# Questions tagged [ordinal-analysis]

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31
questions

**8**

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**1**answer

463 views

### Gentzen's result on PA

The Wikipedia states that Gentzen proved that "in modern terms, the proof-theoretic ordinal of PA is $\varepsilon_0$." Further down, the article defines what the "proof theoretic ordinal" of a theory ...

**10**

votes

**1**answer

159 views

### Is there a relation between type (maximum linearization) of a computable WQO and the ordinal strength of a theory needed to prove it?

Background:
Given a well partial order $X$ (more commonly studied with antisymmetry dropped as well-quasi-orders, but I'm going to say well partial order to make this definition simpler, obviously ...

**6**

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**0**answers

199 views

### What is proof-theoretic ordinal of weak first-order arithmetic?

According to Wikipedia(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ordinal_analysis) and nlab(https://ncatlab.org/nlab/show/ordinal+analysis), a proof-theoretic ordinal of $\mathsf{PRA}$ is $\omega^\omega$.
...

**1**

vote

**3**answers

725 views

### Regarding Gentzen's note regarding 'Godel-points' (i.e., “Where is the Godel-point hiding?”)

Consider the following note written by Gerhard Gentzen in early 1932, on the onset of his work on a consistency proof for arithmetic:
The axioms of arithmetic are obviously correct, and the ...

**1**

vote

**1**answer

295 views

### What does “can almost be proven in PA” mean regarding Theorem 2 of Timothy Chow's expository article, “The Consistency of Arithmetic”?

In his expository article, "The Consistency of Arithmetic" (MSN), Prof. Chow has the following theorems:
Theorem 1. If $a_1, a_2, a_3,\dotsc$ is a sequence of ordinals and $a_i \ge a_j$ whenever $...

**11**

votes

**1**answer

347 views

### What system suffices to show the strength of PRA is $\omega^\omega$?

Russell O'Connor wrote in 2009 (link):
PRA has consistency strength equivalent to the well-foundness of $\omega^\omega$, which can be stated again as the termination of some other program on all ...

**3**

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**0**answers

123 views

### Partial well-ordering of formulas

Given a theory $T$, for arbitrary formulas $φ$ and $ψ$ that provably in $T$ denote an ordinal, set $[φ]_T < [ψ]_T$ iff provably in $T$, the ordinal denoted by $φ$ is less than the ordinal denoted ...

**7**

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191 views

### Natural examples of recursive pseudowellorderings

Question: What are some natural examples of recursive pseudowellorderings?
By natural, I mean in the style of reasonable ordinal notation systems as opposed to dependent on a Gödel numbering or an ...

**4**

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**0**answers

202 views

### Ordinal analysis and nonrecursive ordinals

Ordinal analysis is typically described as characterizing recursive ordinals in a theory $T$, but there is a sense in which it can characterize all $T$-ordinals, even those that are nonrecursive.
...

**3**

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**1**answer

508 views

### Going beyond the strength of Peano arithmetic “without sets”

First-order arithmetic is fairly weak, as measured for example by its consistency strength. When a stronger theory is desired, it is common to work with (fragments of) second-order arithmetic or set ...

**6**

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**1**answer

188 views

### Correspondence between proof-theoretic ordinals and fast growing functions?

For theories with well known proof-theoretic-ordinals, (what) is there a correspondence between their proof-theoretic-ordinal and (ordinal indexed families of?) fast growing functions provable total ...

**2**

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**0**answers

263 views

### What is the Proof-Theoretic Ordinal of KPh?

If we work in this notation:
$$C_0 (\alpha, \beta) = \beta \cup \lbrace 0 \rbrace$$
$$C_{n+1} (\alpha, \beta) = \lbrace \gamma + \delta, \omega^\gamma, \Omega_{\gamma}, I_{\gamma}, \psi_\pi(\eta) | \...

**5**

votes

**1**answer

293 views

### A question about ordinal analysis

I have several questions related to ordinal analysis.
According to [1], here are the proof-theoretic ordinal of some well-known theories (using $|T|$ do denotate the proof-theoretic ordinal of $T$):
...

**8**

votes

**4**answers

991 views

### Formalizations of The Matchstick Diagram Representation of Ordinals

The matchstick diagram is a really interesting and intuitive method of representing countable ordinals. However, because of how difficult it is to graphically represent ordinals with it, I started ...

**10**

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**1**answer

253 views

### Complexity of induction formulas in proof theoretic ordinals

According to The Art of Ordinal Analysis, the proof theoretic ordinal of a theory $T$ is the least ordinal $\alpha$ such that:
$${\bf ERA}+TI(\alpha,ECP)\vdash Con(T)$$
In above definition, $ECP$ ...

**4**

votes

**1**answer

283 views

### What countable ordinals are called $\kappa_\alpha$?

Jervell has a notation for countable ordinals up to the small Veblen ordinal using trees:
• Herman Ruge Jervell, How to wellorder finite trees
and get good ordinal notations, Berkeley Logic ...

**13**

votes

**2**answers

734 views

### How can any theory prove well-foundedness of ordinals above $\omega_1^{\text{CK}}$?

$\newcommand{\omegaoneck}{\omega_1^{\text{CK}}}$
Pardon the extremely basic question - this isn't quite my area - but I'm confused about the definition of proof theoretic ordinals.
The proof ...

**9**

votes

**2**answers

952 views

### Why is there a need for ordinal analysis?

Consider the Peano axioms. There exists a model for them (namely, the natural numbers with a ordering relation $<$, binary function $+$, and constant term $0$). Therefore, by the model existence ...

**7**

votes

**1**answer

529 views

### Which ordinals are proof-theoretic ordinals?

Few months ago I have posted this question on MO, but I must admit that at the time, admittedly, I had no idea on how technical proof-theoretic considerations can be. I have decided to revise this ...

**7**

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**2**answers

347 views

### Models of PRA/EFA with induction on $X$ but not $\omega^X$

As I currently understand it, induction on formulas containing $N+1$ first-order quantifiers is required to prove the well-ordering of the ordinal $(\omega \uparrow\uparrow N) < \epsilon_0$, that ...

**27**

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**1**answer

1k views

### Why isn't this a computable description of the ordinal of ZF?

In a previous MO question, I was told by several commenters that
(a) it's known that there exists a computable ordinal $\alpha_{ZF}$ that "encodes the strength of ZF set theory" (i.e., a least ...

**19**

votes

**0**answers

440 views

### Can Gentzen-style proofs give omega-consistency and beyond?

In 1936, Gentzen famously showed that Primitive Recursive Arithmetic, plus the assumption that the ordinal $\epsilon_0$ is well-founded, is able to prove Con(PA). But of course, Con(PA) doesn't yet ...

**37**

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**2**answers

2k views

### Is there a computable ordinal encoding the proof strength of ZF? Is it knowable?

In comments on Quora (see, for example, here, here, here), Ron Maimon has repeatedly expressed the strong opinion that Hilbert's program was not killed by Gödel's results in the way typically ...

**12**

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**1**answer

617 views

### What is the proof-theoretic ordinal of PA + Con(PA), PA + Con(PA + Con(PA)) etc., and why?

I seem to remember having read that the proof-theoretic ordinal (sup of ordinals the theory can prove well-ordered) of $\mathsf{PA} + \mathsf{Con}(\mathsf{PA})$ is the same as that of $\mathsf{PA}$, ...

**3**

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**0**answers

686 views

### What is the role of the (formalized) omega rule in Ramified Analysis?

In the 1960's, Feferman and Schutte did groundbreaking proof-theoretic work to find out the strength of predicative systems of second-order arithmetic. They used the ramified theory of types, a ...

**3**

votes

**2**answers

542 views

### What is the proof-theoretic ordinal of Hyperarithmetical Comprehension?

As I discuss in my answer here, it seems to me that Solomon Feferman shows, on pages 10-11 of his seminal 1964 paper "Systems of Predicative Analysis", that if you consider predicative second-order ...

**5**

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**1**answer

545 views

### Can the Burgess-Hazen analysis of Predicative Arithmetic be extended to Transfinite Types?

Around page 300 of his book "Mathematical Thought and its Objects", Charles Parsons discusses the work of Edward Nelson, who believes that mathematical induction is impredicative, because it can be ...

**3**

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**0**answers

534 views

### Is there a notion of “predicative given the real numbers”?

A definition is called impredicative if it involves quantification over a domain that contains the thing being defined. For instance, if you define hereditary property to be a property which applies ...

**35**

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**3**answers

2k views

### Why do stacked quantifiers in PA correspond to ordinals up to $\epsilon_0$?

I am trying to understand why induction up to exactly $\epsilon_0$ is necessary to prove the cut-elimination theorem for first-order Peano Arithmetic; or, as I understand, equivalently, why the length ...

**8**

votes

**1**answer

641 views

### ERA, PRA, PA, transfinite induction and equivalences

I'm quite sure I don't understand very well the links between proof theoretical ordinals of theories, the axioms of transfinite induction and the objects a theory can prove to exist.
For instance I'm ...

**8**

votes

**2**answers

751 views

### Ordinal Analysis of Peano Arithmetic with Restricted Induction

If we take Peano Arithmetic and restrict induction to formulas over various fragments of the arithmetic hierarchy, say to the $\Sigma^0_n$ formulas for various $n$ or some other interesting fragments, ...