Questions tagged [modular-group]

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continued fractions and cusp non-excursions

Consider the modular surface $X:=\mathbb{H^2}/PSL_2(\mathbb{Z})$. Fix a width-of-cusp parameter $w, 0<w<<1$. Let $B_w$ be the cusp neighborhood of width $w$. (So $w=1$ corresponds to the ...
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26 votes
4 answers
936 views

Equations defining hyperbolic geodesics in $\mathbb C \setminus\{0,1\}$

Let $X=\mathbb C\setminus\{0,1\}$, equipped with the hyperbolic structure it inherits from Klein's modular $\lambda$ function $\lambda:\mathbb H \to X$. In each (non-peripheral and nontrivial) free-...
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6 votes
1 answer
303 views

Mapping class group of torus, why is $(ST)^3=S^2$?

In the context of topological quantum field theories, I am interested in the mapping class group of a torus. Here I can consider the torus as a square with identified edges and also decorated with ...
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2 answers
249 views

A question about congruence subgroups [closed]

For which $N_1$ and $N_2$ and $N$ be the greatest common divisor of $N_1$ and $N_2$, it is true that a congruence subgroup in $\mathrm{SL}_2(\mathbb{Z})$ generated by $\Gamma(N_1)\cup\Gamma(N_2)$ ...
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  • 171
3 votes
0 answers
92 views

Coset representatives of a principal congruence subgroup by another principal congruence subgroup

Consider the principal congruence subgroup $\Gamma(N)$, this consists of entries in $\mathrm{SL}_2(\mathbb{Z})$ congruent to the identity modulo $N$. Consider another principal congruence subgroup $\...
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2 votes
1 answer
189 views

When does the double coset representative for a congruence subgroup contain a $\text{SL}_2(\mathbb{Z})$-conjugacy class?

In the paper p-adic L-functions and p-adic periods of modular forms, Greenberg/Stevens assert that if $\sigma_l:=\begin{pmatrix}l&0\\0&1\end{pmatrix}$ is the usual Hecke operator at $l$ double ...
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3 votes
1 answer
236 views

How do modular functions of level $N>1$ transform under the full modular group?

Let $f$ be a modular function of level $N>1$ and let $\gamma\in SL_2(\mathbf Z)$. Write $$f(\gamma\tau)=j(\gamma,\tau)f(\tau).$$ First question What can we say in general about the factor $j(\...
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3 votes
1 answer
109 views

Representatives for the action on an unknown set of matrices by an unknown modular subgroup

Let $\Gamma$ be the modular group and $\mathcal M_n$ the set of all primitive matrices with determinant $n\geq1$. Recall that a primitive matrix has relatively prime entries. The modular group $\...
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  • 2,255
6 votes
1 answer
419 views

Behavior of a modular form in the lower strip

Let $f$ be an (elliptic) modular form of weight $k>0$, and consider the vertical strip $S_m=\{x+iy\in\mathbb{C}:|x|\le 1/2, y>m$}. For every $m\ll 1$, the fundamental domain for $SL_2(Z)$ is ...
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3 votes
1 answer
337 views

The degree of the cube root of the $j$-invariant

I have a question which is fairly elementary, but first I must provide relevant context. Without it, my question would seem rather arbitrary and scarcely interesting. Note also that my question can be ...
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5 votes
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176 views

Modular functions of the type $\mathfrak f(\cdot)^{k}\mathfrak f(\cdot)^{23nk}$

Let $\eta(\omega)$ be the Dedekind eta function and let $$\mathfrak f(w)=e^{-\pi i/24}\frac{\eta((\omega+1)/2)}{\eta(\omega)}.$$ In his paper On the “gap” in a theorem of Heegner, Stark fills the gap ...
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6 votes
1 answer
203 views

Current interest in geometric properties of Hilbert fundamental domains

Harvey Cohn published several articles in the 1960's analyzing geometric properties of fundamental domains for Hilbert modular surfaces. H. Cohn, "On the shape of the fundamental domain of the ...
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10 votes
1 answer
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Does every Coxeter group arise from a BN-Pair? Does $\text{PGL}_2(\Bbb{Z})$?

The question is in the title. Maybe I should explain my interest in it though. To every Coxeter group $(W,S)$ (and even more general groups) and a system of parameters $(a_s,b_s)_{s \in S}$ one can ...
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6 votes
1 answer
456 views

Fourth cohomology of the modular group

Is $H^4(PSL(2,\mathbb{Z}),\mathbb{Z})$ known? I ask this in response to the recent calculation of the same cohomology group for $\mathrm{Co}_0$ and $\mathrm{Co}_1$.
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14 votes
4 answers
967 views

Subgroups of $SL_2(\mathbb R)$ which contain $SL_2(\mathbb Z)$ as a finite index subgroup

Let $G\subset \mathrm{SL}_2(\mathbb R)$ be a subgroup such that $\mathrm{SL}_2(\mathbb Z)\subset G$. What are the possible groups such that $\mathrm{SL}_2(\mathbb Z)\subset G$ is of finite index? Is $...
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Compute the automaton for the modular group

The modular group $\mathrm{PSL}_2(\mathbb{Z})$ has 3 generators $A,B,C$, where $$A:z\to z+1,\quad B:z\to z-1,\quad C:z\to -1/z.$$ I want to compute the automaton that recognize the words of the ...
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  • 143
3 votes
3 answers
459 views

Finite subgroups (not finite index, just finite) of the modular group

The modular group is commonly described as the group of linear fractional transforms $z \mapsto \displaystyle \frac{az+b}{cz+d}$ with $a,b,c,d$ integers and $ad-bc = 1$. Of course, a great deal is ...
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14 votes
2 answers
509 views

Non-congruence normal subgroups of $SL_2(\mathbb{Z}[1/2])$

Let $G=SL_2(\mathbb{Z}[1/2])$, i.e., the modular group (if you wish) over the ring $\mathbb{Z}[1/2]$ consisting of rationals whose denominators are powers of $2$. Unlike $SL_2(\mathbb{R})$, $G$ is ...
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5 votes
1 answer
241 views

Upper bound on level of a congruence subgroup of the modular group

Let $\Gamma = PSL(2,\mathbb{Z}) = \langle S,T \ | \ S^2=(ST)^3=1 \rangle$. Let $G$ be some mystery normal subgroup of $\Gamma$ that we happen to think may be congruence. Recall that a subgroup of $\...
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18 votes
0 answers
663 views

In what sense is the braid group $B_3$ the universal central extension of the modular group $\Gamma$?

First let's recall some definitions. Let $G$ be a perfect group, so that $$H^2(G, A) \cong \text{Hom}(H_2(G), A)$$ for all abelian groups $A$ by universal coefficients. This means that when $A = ...
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2 votes
0 answers
73 views

Action of a Drinfeld modular group on a Drinfeld symmetric space

Let $\Bbb C_\infty$ be functional field case analog of $\Bbb C$, i.e. $\Bbb C_\infty$ is the completion of the algebraic closure of the field of Laurent series $\Bbb F_q((\theta^{-1}))$, where $q$ is ...
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1 vote
2 answers
195 views

Counting number of $2\times 2$ unimodular matrices of particular type

From set of numbers from $\Bbb S=\{0,1,\dots,m\}$, how many distinct $3\times 3$ unimodular matrices parametrized by $(a,b,c,d,e,f)\in\Bbb S^6$ of following type can one form? \begin{bmatrix} a^2 &...
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6 votes
3 answers
669 views

Enumerating cosets of the modular group

Suppose we chose the generators $f(z) = z+1, g(z) = z-1, h(z) = -1/z$ for the modular group $\Gamma$ (i.e. the group of fractional linear tranformations $z \mapsto (az +b)/(cz+d)$ with $a,b,c,d \in \...
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  • 3,967
11 votes
1 answer
507 views

Is there a faithful transitive locally finite action of the modular group?

Is there a faithful transitive action of $G = \mathrm{PSL}_2(\mathbb{Z})$ on $\mathbb{Z}$ such that orbits under each $g \in G$ are finite?
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  • 11k
4 votes
2 answers
230 views

Images of the fundamental domain of $\text{SL}_2(\mathbb{Z})\backslash \mathbb{H}$ whose Euclidean area is large

Let $S$ be a compact subset of the closure of the upper half plane. (Assume that $S$ is a (Euclidean) rectangular box, if you wish.) Let $D$ be the standard fundamental domain of $\text{SL}_2(\mathbb{...
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  • 16.7k
3 votes
2 answers
677 views

the Action of $SL_2(\mathbb{R})$ on a fundamental domain of $\Gamma$

Let $F=\{z\in H: |z|\geq1, |Re(z)|\leq 1/2\}$. It is a fundamental domain of the modular group $\Gamma$ acting on the upper half plane $H$. (Strictly speaking, one should take part of the boundary ...
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10 votes
4 answers
1k views

Analytic function avoiding elements of the modular group

A friend recently told me the following two facts, for which he cannot recall a proof or a reference (but he remembers seeing them in the literature): Let $f$ be a holomorphic function mapping the ...
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6 votes
5 answers
1k views

Are there noncongruence subgroups (of finite index) of the modular group generated only by 2 or 3 elements?

By the modular group I mean either $SL(2,\mathbb{Z})$ or $PSL(2,\mathbb{Z})$. Where can I find examples of these? Another question: is there a good (ideally analytical, but possibly computer-aided) ...
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7 votes
4 answers
2k views

Does every polynomial diophantine equation have solutions modulo p?

Obviously, this is not exactly true; what I am really asking is whether any diophantine polynomial equation with integer coefficients (let's call them DPEICs) who's solution does not admit ...
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3 votes
1 answer
333 views

Simplifying presentations of modular subgroups

I've been using the Reidemeister-Schreier process (detailed in e.g. Holt et al. - Handbook of Computational Group Theory) to find the presentations of various modular subgroups. For example, this ...
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6 votes
3 answers
1k views

Are congruence subgroups of the modular group finitely presented?

Are the congruence subgroups of the modular group $\Gamma\equiv\mathrm{PSL}\left(2,\mathbb{Z}\right)$ (e.g. $\Gamma\left(n\right)$, $\Gamma_{0}\left(n\right)$, $\Gamma_{1}\left(n\right)$ etc.) ...
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  • 333
1 vote
2 answers
375 views

Identifying Subgroups of the Modular Group via Permutation Representations on Cosets

Suppose we have a known group G and an unknown subgroup H. The permutation representation of G on the cosets of H gives a permutation group C, which is known. Is it possible to identify the generators ...
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  • 333
2 votes
1 answer
898 views

A question about Ahlfors's proof of modular function being a covering space of the twice punctured plane

I have a question about Ahlfors's proof of modular function being a covering space of the twice punctured plane .See Ahlfors' complex analysis, second edition, page 272. You can either explain or ...
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  • 1,431
9 votes
1 answer
668 views

Automorphisms of a matrix in Smith normal form?

Added: Amritanshu Prasad's answer makes it clear that I am really asking for a description of the group of integer unimodular matrices $P$ such that $D^{-1}PD$ is also integer. These matrices are ...
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  • 2,010
11 votes
3 answers
1k views

Congruence subgroups as abstract groups

This is probably well know, and maybe even trivial, but not to me. Consider for concreteness the subgroup $$ \pm\Gamma_0(3)=\left\{\begin{pmatrix}a & b \\ c & d\end{pmatrix}:\;a,b,c,d\in\...
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  • 12.2k
12 votes
4 answers
748 views

Congruence Subgroups as Open Subgroups of the Modular Group Under the Right Topology

It occurred to me that a subgroup of the modular group $\Gamma$ is a congruence subgroup iff it contains a subgroup of the form $\Gamma(N)$, while a subgroup of a general topological group is open iff ...
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  • 13.9k
18 votes
2 answers
1k views

Distinguishing congruence subgroups of the modular group

This question is something of a follow-up to Transformation formulae for classical theta functions . How does one recognise whether a subgroup of the modular group $\Gamma=\mathrm{SL}_2(\mathbb{Z})$ ...
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