# Questions tagged [nt.number-theory]

Prime numbers, diophantine equations, diophantine approximations, analytic or algebraic number theory, arithmetic geometry, Galois theory, transcendental number theory, continued fractions

10,465 questions

**5**

votes

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145 views

### Divisor bound for $r_2$ off the origin

If $r_2(n)$ denotes the number of integer solutions to $a^2+b^2=n$, we have the "divisor bound" $r_2(n) = O(n^{\epsilon})$ for any $\epsilon>0$. Another way to state this is that the number of ...

**9**

votes

**1**answer

260 views

### Is there a substitution that relates every Fermat curve to an elliptic curve?

I asked this question on MSE but didn't get any response, so I'm asking here. I apologize in advance if this question is not research level.
A Fermat Curve of degree $n$ is the set of solutions to $x^...

**-1**

votes

**1**answer

199 views

### On a certain representation of the Riemann zeta function

Let $\zeta$ denote the Riemann zeta function. In this answer: https://mathoverflow.net/a/314066/133634, @Paul Garret considers the representation
$$\frac{\zeta(s)}{s} = \int_1^\infty (\sum_{1 \le n \...

**3**

votes

**1**answer

86 views

### Comparing the height of a curve and a singly branched cover

Let $C$ be an algebraic curve of genus $g \geq 2$ defined over a number field $K$, having good reduction outside of a finite set $S$ of primes in $K$. A singly branched cover $C'$ of $C$ is a curve ...

**4**

votes

**0**answers

130 views

### Field K and integer n such that the etale fundamental group of (GL_n)_K is the profinite completion of GL_n(K)?

Prove or disprove:
Claim: there exists a field $K$ and an integer $n$ such that $\pi_1^{et}((GL_n)_K)$ is isomorphic to the profinite completion of the abstract group $GL_n(K)$?
Note that then $G_K \...

**4**

votes

**0**answers

97 views

### Plancherel measure and dimension

I would like to understand what the Plancherel measure is on the dual of a compact group, in more explicit terms than with an implicit definition. Indeed, to the extent of my knowledge it is defined ...

**14**

votes

**2**answers

329 views

### A tantalizing Gamma quotient to challenge the Rohrlich-Lang Conjecture

The Rohrlich-Lang Conjecture for polynomial relations in Gamma values predicts that all polynomial relations between Gamma values over $\mathbb Q$ come from the functional equations satisﬁed by the ...

**0**

votes

**0**answers

127 views

### Dirichlet theorem on primes in ap with a prime index

Someone know a result like this:
Given $a,b\in\mathbb{N}$, with $a>b>0$, $(a,b)=1$ and a $\not \equiv b \pmod 2$ ,then there exist at least one prime $p$ such that $ap+b$ is a prime number too.

**2**

votes

**0**answers

78 views

### Local polynomials of Frobenius-semisimple Weil representations which are tensor products of an Artin representation and an unramified character

Let $K$ be a local field and $\rho: W_K \to \operatorname{GL}(V)$ be a Weil representation. The for any finite extension $F/K$, we define the local polynomial
$$
P(\rho|_F,T) = \det{(1 - \operatorname{...

**2**

votes

**0**answers

140 views

### Is there a general method for solving Diophantine equations of this type?

Is there a general method for solving Diophantine equations of the form
$${x_1}^n + {x_2}^n+ \cdots + {x_m}^n ={x_{m+1}}^n$$ where $x_{i}\geq 1, m\geq 3$ and $n\geq 2$ are integers ?
I would also be ...

**0**

votes

**0**answers

25 views

### Explanation for Dependency of Solvability of a System of Linear Equations on a Number Theoretic Property

The origin of this question is that I found a way to 'eliminate' vertex weights from weighted $K_n$ graphs, i.e. if one assumes that the weight $w_{ij}$ of edge $e_{ij}$ can be expressed as $\pi_i+\...

**2**

votes

**0**answers

154 views

### Does there exist $a_0$, such that $\{a_n\}_{n=0}^{\infty}$ is unbounded?

Suppose $\{a_n\}_{n=0}^{\infty}$ is a sequence, defined by the recurrence relation
$$
a_{n+1} = \phi(a_n) + \sigma(a_n) - a_n,
$$
where $\sigma$ denotes the divisor sum function and $\phi$ is Euler'...

**3**

votes

**1**answer

143 views

### Number of lattice points on spheres with center not at the origin

Let $k\ge1$. It is known that the number of lattice points on the $k$-sphere $S^k(0)$ (center at the origin, radius $R$), namely the size of $\mathbb{Z}^{k+1}\cap S^k(0)$, is bounded by $R^{k-1+\...

**1**

vote

**1**answer

167 views

### Inquiry on the bound for $\int_{0}^{T} \Big|\log|\zeta(1/2 + it)| \Big| \mathrm{d}t$

Let $\zeta$ be the zeta function of Riemann. Is the bound for
$$I_{T}=\int_{0}^{T} \Big|\log|\zeta(1/2 + it)| \Big| \mathrm{d}t$$
known ?
It seems to me that $I_{T} \ll T\log T$ since $\log|\zeta(...

**11**

votes

**1**answer

368 views

### Finiteness or infiniteness for Galois representations with unusual Hodge numbers

Say a representation $\operatorname{Gal}(\mathbb Q) \to GL_n(\overline{\mathbb Q}_\ell)$ has big monodromy if the Zariski closure of the image of $\operatorname{Gal}(\mathbb Q) $ contains $SO_n$ or $...

**12**

votes

**2**answers

553 views

### Find all $m$ such $2^m+1\mid5^m-1$

The problem comes from a problem I encountered when I wrote the article
Find all positive integer $m$ such
$$2^{m}+1\mid5^m-1$$
it seem there no solution. I think it might be necessary to use ...

**20**

votes

**2**answers

738 views

### Where's the best place for an algebraic geometer to learn some algebraic number theory?

There are lots of introductions to number theory out there, but typically they are streamlined to assume as little prerequisite knowledge as possible. I'm looking for a text which does the opposite -- ...

**5**

votes

**1**answer

155 views

### Kato's Euler System for Isogenous Elliptic Curves

Let $E,E^\prime$ be elliptic curves over $\mathbb{Q}$ and also suppose they are $p$-isogenous. How are the Euler systems corresponding to the two isogenous elliptic curves related, if at all?

**9**

votes

**1**answer

282 views

### Are there infinitely many real multiplication fields of abelian surfaces over $\mathbb Q$?

Do there exist infinitely many real quadratic fields $F$ such that there is an abelian surface $A$ over $\mathbb Q$ whose ring of endomorphisms, tensored with $\mathbb Q$, is $F$?
Do there exist ...

**1**

vote

**0**answers

32 views

### A $\mathbb C$-linear map from $M(p-1,\mathbb C)$ to $\mathbb C^\hat G$, where $p$ is an odd prime and $G=\mathbb Z/(p) ^\times$

Let $p$ be an odd prime and $G=(\mathbb Z/(p))^\times=\{1,2,...,p-1\}$ i.e. $G$ is a cyclic group of order $p-1$. Let $\hat G:=\{\chi:G \to \mathbb C^\times : \chi $ is a group homomorphism $\}$. For ...

**3**

votes

**0**answers

73 views

### Jacobians of pointed curves

Let $Y$ be an algebraic curve of genus $g \geq 1$ defined over a number field $K$. If $Y$ has a $K$-point, then one can define the Abel-Jacobi map which embeds $Y$ into its Jacobian variety $\text{Jac}...

**2**

votes

**0**answers

69 views

### Understanding an equality in the paper “Class groups, totally positive units, and squares”

This is an excerpt from the paper "Class groups, totally positive units, and squares" (page 36). I am struggling to understand the last equality $|K^{(1)}_{2}:K|=|\overline{O}_K^{+}|$, the bar ...

**5**

votes

**3**answers

366 views

### Intersection of $\{2^a 3^b 5^c 7^d\}$ and its translates

Let $S$ be the set of positive integers of the form $2^a3^b 5^c 7^d$. I need information about the cardinality of the intersection of $S$ and its translates. In particular, is $S \cap (S+t)$ ...

**1**

vote

**1**answer

139 views

### On $\det[x+(\frac{i\pm j}p)]_{1\le i,j\le(p-1)/2}$ for primes $p\equiv 3\pmod 4$

I have made the followng conjecture on the basis of my computation.
Conjecture. For any prime $p\equiv3\pmod4$ with $p>3$, we have
$$\det\left[x+\left(\frac{i+j}p\right)\right]_{1\le i,j\le(p-1)/2}...

**0**

votes

**0**answers

82 views

### Upper bound of $\zeta$-function on critical strip

How can I determine any upper bound for $|\frac{\zeta^4(s)}{\zeta(2s)}+d\cdot\zeta^2(s)|$ on the critical strip $s=\frac12+it$ for an integer $d$?

**7**

votes

**0**answers

77 views

### Bound for orbital integrals

Let $F$ be a number field, and $G$ be the group of units of a quaternion algebra $D$ over $F$. At a certain ramified place $v$, for $\gamma_v \in G(F_v)$, could we bound the orbital integral
$$\...

**1**

vote

**1**answer

46 views

### Valuation of congruent elements in a local division ring

Let $K$ be a complete local division ring (note $v$ its valuation). For $x,y\in K$ ($y\ne0$), one puts $x^y=yxy^{-1}$. Let $r\in\mathbb N$. Consider $x,y\in K$ and $a,b\in K^*$ such that $v(x-y)\ge r$ ...

**1**

vote

**1**answer

176 views

### Largest cardinality $n$ of a subset $A$ of $\{1,2,\ldots,M\}$ such that $(A+A) \cap A$ is empty

Assume that the set $A$ does not have simple structures (such as the case that when all elements are odd numbers in $[1,M/2]$ then all sums are even thus there are no solutions, as pointed out by @...

**11**

votes

**1**answer

172 views

### Does every section of the map Gal$(\overline{k(\!(t)\!)}/k(\!(t)\!))\rightarrow$ Gal$(\overline{k}/k)$ stabilize a compatible system of roots of $t$?

There may be some technical issues with the question, but hopefully what I mean is clear...
Let $k$ be a number field (or maybe any finitely generated field over $\mathbb{Q}$ of characteristic 0)
...

**13**

votes

**0**answers

269 views

### Hensel lemma and rational points in complete noetherian local ring

Let $A$ be a complete noetherian local ring and $\mathfrak{m}$ be its maximal ideal.
If we have several polynomials $f_i \in A[X_1, \dots, X_m]$ which have a common zero $x_n$ in $A/\mathfrak{m}^n$ ...

**1**

vote

**1**answer

215 views

### Two versions of the Möbius inversion formula

Consider the following versions of Möbius inversion:
Let $(A,+)$ be an abelian group, and let $f$ and $g$ be functions $\mathbb N\rightarrow A$. Then $$\left((\forall n )\;g(n)=\sum_{d|n}f(d)\right)\;...

**1**

vote

**0**answers

41 views

### A conjectural formula for the “minimal degree function”, $k\rightarrow d\min(k)$, attached to recursion, $f\rightarrow A(f)$, in char $3$

THE RECURSION: $f\rightarrow A(f)$
$A: t(\mathbb{Z}/3)[t^3]\rightarrow t(\mathbb{Z}/3)[t^3]$ is the $\mathbb{Z}/3$-linear map with $A(t)=0, A(t^4)=t, A(t^7)=t^4$, and $A((t^9)f)=(2t^9)A(f)+(t^3)A((t^...

**6**

votes

**0**answers

151 views

### A refinement of Faltings' lemma

In his proof of the Mordell conjecture, Faltings proved the following important result:
Let $K$ be a number field and $S$ a finite set of primes in $K$. Then for any $g \geq 2$ there exists a number $...

**1**

vote

**0**answers

133 views

### Reference to a particular result of Scholl and Faltings

Let $f=\sum_{n\geq 1} a_n q^n$ be a normalized eigenform which is supersingular and crystalline at a prime $p$ and let $V_f$ be the associated crystalline representation, then it follows from the work ...

**3**

votes

**0**answers

47 views

### How does the $\lambda$ invariant propagate with extra ramification?

Let $\mathbb{Q}^{cyc}$ denote the cyclotomic $\mathbb{Z}_p$ extension of $\mathbb{Q}$ and let $\Lambda$ denote the corresponding Iwasawa algebra. Let $p$ be a prime. Let $S$ denote a finite set of ...

**-1**

votes

**1**answer

248 views

### Write the algebra closure of $F_p$ as union of finite fields [closed]

This question follows Field theory by Steven Roman, Chapter 9, Exercise 20.
Denote the algebraic closure of the finite field $F_q$ by $\Gamma(q)$, and let $a_n$ be any strictly increasing infinite ...

**1**

vote

**0**answers

123 views

### A family of crystalline representations

Let $K$ be a number field and let $v$ be a finite place of $K$. Further, let $g \geq 1$ be a positive integer. Consider the family $F(K,v,g)$ consisting of abelian varieties $A$ of dimension $2g$, ...

**1**

vote

**1**answer

114 views

### Local root numbers of the Hecke character associated with some specific CM elliptic curves, should they be some roots of unity?

TL;DR.
Some local root numbers of the Hecke character associated with our specific CM elliptic curve by $\mathbf{Q}(i)$ seem to have value in $\mu_4$. But apparently our computation via Rohrlich's ...

**20**

votes

**2**answers

2k views

### A Putnam problem with a twist

This question is motivated by one of the problem set from this year's Putnam Examination. That is,
Problem. Let $S_1, S_2, \dots, S_{2^n-1}$ be the nonempty subsets of $\{1,2,\dots,n\}$ in some ...

**4**

votes

**0**answers

154 views

### Is there some computational evidence of the $pq$ analog of Serre's conjecture?

The $pq$ analog of Serre's conjecture (see "Mod pq Galois representations and Serre's Conjecture"- Khare, Kiming) states that if $\bar{\rho}_1:G_{\mathbb{Q}}\rightarrow \text{GL}_2(\mathbb{F}_p)$ is a ...

**4**

votes

**0**answers

121 views

### Is there a conjectural analog of Ribet's theorem (Converse to Herbrand's Theorem) for Imaginary Quadratic fields?

For $p$ a prime, let $Cl(\mathbb{Q}(\mu_p))$ denote the class group of the extension of $\mathbb{Q}$ obtained by adjoining a primitive $p$th root of unity. Associated to an eigenform of weight 2 and ...

**2**

votes

**1**answer

101 views

### When does the double coset representative for a congruence subgroup contain a $\text{SL}_2(\mathbb{Z})$-conjugacy class?

In the paper p-adic L-functions and p-adic periods of modular forms, Greenberg/Stevens assert that if $\sigma_l:=\begin{pmatrix}l&0\\0&1\end{pmatrix}$ is the usual Hecke operator at $l$ double ...

**4**

votes

**0**answers

71 views

### Minimal index of number fields of small degree

Let $K$ be a number field and let $\mathcal{O}_K$ be its ring of integers. For $a \in \mathcal{O}_K$ not contained in any proper subfield of $K$, the ring $\mathbb{Z}[a]$ is contained in $\mathcal{O}...

**-1**

votes

**1**answer

124 views

### summation of Euler totient function

Let $\phi(n)$ be the Euler totient function and let $2\leq k\in\mathbb{N}$. For $m\in\mathbb{N}$, are there any known results, upper bounds (tighter than just removing the coprimality) or ...

**-1**

votes

**0**answers

72 views

### How many pairs of integer numbers with bounded product?

Let $r\in (0,1)$ and denote by $A_r$ the set
$A_r=\left\{ a,b\in\mathbb{N} ~:~ a,b\leq N, a\cdot b\leq rN^2 \right\}$. Is it possible to find a good estimation for $|A_r|$?
It is known that $|A_r|= r(...

**12**

votes

**0**answers

176 views

### sequences in non-abelian group cohomology

In general, if we have a (pro-)finite group $G$ and a sequence of (continuous) non-abelian $G$-modules $$1\rightarrow A\rightarrow B\rightarrow C\rightarrow 0,$$ such that the image of $A$ lies in the ...

**3**

votes

**1**answer

211 views

### Minimum planar bipartite graph to cover all perfect matching count

Given set $\mathcal T_n=\{0,1,\dots,2^n-1\}$ what is the minimum number of vertices $2m$ needed in a planar bipartite balanced graph such that at every $i\in\mathcal T_n$ there is a graph $G\in\...

**5**

votes

**0**answers

72 views

### “middle” partial denominator in continued fraction expansion of square roots

Suppose $d$ is a positive integer that is not a perfect square such that the negative Pell equation, $x^{2}-dy^{2}=-1$ has no solution. Then we know the minimal period of the continued fraction ...

**2**

votes

**0**answers

84 views

### Generalizing characterizing crystalline representations of dimension 2 to certain special classes of crystalline representations of higher dimension

Let $A$ be an abelian variety defined over a number field $K$, and let $v$ be a prime of $K$ such that $A$ has good reduction modulo $v$. Let $\rho$ be the representation of $G_K = \text{Gal}(\...

**23**

votes

**1**answer

722 views

### Intuitive reason why the $j$-invariant is a cube?

Let $\tau$ be a CM point of discriminant $D$. Assume that $D$ is not divisible by $3$. Then $j(\tau)$ is an algebraic integer of degree equal to the class number $h(D)$. Let $ \gamma_2(\tau)=j(\tau)^{...