rationals with respect to a multivariate polynomial which sends classes to classes

Let $R$ be a commutative ring and let $f\in R[x_1,x_2,\cdots,x_{n-1}],n\geq 2$ be a polynomial. Definition: We say $f$ is $n$-severable over $R$ if there exists a partition (of set) $$R=\coprod_{i=...
7
votes
0answers
218 views

Are polynomials with non-($S_n$ or $A_n$) Galois groups discrete?

There are various results, beginning with van der Waerden, on the asymptotic number of integral polynomials with bounded coefficients, whose Galois group is $S_n$. Some of these results also include $...
7
votes
0answers
116 views

Resultant of two special trinomials

Consider $f(x)=x^n-x^s-1$ and $g(x)=x^i-x^j-1$ , I want to find $Resultant(f,g)$. It is well known that it is determinant of a Sylvester matrix but, I am finding it to obscure to evaluate in that way. ...
7
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0answers
209 views

Intersections of ideals in polynomial rings with countably many variables

Fix a field $k$ and let $R = k[x_1,x_2,\ldots]$. Say that an ideal $I \subset R$ is generated in finite degree if there exists a generating set $S$ for $I$ (possibly infinite) and an integer $n$ such ...
7
votes
0answers
194 views

Increasing derivatives of recursively defined polynomials

Consider recursively defined polynomials $f_0(x)=x$ and $f_{n+1}(x)=f_n(x)−f_n'(x) x (1−x)$. These polynomials have some special properties, for example $f_n(0)=0$, $f_n(1)=1$, and all $n+1$ roots of ...
7
votes
0answers
852 views

Why is solving polynomial systems NP hard?

Solving polynomial systems is known to be a NP hard problem; however it is not completely clear to me where this complexity comes from. My interest is in the case of systems of multivariate ...
7
votes
0answers
187 views

Has anyone seen these binary trees (Catalan-type related to the Gegenbauer polynomials and Motzkin paths)?

The OEIS entry A121448 enumerates binary trees with $n$ edges and $k$ vertices with outdegree 1. Has anyone seen these trees? The o.g.f. for this entry, $G(x,t)$, is essentially a discriminant ...
7
votes
0answers
155 views

Does $\varphi: \mathbb{P}^{n} \to \mathbb{P}^{n}$ have periodic points missing the critical hypersurface?

I am trying to prove that if $\varphi: \mathbb{P}^{n} \to \mathbb{P}^{n}$ is an algebraic morphism of degree $d > 1$ (by which I mean $\varphi^{*}(\mathcal{O}(1)) = \mathcal{O}(d)$, so the ...