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### On the set of indices of irreducible depth 3 subfactors

Let $I_n$ be the set of indices of (finite index) irreducible depth $n$ subfactors. Then $I_2 = \mathbb{Z}_{>0}$.
Question 1: Is it true that $I_3$ has no accumulation point?
If so:
...

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**1**answer

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### On a quantum Riemann Hypothesis

Robin's theorem (1984) states that
$$ \sigma(n) < e^\gamma n \log \log n$$
for all $n > 5040$ if and only if the Riemann hypothesis is true.
Recall that $γ$ is the Euler–Mascheroni ...

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### Are there examples of finite-dimensional weak Hopf C*-algebras with non-involutive antipode?

For finite-dimensional (non-weak) Hopf C*-algebras it is known that the antipode is always involutive, as claimed e.g. in https://arxiv.org/pdf/1007.5283.pdf. I couldn't find the same statement for ...

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### Can a planar tangle have an infinite number of input disks?

Can a planar tangle have an infinite number of input disks?
Some publications talk about cases with a finite number of input disks, while others do not say if it is finite or infinite.
So, is it ...

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198 views

### A Schur-like product theorem on groups

Let $G$ be a finite group, and consider the composition $X * Y$ on $\mathbb{C}G$ defined by $$(\sum_g \alpha_g u_g) * (\sum_g \beta_g u_g) = \sum_g \alpha_g \beta_g u_g.$$ This composition can be ...

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### Is the Euler characteristic of a subfactor planar algebra, nonzero?

Let $\mathcal{P}$ be an irreducible subfactor planar algebra and $\mu$ the Möbius function of its biprojection lattice $[e_1,id]$. Then the Euler characteristic of $\mathcal{P}$ is defined as follows: ...

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### On index 2 and square of subfactors without extra intermediate

Let $N \subsetneq K_i \subsetneq M$, $i=1,2$, be a square of irreducible finite index inclusion of hyperfinite ${\rm II}_1$ factors, such that there is no extra intermediate, with $K_1 \not \subseteq ...

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105 views

### Existence of a third intermediate if there are two intermediate subfactors of index 2

Let $(N \subset M)$ be an irreducible finite index inclusion of hyperfinite ${\rm II}_1$ factors.
Let $K_1$ and $K_2$ be two distinct intermediate subfactors $N \subset K_i \subset M$, such that $|M:...

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### Generalization of the product formula on subfactors

The product formula on finite groups states that for $H_1, H_2$ subgroups of $G$, then
$$ |H_1H_2| \cdot |H_1 \cap H_2|=|H_1| \cdot |H_2| $$
This statement could be generalized to any finite index ...

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### Can we build a subfactor planar algebra from one knot?

From one finite group $G$, we can build the subfactor $(R \subset R \rtimes G)$ which remembers the group.
Question: Can we build a subfactor planar algebra from one knot? which remembers the knot?
...

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### Is 6 the smallest index for an irreducible subfactor to have a principal graph with a multiplicity >1 edge?

The irreducible subfactor $(R^{S_3} \subset R)$, of index $6$, admits a principal graph with a multiplicity $2$ edge because the group $S_3$ admits an irreducible complex representation of dimension $...

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247 views

### Chinese remainder theorem for cyclic subfactor planar algebras

This post was inspired by an exchange with the indian woman mathematician Ajit Iqbal Singh.
The chinese remainder theorem can be stated as follows:
Let $n_1, \dots, n_r \ge 2$ be positive integers ...

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105 views

### On the correspondence sub-N-N-bimodules and 2-box projections

Let $(N \subset M)$ be a finite index irreducible subfactor, and $P = P(N \subset M)$ its planar algebra.
We can see $M$ as an algebraic $N$-$N$-bimodule, it decomposes into irreducible algebraic $N$...

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### What's the detailed proof of “the composition of planar tangles is well-defined”?

In the planar algebra theory (see here or there section 2), a planar tangle is an isotopy class; then to define the composition of two tangles, we need to choose a representative in each classes. See ...

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### Are the two-side TLJ subfactors maximal?

Let $(N \subset M)$ be an inclusion of ${\rm II}_1$ factors, with the following principal graph (called two-side TLJ)
Question: Is $(N \subset M)$ a maximal subfactor?

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### Are there infinitely many amenable Hadamard-Petrescu subfactors?

The complex Hadamard matrices of dimension $n$ are used to build index $n$ subfactors through the commuting square construction. For more details, see the paper Subfactors and Hadamard Matrices by W....

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### A short problem with minimal projections and biprojections

Let $(N \subset M)$ be a finite index irreducible subfactor, $P=P(N \subset M)$ its planar algebra.
Notation: For $a,b \in P_{2,+}$ positive operators, then $\langle a,b \rangle$ is the biprojection ...

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### A process generating series of new subfactors

Consider the following process:
Take a maximal finite depth-index irreducible subfactor planar algebra $P^{(1)} = P(A^{(0)} \subset A^{(1)})$.
Choose a composition with itself such that there is no ...

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### Skein theory: How axiomatizing a 2-box space?

Let $(A,+,\times, *)$ with an adjoint operation compatible with $+$, $\times$ and $*$, such that $(A,+,\times)$ and $(A,+,*)$ are finite dimensional ${\rm C}^{*}$-algebras.
What are the axioms on $...

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104 views

### Is there an irreducible subfactor with an infinite homogeneous single chain lattice?

We know that we can build an irreducible subfactor realizing a finite single chain lattice containing any finite index irreducible maximal subfactors, by using the free composition (see here).
Now ...

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### Is every irreducible subfactor planar algebra a quotient of the planar algebra of tangles?

Let $\mathcal{T}_{n,\pm}$ be the vector space generated by the planar tangles (up to isomorphism) having $2n$ intervals on their "ouput'' disk and a white (or black) shaded marked interval. Then the ...

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### Can any finite lattice with at most six elements be realized as an intermediate subfactor lattice?

The paper Lattices of Intermediate Subfactors of Y. Watatani, received on December 1994, finishes by:
Prop. 6.2. $ \ $ Any finite lattice with at most five elements can be
realized as an ...

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### The planar algebra generated by the biprojections

Let $(N_1 \subset M_1)$ and $(N_2 \subset M_2)$ be two irreducible finite index subfactors.
Let $\mathcal{B}_i$ be the set of all the biprojections of $\mathcal{P}_{2+}(N_i \subset M_i)$.
Let $\...

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226 views

### Has a subfactor with lattice $B_3$, a singly generated identity biprojection?

Let $(N \subset M)$ be an irreducible finite index subfactor.
If its lattice of intermediate subfactors is equivalent to $B_3$ (the lattice of divisors of $n=p_1p_2p_3$ square free):
Question: ...

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130 views

### Is there a tangle encoding the fusion rules?

Let $(N \subset M)$ be an irreducible finite index depth $n$ subfactor. Let $P = P(N \subset M)$ its planar algebra.
Let $(B_i)$ be the finite sequence of $N$-$N$-bimodules appearing in the principal ...

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### Is there a Frobenius reciprocity for the coproduct?

Let $\mathcal{P}$ be an irreducible finite index-depth subfactor planar algebra. The $2$-boxes space $\mathcal{P}_{2,+}$ is equipped with the coproduct $(a,b) \mapsto a*b = \mathcal{F}(\mathcal{F}^{-...

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### Is the coproduct of central operators, also central?

Let $\mathcal{P}$ be an irreducible finite index-depth subfactor planar algebra. The $2$-boxes space $\mathcal{P}_{2,+}$ is equipped with the coproduct $(a,b) \mapsto a*b = \mathcal{F}(\mathcal{F}^{-...

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### Is a finite depth-index irreducible subfactor, intermediate of a depth ≤ 3 one?

Let $(N \subset M)$ be a finite depth-index irreducible subfactor.
Main question: Is $(N \subset M)$ the intermediate of a finite index depth $\le 3$ irreducible subfactor?
(In others words, is ...

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### Are the integer index finite depth irreducible subfactors Kac-coideal?

Is every integer index finite depth irreducible subfactors planar algebra, the intermediate of an irreducible finite index depth $2$ subfactors planar algebra?
In other words, of the following form (...

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### What are the first non-maximal non-group-subgroup simple irreducible subfactors?

Definition: For an irreducible (finite index) subfactor $(\mathcal{N} \subset \mathcal{M})$, an intermediate $(\mathcal{N} \subset \mathcal{P} \subset \mathcal{M})$
is normal if the biprojections $e_{...

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### What's the relation between fusion and coproduct?

For an irreducible finite depth finite index subfactor $(N \subset M)$, there is a structure of fusion category given by the even part of its principal graph. The simple objects $(X_i)_{i \in I}$ of ...

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### The coproduct on the 2-boxes space of the group-subgroup subfactor planar algebras

Let $(H \subset G)$ be an inclusion of finite groups.
Let the subfactor $(\mathcal{R} \rtimes H \subset \mathcal{R} \rtimes G)$ with $\mathcal{R}$ the hyperfinite ${\rm II}_1$ factor, and its planar ...

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### Jordan-Hölder theorem for planar algebras?

First recall the Jordan-Hölder theorem for groups:
Theorem (Jordan-Hölder): Let $G$ be a group, and let $$ G=G_1 \supset G_2 \supset \dots \supset G_r = \{ e \} $$ be a normal tower such that ...

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### Planar algebraic translation of a subfactor property

Let $N \subset M$ be an irreducible finite depth and finite index subfactor.
$M$ is a completely reducible (algebraic) $N$-$N$ bimodule, it decomposes into irreducibles as follows :
$$M=\bigoplus_{...

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### Are every finitely generated planar algebras, also singly generated?

Let $\mathcal{P}$ be a finitely generated planar algebra.
Question : Is it also singly generated ?
I ask this question, because, on one hand I've read on this paper of V. Jones and D. Bisch :
"...

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### An embedding theorem for a fusion ring planar algebra?

We first recall the embedding theorem for finite depth subfactor planar algebras:
The planar algebra generated by a (finite depth) subfactor, is embeddable into the planar algebra generated by its ...

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### Is the fundamental group of a maximal subfactor always $\mathbb{R}_{+}^{*}$?

The fundamental group $\mathcal{F}(N \subset M)$ of an inclusion of $II_{1}$ factors $N \subset M$ is defined as : $\mathcal{F}(N \subset M) =\{t >0 \ | \ (N \subset M)^{t} \simeq (N \subset M) \}...

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### What's the natural equivalence of subfactors in general?

Let $A$ be a factor and $\mathcal{C}_{A}$ be the category of all the subfactors $(M \subset N)$ such that $M$ and $N$ are isomorphic to $A$. The most famous of them is perhaps $\mathcal{C}_{R}$ with $...

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### Are there only finitely many maximal irreducible amenable subfactors at fixed finite index?

A subfactor $N \subset M $ is maximal if it admits no non-trivial intermediate subfactors $N \subset P \subset M $.
Question: Are there only finitely many maximal irreducible amenable subfactors at ...

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### Why is there such a close resemblance between the unitary representation theory of the Virasoro algebra and that of the Temperley-Lieb algebra?

For those who aren't familiar with the Virasoro or Temperley-Lieb algebras, I include some definitions:
• The (universal envelopping algebra of the) Virasoro algebra is the $\star$-algebra $...

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### What is the subfactor planar algebra of type $\tilde{A}_n$, of index 4?

As I understand it, there is a subfactor whose principal graph is the affine Dynkin diagram $\tilde{A}_n$. Since every vertex has two neighbors, does that mean the space of 1-boxes is two dimensional? ...

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### Invertibility of the planar algebra-subfactor correspondence

In Jones's paper "Planar Algebras I", Theorem 4.2.1 establishes that an extremal finite index subfactor admits a spherical C*-planar algebra structure, and Theorem 4.3.1 establishes that spherical C*-...

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### What are some natural and attractive open problems in Jones's theory of planar algebras?

I'm hoping to learn something about planar algebras while attacking a planar algebra question with an undergrad research student. I'm thinking about reading this paper, as Kuperberg's program seems ...

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### Which presentations of (non)planar algebras give rise to knots?

Reidermeister's theorem states that the set of knots, modulo ambient isotopy, is isomorphic to the planar algebra generated by crossings, modulo Reidemeister moves. This planar algebra presentation is ...

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### Why are fusion categories interesting?

In the same vein as Kate and Scott's questions, why are fusion categories interesting? I know that given a "suitably nice" fusion category (which probably means adding adjectives such as "unitary," "...

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### ubiquity, importance of path algebras

I work in planar algebras and subfactors, where the idea of path algebras on a graph (alternately known as graph algebras, graph planar algebras, etc.) is quite useful. The particular result I'm ...

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### Which computer algebra system should I be using to solve large systems of sparse linear equations over a number field?

This is related to Noah's recent question about solving quadratics in a number field, but about an even earlier and easier step.
Suppose I have a huge system of linear equations, say ~10^6 equations ...

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### Short Introduction to Planar Algebras

Are there any good short expositions of planar algebras out there? I am interested primarily in seeing the main definition and some explicit examples.