Questions tagged [paradox]

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What known paradoxes are associated with having a type-level tuple indexed by all ordinal numbers?

By type-level function it is meant a function that is definable by a stratified formula that assigns to its graph the same type it assigns to each element of its domain and to each element of its ...
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1answer
375 views

Put 10 balls in the jar then randomly take 1 out. Do it infinitely many times. Find the probability of resulting in an empty jar [closed]

The original discussion (in Chinese): https://www.zhihu.com/question/58702489 The original problem was from an probability theory exam. The problem is translated as: Assume an infinitely large jar ...
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873 views

Has anyone read/debunked Yessenin-Volpin–Hennix “Beware of the Gödel-Wette paradox”?

A student recently asked me about the status of a 2001 arXiv post, Beware of the Gödel-Wette paradox!, by Alexander Yessenin-Volpin (aka Esenin-Volpin and several other transliterations) and Catherine ...
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2answers
519 views

Avoiding reflexive paradox in set theory

I am an amateur mathematician, and certainly not a set theorist, but there seems to me to be an easy way around the reflexive paradox: Add to set theory the primitive $A(x,y)$, which we may think of ...
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690 views

Positive results coming from paradoxes

Many examples comes to mind, the most famous being the Gödel's theorems viewed as formalisations of the Liar's paradox. I just realised that the proof of non-calculability of Kolmogorov complexity is ...
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1k views

How to tell a paradox from a “paradox”?

Russell's paradox showed that naive set theory leads to a contradiction. This was something that was taken seriously and caused a lot of work. Now, Banach–Tarski paradox is arises from a result that ...
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3answers
3k views

James-Stein phenomenon: What does it mean that a James-Stein estimator beats least squares estimator?

Background James-Stein estimator and Stein's phenomenon, as described in Wikipedia are rather counterintuitive and amazing. It is claimed that if one wants to estimate the mean $\Theta$ of Gaussian ...
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1answer
2k views

Applications of Banach-Tarski Paradox to Probability Theory?

I was just curious, since the B-T paradox is a measure theoretic result, if there are any consequences of this paradox in probability theory? Also, is there is a way of stating the B-T paradox in the ...