# Questions tagged [nt.number-theory]

Prime numbers, diophantine equations, diophantine approximations, analytic or algebraic number theory, arithmetic geometry, Galois theory, transcendental number theory, continued fractions

1,344 questions

**12**

votes

**3**answers

1k views

### Bound the error in estimating a relative totient function

Let $n=p_1^{e_1}\cdots p_k^{e_k}$ be an integer with $k$ prime factors. We know that the number of integers less than $n$ and coprime to it is
$$\Phi(n)=n-\sum_i\frac n{p_i}+\sum_{i \lt j}\frac n{...

**80**

votes

**4**answers

11k views

### How small can a sum of a few roots of unity be?

Let $n$ be a large natural number, and let $z_1, \ldots, z_{10}$ be (say) ten $n^{th}$ roots of unity: $z_1^n = \ldots = z_{10}^n = 1$. Suppose that the sum $S = z_1+\ldots+z_{10}$ is non-zero. How ...

**39**

votes

**2**answers

3k views

### What is known about the sum x^{n^2}/n?

It follows from a general theorem of Honda that the formal group with the logarithm
$$
x+x^{2^s}/2+x^{3^s}/3+x^{4^s}/4+\cdots
$$
has integer coefficients. I became interested in it because its $p$-...

**33**

votes

**4**answers

4k views

### Which number fields are monogenic? and related questions

A number field $K$ is said to be monogenic when $\mathcal{O}_K=\mathbb{Z}[\alpha]$ for some $\alpha\in\mathcal{O}_K$. What is currently known about which $K$ are monogenic? Which are not? From Marcus'...

**7**

votes

**0**answers

3k views

### Is the conjecture A+B=C following correct?

Is the conjecture on A+B=C following correct ?
Conjecture: Let $A, B, C$ be three positive integer numbers such that $A+B=C$ with $\gcd(A, B, C) = 1$. By Fundamental theorem of arithmetic we write:
...

**13**

votes

**3**answers

1k views

### Hecke equidistribution

For a prime $p\equiv 1\pmod{4}$, we can write $p=a^2+b^2=N(a+bi)$. Therefore
$$
a+bi=p^{1/2}e^{i\varphi}
$$
where $\varphi\in [0,2\pi]$. I know that Hecke proved that $\varphi$ is equidistributed. I ...

**266**

votes

**7**answers

126k views

### Philosophy behind Mochizuki's work on the ABC conjecture

Mochizuki has recently announced a proof of the ABC conjecture. It is far too early to judge its correctness, but it builds on many years of work by him. Can someone briefly explain the philosophy ...

**45**

votes

**3**answers

4k views

### Number of elements in the set $\{1,\cdots,n\}\cdot\{1,\cdots,n\}$

Let $A_n=\{a\cdot b : a,b \in \mathbb{N}, a,b\leq n\}$. Are there any estimates for $|A_n|$? Will it be $o(n^2)$?

**44**

votes

**1**answer

2k views

### improving known bounds for Pierce expansions; cash prize

Here's a problem that I thought of back in 1978 or so, and only a little progress has been made on it since then. I still think about it from time to time, but probably not that many people have ...

**19**

votes

**5**answers

5k views

### Rational points on a sphere in $\mathbb{R}^d$

Call a point of $\mathbb{R}^d$ rational if all its $d$ coordinates are rational numbers.
Q1.
Are the rational points dense on the unit sphere $S :\; x_1^2 +\cdots+ x_d^2 = 1$, i.e. does $S$ ...

**23**

votes

**5**answers

2k views

### Are the 'semi' trivial zeros of $\zeta(s) \pm \zeta(1-s)$ all on the critical line?

The proof that $\Gamma(z)\pm \Gamma(1-z)$ only has zeros for $z \in \mathbb{R}$ or $z= \frac12 +i \mathbb{R}$ has been given here:
Are all zeros of $\Gamma(s) \pm \Gamma(1-s)$ on a line with real ...

**25**

votes

**2**answers

4k views

### Distinct numbers in multiplication table

Consider multiplication table for numbers $1,2,\cdots, n$. How many different numbers are there? That is how many different numbers of the form $ij$ with $1 \le i, j \le n$ are there?
I'm interested ...

**14**

votes

**2**answers

1k views

### On a result attributed to W. Ljunggren and T. Nagell

I've read in a number of places that, building on previous work of T. Nagell, W. Ljunggren proved in 1 that the Diophantine equation
$$\frac{x^{n}-1}{x-1} = y^{2}$$
doesn't admit solutions in ...

**10**

votes

**0**answers

1k views

### Would the following conjectures imply $\lim\inf_{n\to\infty}p_{n+k}-p_{n}=O(k\log k)$?

Assume Goldbach's conjecture. Then for every $n\ge 2$ there exists at least one non-negative integer $r\le n-2$ such that both $n+r$ and $n-r$ are primes. Let's write $r_{0}(n):=\inf\{r\le n-2, (n-r,n+...

**72**

votes

**6**answers

14k views

### Zagier's one-sentence proof of a theorem of Fermat

Zagier has a very short proof (MR1041893, JSTOR) for the fact that every prime number $p$ of the form $4k+1$ is the sum of two squares.
The proof defines an involution of the set $S= \lbrace (x,y,z) \...

**35**

votes

**4**answers

5k views

### Is there an “elementary” proof of the infinitude of completely split primes?

Let K be a Galois extension of the rationals with degree n. The Chebotarev Density Theorem guarantees that the rational primes that split completely in K have density 1/n and thus there are infinitely ...

**33**

votes

**2**answers

6k views

### Is this Riemann zeta function product equal to the Fourier transform of the von Mangoldt function?

Mathematica knows that:
$$\log(n) = \lim\limits_{s \rightarrow 1} \zeta(s)\left(1 - \frac{1}{n^{(s - 1)}}\right)\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\; (1)$$
The von Mangoldt function should then be:
$$\Lambda(n)=...

**29**

votes

**3**answers

3k views

### Is there a ring of integers except for Z, such that every extension of it is ramified?

This is probably common knowledge, alas I have to confess my ignorance.
In simpler more abstract language, does $\mathcal{O}_K$ being simply connected (having trivial etale $\pi_1$) imply $\mathcal{O}...

**42**

votes

**3**answers

2k views

### What fraction of the integer lattice can be seen from the origin?

Consider the integer lattice points in the positive quadrant $Q$ of $\mathbb{Z}^2$.
Say that a point $(x,y)$ of $Q$ is visible from the origin if the
segment from $(0,0)$ to $(x,y) \in Q$ passes ...

**21**

votes

**7**answers

4k views

### Asymptotic density of k-almost primes

Let $\pi_k(x)=|\{n\le x:n=p_1p_2\cdots p_k\}|$ be the counting function for the k-almost primes, generalizing $\pi(x)=\pi_1(x)$. A result of Landau is
$$\pi_k(x)\sim\frac{x(\log\log x)^{k-1}}{(k-1)!\...

**41**

votes

**5**answers

3k views

### The resultant and the ideal generated by two polynomials in $\mathbb{Z}[x]$

I was asked the following question by a colleague and was embarrassed not to know the answer.
Let $f(x), g(x) \in \mathbb{Z}[x]$ with no root in common. Let $I = (f(x),g(x))\cap \mathbb{Z}$, that is, ...

**33**

votes

**4**answers

3k views

### Cliques, Paley graphs and quadratic residues

A question I've thought about, on and off for a long time, is how to improve the best bounds that (seem to be) known for the clique numbers of Paley graphs.
If p=1 mod 4 is a prime, we can define the ...

**28**

votes

**2**answers

8k views

### About Goldbach's conjecture

let's consider a composite natural number $n$ greater or equal to $4$. Goldbach's conjecture is equivalent to the following statement: "there is at least one natural number $r$ such as $(n-r)$ and $(n+...

**14**

votes

**4**answers

6k views

### Is there a simple way to compute the number of ways to write a positive integer as the sum of three squares?

It's a standard theorem that the number of ways to write a positive integer N as the sum of two squares is given by four times the difference between its number of divisors which are congruent to 1 ...

**19**

votes

**6**answers

3k views

### Erik Westzynthius's cool upper bound argument: update?

Version 2 of this writeup is
available, and includes a newer and simple upper bound thanks to
MathOverflow 88777 as
well as indirect references to future writeups. Details of further work
...

**16**

votes

**0**answers

830 views

### Groups generated by 3 involutions

Let $r(m)$ denote the residue class $r+m\mathbb{Z}$, where $0 \leq r < m$.
Given disjoint residue classes $r_1(m_1)$ and $r_2(m_2)$, let the class transposition
$\tau_{r_1(m_1),r_2(m_2)}$ be the ...

**23**

votes

**1**answer

736 views

### Is the Golomb countable connected space topologically rigid?

The Golomb space $\mathbb G$ is the set of positive integers endowed with the topology generated by the base consisting of the arithmetic progressions $a+b\mathbb N_0$ with relatively prime $a,b$ and $...

**19**

votes

**4**answers

2k views

### Is the Euler product formula always divergent for 0<Re(s)<1?

It is known that the Euler product formula converges for $\Re(s)>1$
(and there it represents the Riemann zeta function).
My question: Is the Euler product always divergent for
$0 < \Re(s) < ...

**20**

votes

**2**answers

904 views

### A closed form for an integral expressed as a finite series of $\zeta(2k+1)$, $\pi^m$ and a rational?

In this paper the following beautiful integral expression for $\zeta(3)$ is derived:
$$\zeta(3)=\frac{1}{7}\,\int_0^{\pi} x\,(\pi-x)\csc(x)\, dx$$
In a comment at the end of this question, I ...

**76**

votes

**9**answers

10k views

### Why should I believe the Mordell Conjecture?

It was Faltings who first proved in 1983 the Mordell conjecture, that a curve of genus 2 or more over a number field has only finitely many rational points.
I am interested to know why Mordell and ...

**36**

votes

**2**answers

4k views

### Why is Class Field Theory the same as Langlands for GL_1?

I've heard many people say that class field theory is the same as the Langlands conjectures for GL_1 (and more specifically, that local Langlands for GL_1 is the same as local class field theory). ...

**49**

votes

**5**answers

6k views

### Is the Riemann Hypothesis equivalent to a $\Pi_1$ sentence?

1) Can the Riemann Hypothesis (RH) be expressed as a $\Pi_1$ sentence?
More formally,
2) Is there a $\Pi_1$ sentence which is provably equivalent to RH in PA?
Update (July 2010):
So we have two ...

**52**

votes

**6**answers

3k views

### Are all zeros of $\Gamma(s) \pm \Gamma(1-s)$ on a line with real part = $\frac12$ ?

The function $\Gamma(s)$ does not have zeros, but $\Gamma(s)\pm \Gamma(1-s)$ does.
Ignoring the real solutions for now and assuming $s \in \mathbb{C}$ then:
$\Gamma(s)-\Gamma(1-s)$ yields zeros at:
...

**57**

votes

**3**answers

7k views

### What is the status of the Gauss Circle Problem?

For $r > 0$, let $L(r) = \# \{ (x,y) \in \mathbb{Z}^2 \ | \ x^2 + y^2 \leq r^2\}$ be the number of lattice points lying on or inside the standard circle of radius $r$. It is easy to see that $L(r) ...

**52**

votes

**4**answers

3k views

### An interesting integral expression for $\pi^n$?

I came on the following multiple integral while renormalizing elliptic multiple zeta values:
$$\int_0^1\cdots \int_0^1\int_1^\infty {{1}\over{t_n(t_{n-1}+t_n)\cdots (t_1+\cdots+t_n)}} dt_n\cdots dt_1.$...

**38**

votes

**1**answer

3k views

### Is it possible to show that $\sum_{n=1}^{\infty} \frac{\mu(n)}{\sqrt{n}}$ diverges?

Let $\mu(n)$ denote the Mobius function with the well-known Dirichlet series representation
$$
\frac{1}{\zeta(s)} = \sum_{n=1}^{\infty} \frac{\mu(n)}{n^{s}}.
$$
Basic theorems about Dirichlet series ...

**22**

votes

**3**answers

9k views

### Which integers can be expressed as a sum of three cubes in infinitely many ways?

For fixed $n \in \mathbb{N}$ consider integer solutions to
$$x^3+y^3+z^3=n \qquad (1) $$
If $n$ is a cube or twice a cube, identities exist.
Elkies suggests no other polynomial identities are known.
...

**25**

votes

**2**answers

2k views

### Are most curves over Q pointless?

Fresh out of the arXiv press is the remarkable result of Manjul Bhargava saying that most hyperelliptic curves over $\mathbf{Q}$ have no rational points. Don Zagier suggests the paraphrase : Most ...

**21**

votes

**2**answers

1k views

### State of knowledge of $a^n+b^n=c^n+d^n$ vs. $a^n+b^n+c^n=d^n+e^n+f^n$

As far as I understand, both of the Diophantine equations
$$a^5 + b^5 = c^5 + d^5$$
and
$$a^6 + b^6 = c^6 + d^6$$
have no known nontrivial solutions, but
$$24^5 + 28^5 + 67^5 = 3^5+64^5+62^5$$
and
$$3^...

**9**

votes

**2**answers

573 views

### Isomorphisms between spaces of test functions and sequence spaces

I am in the process of writing some self-contained notes on probability theory in spaces of distributions, for the purposes of statistical mechanics and quantum field theory. Perhaps the simplest ...

**21**

votes

**3**answers

629 views

### Kasteleyn's formula for domino tilings generalized?

It seems a marvel when a bunch of irrational numbers "conspire" to become rational, even better an integer. An elementary example is $\prod_{j=1}^n4\cos^2\left(\pi j/(2n+1)\right)=1$.
Kasteleyn's ...

**7**

votes

**2**answers

948 views

### Integral orthogonal group for indefinite ternary quadratic form

I have the indefinite quadratic form $q(x,y,z) = 19 x^2 + 5 y^2 - z^2.$ It's not my fault. I find, on reflection, that I have no idea how to describe the orthogonal group of this over the integers. ...

**10**

votes

**2**answers

909 views

### distribution of coprime integers

Let $0 < a < 1$ be fixed, and integer $n$ tends to infinity. It is not hard to show that the number of integers $k$ coprime to $n$ such that $1\leq k\leq an$ asymtotically equals $(a+o(1))\...

**6**

votes

**1**answer

362 views

### Additivity of upper densities with respect to arithmetic progressions of integers

Let $\mathsf{d}^\star$ be the asymptotic upper density, defined on the power set of positive integers $\mathbf{N}^+$, so that
$$
\mathsf{d}^\star\colon \mathcal{P}(\mathbf{N}^+) \to\mathbf{R}\colon X\...

**4**

votes

**4**answers

1k views

### How do these primes jump?

Update 2017.08.28: I am still looking for references. I have posted a request to https://cs.stackexchange.com/q/79971 which includes some literature references I found which are of interest but still ...

**10**

votes

**2**answers

2k views

### least prime in a arithmetic progression

Hello
Here I want to consider the simplest arithmetic progression $n\equiv 1\pmod{q}$ where $q$ is a prime. Is it true that we can find a prime $p\leq q^2$ in this arithmetic progression?
This ...

**2**

votes

**1**answer

396 views

### On comparing two almost injective divisor maps

Edit 2018.08.08 This answer https://mathoverflow.net/a/307881 will be updated to give recent information about S, especially a forthcoming preprint. End Edit 2018.08.08
In an introductory post on ...

**15**

votes

**2**answers

758 views

### Odd-bit primes ratio

Say that a number is an odd-bit number if
the count of 1-bits in its binary representation is odd.
Define an even-bit number analogously.
Thus $541 = 1000011101_2$ is an odd-bit number,
and $523 = ...

**4**

votes

**1**answer

638 views

### Lower bound for a prime gap occurring infinitely often

In his striking paper of may 2013, Zhang showed the existence of an even integer $g\lt 70,000,000$ such that $g$ is a prime gap occurring infinitely often. What is the best unconditional lower bound ...

**104**

votes

**4**answers

40k views

### What are “perfectoid spaces”?

This talk is about a theory of "perfectoid spaces", which "compares objects in characteristic p with objects in characteristic 0". What are those spaces, where can one read about them?
Edit: A bit ...