Questions tagged [mg.metric-geometry]

Euclidean, hyperbolic, discrete, convex, coarse geometry, comparisons in Riemannian geometry, symmetric spaces.

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78
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Volumes of Sets of Constant Width in High Dimensions

Background The n dimensional Euclidean ball of radius 1/2 has width 1 in every direction. Namely, when you consider a pair of parallel tangent hyperplanes in any direction the distance between them ...
69
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2k views

Converse to Euclid's fifth postulate

There is a fascinating open problem in Riemannian Geometry which I would like to advertise here because I do not think that it is as well-known as it deserves to be. Euclid's famous fifth postulate, ...
36
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Concerning the various proofs from the axiom of choice that R^3 admits of surprising geometrical decompositions into circles, skew lines and so on: can we prove in any instance that there are no Borel such decompositions? Or that AC is required?

This question follows up on a comment I made on Joseph O'Rourke's recent question, one of several questions here on mathoverflow concerning surprising geometric partitions of space using the axiom of ...
32
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495 views

A kaleidoscopic coloring of the plane

Problem. Is there a partition $\mathbb R^2=A\sqcup B$ of the Euclidean plane into two Lebesgue measurable sets such that for any disk $D$ of the unit radius we get $\lambda(A\cap D)=\lambda(B\cap D)=\...
31
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2answers
2k views

Tiling of the plane with manholes

Some shapes, such as the disk or the Releaux triangle can be used as manholes, that is, it is a curve of constant width. (The width between two parallel tangents to the curve are independent of the ...
30
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0answers
1k views

Sofa in a snaky 3D corridor

What is the largest volume object that can pass though a $1 \times 1 \times L$ "snaky" corridor, where $L$ is large enough to be irrelvant, say $L > 6$.           ...
30
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770 views

Isometric embeddings of finite subsets of $\ell_2$ into infinite-dimensional Banach spaces

Question: Does there exist a finite subset $F$ of $\ell_2$ and an infinite-dimensional Banach space $X$ such that $F$ does not admit an isometric embedding into $X$? There are some results of the ...
29
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645 views

Is there an Ehrhart polynomial for Gaussian integers

Let $N$ be a positive integer and let $P \subset \mathbb{C}$ be a polygon whose vertices are of the form $(a_1+b_1 i)/N$, $(a_2+b_2 i)/N$, ..., $(a_r+b_r i)/N$, with $a_j + b_j i$ being various ...
23
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658 views

Blocking light with mirrored convex objects

There is a long-unsolved problem posed by Janos Pach, sometimes known as the enchanted forest problem, which asks if it is possible to block a point light source in the plane from reaching infinity by ...
22
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1k views

Boundaries of noncompact contractible manifolds

It is known that a manifold $B$ bounds a compact contractible topological manifold if and only if $B$ is a homology sphere. The "only if" direction follows by excising a small ball in the interior of ...
20
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229 views

Can 4-space be partitioned into Klein bottles?

It is known that $\mathbb{R}^3$ can be partitioned into disjoint circles, or into disjoint unit circles, or into congruent copies of a real-analytic curve (Is it possible to partition $\mathbb R^3$ ...
19
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465 views

Disc bounded by a plane curve

Let $\Sigma$ be a sphere topologically embedded into $\mathbb{R}^3$. Is it always possible to find a disc $\Delta\subset\Sigma$ which is bounded by a plane curve? It is easy to find an open disc ...
19
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448 views

“Japanese Theorem” on cyclic polygons: Higher-dimensional generalizations?

A beautiful theorem known as the Japanese Theorem (Wikipedia, MathWorld) says that, no matter how one triangulates a cyclic (inscribed in a circle) polygon, the sum of the radii of the incircles is ...
18
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592 views

The lonely molecule

Suppose $n$ air molecules (infinitesimal points) are bouncing around in a unit $d$-dimensional cube, with perfectly elastic wall collisions. Let $k=n^{\frac{1}{d}}$. For example, in 3D, $d=3$, with $n=...
18
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444 views

Lipschitz constant of a homotopy

Let $n>0$, $\mathbb S^n$ be $n$-sphere and $1\in \mathbb S^n$ be its north pole. A am looking for an example of compact manifold $M$ with a continuous $n$-parameter family of maps $h_x\colon M\to ...
17
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765 views

Almost monochromatic point sets

There are many sort of equivalent theorems about monochromatic configurations in finite colorings, such as Van der Waerden, Hales-Jewett or Gallai's theorem, the latter of which states that in a ...
17
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203 views

GPS calculations under $L^p$ norms

GPS calculations require finding a sphere externally tangent to four given spheres, an Apollonian problem in $\mathbb{R}^3$. The center of that fifth sphere is one of the $16$ possible solutions to ...
17
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409 views

Large almost equilateral sets in finite-dimensional Banach spaces

Question: Does there exist a function $C:~(0,1)\to (0,\infty)$ such that for each $\varepsilon\in(0,1)$ every Banach space $X$ of dimension $\ge C(\varepsilon)\log n$ contains an $n$-point set $\{x_i\...
16
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276 views

Finitely generated groups with Hölder-exotic space of ends?

The space of ends of a finitely generated group is always homeomorphic to 0, 1, 2 points, or a Cantor set, and in which of these 4 cases it falls is governed by Stallings' characterization (wikipedia ...
16
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407 views

Trapping lightrays with segment mirrors

Q. Is it possible to trap all the light from one point source by a finite collection of two-sided disjoint segment mirrors? I posed this question in several forums before (e.g., here and in an ...
16
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0answers
224 views

Precise estimate for probability an $n$-point set has diameter smaller than $1$

This question was inspired by an earlier question that I answered but would like a more precise bound for. Consider random points $x_1, \dots, x_n$ in the unit ball in $\mathbb R^d$, uniformly and ...
16
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705 views

Lipschitz Homeomorphisms Between Spheres of N-dimensional Spaces

Let $B_p^N$ be the unit ball of $\mathbb{R}^N$ under the $\ell_p^N$ norm. Question: Let $C_N$ be the infimum of all $C$ for which there is a homeomorphism $f_N$ from $B_\infty^N$ onto $B_2^N$ so ...
15
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An open problem in convex geometry

Is it possible to find four norms $\| \cdot\|_k$ $( 1 \leq k \leq 4)$ on the plane such that a three-dimensional normed space containing four subspaces isometric to these normed planes does not exist? ...
15
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231 views

realization spaces of 3-dimensional polytopes

It is a well-know result (Steinitz, 1922) that the realization space of 3-dimensional convex polytopes with fixed combinatorics is contractible. A proof of this theorem can be found for instance in ...
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557 views

Does every connected set that is not a line segment cross some dyadic square?

A dyadic square is a subset of $R^2$ of the form $x + 2^{-n} [0,1]^2$ with $x \in 2^{-m} Z^2$, for integers $m,n \geq 0$. We say that a set $A$ crosses a square $S$ if there exists a connected subset ...
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478 views

Functions approximated by rolling epicycle curves

Imagine a decreasing sequence of (positive) radii $r_1 > r_2 > r_3 > \cdots$ and a series of nested circles $C_1 \supset C_2 \supset C_3 \supset \cdots$ with these radii, initially each ...
14
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439 views

How to compute the Gromov-Hausdorff distance between spheres $S_n$ and $S_m$?

There is the question, because when we consider the Gromov-Hausdorff distance, we must fix the metric, so we use the natural metric induced from the embedding $\mathbb{S}_n \to \mathbb{R}^{n+1}$. Is ...
14
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190 views

Have there been further developments on this scheme for polytope approximations to the unit ball of $\ell_p^n$?

A long time ago I happened to look at, and save (on a floppy disk!) for future reading, a copy of the following article: W. T. Gowers, Polytope approximations of the unit ball of $l^n_p$. In Convex ...
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655 views

Are all these groups CAT(0) groups?

Given a geodesic metric space $X$ together with a choice of midpoints $m:X\times X\rightarrow X$ (i.e. $d(m(x,y),x)=d(m(x,y),y)=d(x,y)/2$). Assume furthermore, that the following nonpositive ...
13
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159 views

Rational inscribed realization of the regular dodecahedron

While it is clear that the regular dodecahedron $D$ cannot be realized with all integer coordinates, it is easy to find a polytope, which is combinatorially equivalent (face lattice isomorphic) to $D$ ...
13
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359 views

Has Cheeger's 'de Rham cohomology' of metric measure spaces been studied beyond its definition?

In J. Cheeger's 'Differentiability of Lipschitz Functions on Metric Measure Spaces' (Geometric and Functional Analysis, 1999, Vol. 9 pp 428-517, see here), a 'de Rham cohomology group' $H_{dR}^1(Z,\mu)...
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234 views

Does there always exist a self dual polytope that contains a given polytope contained in its dual?

Suppose a polytope $P$ is contained in its dual polytope $\tilde{P}$. Does there always exist a polytope $Q$ that contains $P$ and is self dual $Q=\tilde{Q}$? Is there any bound on the minimal number ...
13
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3-piece dissection of square to equilateral triangle?

At a workshop it was suggested that it likely remains an open problem whether or not there is a 3- or 2 -piece dissection of a square to an equilateral triangle. Can anyone confirm that this is ...
13
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584 views

$\epsilon$-nets with respect to the cut norm

The cut norm $||A||\_C$ of a real matrix $A = (a_{i,j}) \in \mathcal{R}^{n\times n}$ is the maximum over all $I \subseteq [n], J \subseteq [n]$ of the quantity $\left|\sum_{i \in I, j \in J}a_{i,j}\...
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Dao's theorem on six circumcenters associated with a cyclic hexagon

This questions from Ngo Quang Duong's paper In 2013, O. T. Dao published without proof a theorem with title Another seven circles theorem in Cut the Knot, a free site for popular expositionsof many ...
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421 views

Unit ball of smallest volume in a Hilbert geometry

In a letter to Felix Klein published in Mathematische Annalen 1895 (see here), Hilbert generalized the Cayley-Klein model of hyperbolic geometry by defining a metric on the interior of a convex body ...
12
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0answers
359 views

Multiplicity of ball covering

Background. My questions are motivated by the following: A. Conway and Sloane in "On the covering multiplicity of lattices" (Discrete and Computational Geometry, 8 (1992) 109-130) considered the ...
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457 views

Does every convex polyhedron have a combinatorially isomorphic counterpart whose angles between edges are rational multiples of $\pi$?

After reading these very interesting questions, I came up with another one: Does every convex polyhedron have a combinatorially isomorphic counterpart whose angles between all pairs of edges meeting ...
12
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714 views

Egg-ovoid rolling down an inclined plane

I am seeking a mathematical analysis of an egg-ovoid rolling down an inclined plane, for pedagogical reasons. It is well-known folk lore that the shape of an egg prevents it from rolling away from ...
11
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176 views

Elkies points in the plane of a triangle $ABC$

Noam Elkies proved that if $x,y,z$ are positive numbers, then there is a unique point $P$ inside $ABC$ such that the inradii $r_a,r_b,r_c$ of the triangles $BPC, CPA, APB,$ respectively, satisfy $$ ...
11
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184 views

Electrons on a pancake ellipsoid

The problems of minimizing the potential energy of electrons on a sphere, or maximizing the smallest distance between the electrons, have been well-studied. E.g., see the earlier MO question "...
11
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293 views

Right-angled polytopes

%This question is motivated by the little discussion here at the bottom. The following thing are known about hyperbolic right-angled polytopes: Compact hyperbolic right-angled polytopes do not exist ...
11
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208 views

When is a submersion locally volume-expanding?

I would like to characterize the smooth maps $\varphi: \mathbb{R}^n \rightarrow \mathbb{R}^k$, $n\geq k$, with the following property: For every $x\in \mathbb{R}^n$ there exists a positive number $...
11
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550 views

High-dimensional geometry: Top-down Vs. Bottom-up

There are several ways to leverage one's intuition from low-dimensional geometry to understand high-dimensional phenomena. For example, one can get a clearer picture of the behaviour of high-...
10
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161 views

Vietoris-Rips complex and coarse geometry

Let $K$ be an infinite countable subset of Euclidean space $E$ such any point of $E$ is within distance 1 of some point of $K$. In the language of John Roe's "coarse geometry", this implies that $K$ ...
10
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206 views

Planar arc on a topologically embedded sphere or disk in $\mathbb{R}^3$

An arc is a set homeomorphic to the unit interval $[0,1]$; an arc in $\mathbb{R}^3$ is planar if it is contained in some plane. The following questions are motivated by Anton Petrunin's Disc bounded ...
10
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139 views

What are the extremal CAT(0) metrics?

(Split off from Does every CAT(0) space embed in a measurable integral of $\mathbb{R}$-trees? ) Fix an integer $k \ge 2$, and let $MC0_k \subset \mathbb{R}^{\binom{k}{2}}$ be the set of possible ...
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346 views

diameter as a Morse function

Consider the space $X_1$ of closed subsets not containing a pair of antipodal points of the unit circle. Here we have a kind of degenerate Morse function, defined by the diameter of the pointset. ...
10
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271 views

Bi-spherical polyhedra

Bicentric polygons have been studied: a polygon all of whose vertices lie on its circumcirle, and whose incircle is tangent to every edge:   I have not been able to find a comparable literature ...
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330 views

Is it overkill to invoke Kirszbraun theorem to prove the following fact ?

Given a small enough convex triangle $(abc)$ in a (smooth or Alexandrov) surface $(X,d)$ of curvature greater than $-1$, let $(\overline{abc})$ be its comparison triangle in $\mathbb{H}^2$. Then there ...