Questions tagged [polyhedra]

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88
votes
4answers
4k views

A curious relation between angles and lengths of edges of a tetrahedron

Consider a Euclidean tetrahedron with lengths of edges $$ l_{12}, l_{13}, l_{14}, l_{23}, l_{24}, l_{34} $$ and dihedral angles $$ \alpha_{12}, \alpha_{13}, \alpha_{14}, \alpha_{23}, \alpha_{24}, \...
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4answers
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How many ways can you inscribe five 24-cells in a 600-cell, hitting all its vertices?

You can inscribe five tetrahedra in a dodecahedron so that each vertex of the dodecahedron is the vertex of just one tetrahedron, as drawn here by Greg Egan: Warmup question: How many ways can you do ...
41
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1answer
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Pach's “Animals”: What if the genus is positive?

Janos Pach asked a deep question 23 years ago (1988) that remains unsolved today: Can every animal—a topological ball in $\mathbb{R^3}$ composed of unit cubes glued face-to-face—be ...
36
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2answers
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Can the unsolvability of quintics be seen in the geometry of the icosahedron?

Q1. Is it possible to somehow "see" the unsolvability of quintic polynomials in the $A_5$ symmetries of the icosahedron (or dodecahedron)? Perhaps this is too vague a question. Q2. Are there ...
34
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4answers
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About the ratio of the areas of a convex pentagon and the inner pentagon made by the five diagonals

Question : Letting $S{^\prime}$ be the area of the inner pentagon made by the five diagonals of a convex pentagon whose area is $S$, then find the max of $\frac{S^\prime}{S}$.     ...
32
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3answers
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Did ancient mathematicians know Euler's characteristic for convex polyhedra?

The formula $V-E+F=2$ is so simple that I can't believe that it was really Euler (or perhaps Descartes) who first observed it (I mean the formula itself in some generality, not necessarily a valid ...
27
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1answer
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Are Minkowski sums of upward closed “convex” sets in $\mathbb{N}^k$ still “convex”? (WAS: Comparing mana costs in Magic: The Gathering)

This was originally a question about comparing mana costs in Magic: The Gathering, but it's turned into a question about Minkowski sums of upward-closed convex sets in $\mathbb{N}^k$. The original ...
26
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5answers
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Visibility of vertices in polyhedra

Suppose $P$ is a closed polyhedron in space (i.e. a union of polygons which is homeomorphic to $S^2$) and $X$ is an interior point of $P$. Is it true that $X$ can see at least one vertex of $P$? More ...
24
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7answers
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What's that shape? Inferring a 3D shape from random shadows

Let $P$ be a bounded, simply connected region of $\mathbb{R}^3$. $P$ could be a polyhedron, or a smooth shape, or an arbitrary shape; I'll assume below that $P$ is a (non-degenerate, perhaps non-...
24
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3answers
831 views

Does every convex polyhedron have a combinatorially isomorphic counterpart whose faces all have rational areas?

Does every convex polyhedron have a combinatorially isomorphic counterpart whose faces all have rational areas? Does every convex polyhedron have a combinatorially isomorphic counterpart whose edges ...
24
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4answers
659 views

Why do some uniform polyhedra have a “conjugate” partner?

While browsing through a list of uniform polynohedra, I noticed that the square of the circumradius $R_m$ of the small snub icosicosidodecahedron ($U_{32}$) with unit edge lengths is, $$R_{32}^2 =\...
24
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1answer
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Building a genus-$n$ torus from cubes

I wonder if this has been studied: What is the fewest number of unit cubes from which one can build an $n$-toroid? The cubes must be glued face-to-face, and the boundary of the resulting object ...
20
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2answers
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3D models of the unfoldings of the hypercube?

There are (apparently) 261 distinct unfoldings of the 4D hypercube, a.k.a., the tesseract, into 3D.1 These unfoldings (or "nets") are analogous to the 11 unfoldings of the 3D cube into the plane.2 ...
20
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1answer
709 views

Tetrahedra passing through a hole

Assume a plane $P\subset\mathbb R^3$ has a hole $H$, and that the hole is topologically a compact disc. Being so, $P\setminus H$ does not separate the space. A regular tetrahedron $\sigma^3$ (of edge-...
20
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1answer
538 views

Update to Shephard's “Twenty Problems on Convex Polyhedra”

Forty-three years ago, Geoffrey Shephard published an influential list of open problems on convex polyhedra. Progress has been made on several of his problems, and perhaps some have been completely ...
19
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2answers
1k views

Four Dimensional Origami Axioms

What are the axioms of four dimensional Origami. If standard Origami is considered three dimensional, it has points, lines, surfaces and folds to create a three dimensional form from the folded ...
18
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4answers
777 views

The limit of edge-midpoint convex polyhedra

    Starting with a convex polyhedron $P_1 \subset \mathbb{R}^3$, replace that with $P_2$, the convex hull of the midpoints of the edges of $P_1$. Continuing this process, we obtain a ...
18
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2answers
800 views

“Derived” polyhedra and polytopes

The notion of derived polygon is natural and leads to remarkable convergence. Start with a polygon, and replace it by locating a point on every edge a fraction $\alpha$ between the two endpoints. For ...
17
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6answers
2k views

On the number of Archimedean solids

Does anyone know of any good resources for the proof of the number of Archimedean solids (also known as semiregular polyhedra)? I have seen a couple of algebraic discussions but no true proof. Also, ...
17
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2answers
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Is the tensor product of polyhedra a polyhedron?

Conventions: A polytope in a finite-dimensional $\mathbb R$-vector space $V$ is defined to be a convex hull of finitely many points in $V$. A polyhedron in a finite-dimensional $\mathbb R$-vector ...
17
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2answers
953 views

Placing points on a sphere so that no 3 lie close to the same plane

Motivation I am working with arbitrary parallelopiped tilings given by projection from a higher dimensional space. The collection of tiles, and some properties of the higher dimensional space are ...
17
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1answer
520 views

Higher dimensional generalization of: Any quadrilateral tiles the plane?

Any (non-self-intersecting) quadrilateral tiles the plane.     (MathWorld image.) Q. What is the strongest known generalization of this statement to higher dimensions? I.e., $\mathbb{R}^d$ ...
17
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1answer
538 views

Are all Dehn invariants achievable?

The Dehn invariant of a polyhedron is a vector in $\mathbb{R}\otimes_{\mathbb{Z}}\mathbb{R}/2\pi\mathbb{Z}$ defined as the sum over the edges of the polyhedron of the terms $\sum\ell_i\otimes\theta_i$ ...
14
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1answer
260 views

The space of triangles that fit inside a given triangle, parametrized by edge lengths

Given a triangle T with sides a, b, and c, describe its "fitting set," the set of all points (x,y,z) in 3-dimensions for which a triangle with sides x, y, z exists that fits in T. Such a set lies in ...
14
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0answers
291 views

Minimum number of distinct triangles for tesselating the sphere

Consider sequences of tesselations of the sphere. For instance, one such sequence might start with an icosahedron and proceed by subdividing each triangle face into 4 triangles and projecting the new ...
14
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0answers
468 views

Does every convex polyhedron have a combinatorially isomorphic counterpart whose angles between edges are rational multiples of $\pi$?

After reading these very interesting questions, I came up with another one: Does every convex polyhedron have a combinatorially isomorphic counterpart whose angles between all pairs of edges meeting ...
13
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4answers
2k views

Solid angles of a tetrahedron

This is a problem I have had for a while. For a triangle, the side opposite the largest angle has the largest length (and similarly for smallest angle). For a tetrahedron, the question is whether the ...
13
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2answers
644 views

What was the Question that led Euler to his Investigations on Polyhedra?

The question that led Euler to his investigations on graphs is the well-known question related to the seven bridges of Königsberg, and that story is a must in every introduction to graph theory. ...
13
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2answers
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How many vertices/edges/faces at most for a convex polyhedron that tiles space?

I wonder if this problem has already been examined before: Consider a convex polyhedron that tiles $\mathbb R^3$. What is the maximum of vertices/edges/faces that such a polyhedron can have? ...
13
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2answers
560 views

Acute triangulation

Assume that $S$ is a finite 2-dimensional simplicial complex equipped with a metric $d$ such that each triangle is isometric to a plane triangle (so $(S,d)$ is a polyhedral space). Is it possible ...
13
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1answer
708 views

Two questions on the permutohedron

The $n$-dimensional permutohedron $P_n$ is the polytope given by the convex hull of all the possible permutations of the vector $(1,2,\dots,n+1)\in\mathbb{R}^{n+1}$. So it has $(n+1)!$ vertexes. I ...
13
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1answer
2k views

What nets fold to polyhedra?

There is a classic (and open) problem asking whether every polyhedron can be unfolded to give a non-overlapping net. The converse problem has been studied asking which polygons can be folded in some ...
13
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0answers
397 views

Surface area of convex hull [duplicate]

Let Q be the convex hull of a non-convex polyhedron P. Is it true that the surface area of Q is not greater than the surface area of P?
11
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11answers
846 views

Database of integer edge lengths that can form tetrahedrons

Is there a collection of lists of six integer edge lengths that form a tetrahedron? Is there a computer program for generating such lists? I need to find approximately thirty such tetrahedral ...
11
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2answers
384 views

Dodecahedral rolling distance

Let a dodecahedron sit on the plane, with one face's vertices on an origin-centered unit circle. Fix the orientation so that the edge whose indices are $(1,2)$ is horizontal. For any $p \in \mathbb{R}...
11
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2answers
1k views

Floating polyhedra with fair equilibria

Is there a homogeneous convex polyhedron which floats so that some subset (perhaps all) of its faces is distinguished as "up" (above the water line) in stable equilibrium, each face with equal ...
11
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2answers
461 views

Shortest morphing between shapes embedded in $\mathbb{R}^3$

I am interested in what in computer graphics is called morphing between two topologically equivalent shapes $S_0$ and $S_1$ in 3D. This is a continuous "path" of shapes $S_t$, each embedded and all ...
11
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0answers
712 views

Making a convex polyhedron with two sheets of paper

Suppose that we have two sheets of paper $S,T$ and that each of $S,T$ is in the shape of a convex quadrilateral. Also, suppose that the length of the perimeter of $S$ equals that of $T$. (Note that $S$...
10
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2answers
507 views

When does every point in a polytope lie along a chord between its edges?

Consider the 3-simplex, or tetrahedron, in 3-space. Regardless of the positions of the vertices, every point in the simplex lies on a chord between two non-adjacent edges of the simplex. Or, ...
10
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3answers
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On maximal regular polyhedra inscribed in a regular polyhedron

Let T, C, O, D, or I be regular tetrahedron, cube, octahedron, dodecahedron, and icosahedron, respectively. Suppose that the outer polyhedron have edge-length 1. For example, it's easy to prove that ...
10
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2answers
359 views

What is Kept Fixed for Flexible Spheres

For background to this question much recent exciting related things, see this videotaped lecture by Alexander Gaifullin. Consider a triangulation $K$ of a two-dimensional sphere and consider maps ...
10
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2answers
280 views

Do maximal polyhedra have algebraic volume?

Is it possible to prove that for every $n > 3$ the maximal possible volume of a convex polyhedron having $n$ vertices inscribed in a sphere of unit radius is an algebraic number? Update: What can ...
10
votes
1answer
591 views

Polyhedron not circumscribed about a sphere

Let $P$ be a polyhedron whose faces are colored black and white so that there are more black faces and no two black faces are adjacent. Show that $P$ is not circumscribed about a sphere. My teacher ...
10
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2answers
752 views

Cut and Fold Polyhedron!

I have two convex polyhedra such that their sums of side areas are equal. It is true that I can cut one of them and flatten it on the plane, then fold the flattened polygon to reach the other ...
10
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1answer
358 views

The intersection of two $l_1$ balls

Let $B_1$ and $B_2$ be two balls in $\mathbb{R}^n$ with respect to the $l_1$ norm that have different radii and different centers. Is there an upper bound for the number of vertices that $B_1\cap B_2$...
10
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0answers
301 views

Bi-spherical polyhedra

Bicentric polygons have been studied: a polygon all of whose vertices lie on its circumcirle, and whose incircle is tangent to every edge:   I have not been able to find a comparable literature ...
9
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3answers
384 views

Labeling edges of an icosahedron with sum constraints

The question is inspired by this previous MO question. There it was shown that it's possible to label the edges of a cube by the numbers $\{1,2,\ldots,6,8,9, \ldots, 13\}$ in such a way that: Three ...
9
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3answers
3k views

polyhedra with equilateral pentagons faces

In page http://loki3.com/poly/isohedra.html around six polyhedra with equilateral pentagons as faces are shown: a pyritohedron, icositetrahedrons... Is there a complete list of this kind of polyhedra? ...
9
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2answers
516 views

Which unfoldings of the hypercube tile 3-space: How to check for isometric space-fillers?

Recently Mark McClure constructed and displayed the 261 unfoldings of the hypercube (tesseract) in response to the question, "3D models of the unfoldings of the hypercube?": The first 9 unfoldings ...
9
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1answer
218 views

Thinnest covering of the plane by regular pentagons

Q. Is it known what is the thinnest covering of the infinite plane by regular pentagons? By covering I mean every point of the plane is covered. By thinnest I mean the proportion of the plane covered ...

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