# Questions tagged [matrix-analysis]

The study of the properties of real and complex matrices that are more close to analysis and operator theory. For instance: the properties of positive definite matrices, matrix inequalities, perturbation analysis, matrix functions, inequalities between eigenvectors and singular values, majorization.

522
questions

**35**

votes

**3**answers

3k views

### A curious determinantal inequality

In my study, I come across the following curious inequality, which I do not know a proof yet (so I am asking it here).
Let $A, B$ be $n\times n$ (Hermitian) positive definite matrices. It is very ...

**31**

votes

**2**answers

1k views

### Is this proof of Perron's theorem correct, and if so is it original?

A few years ago, I came up with this proof of Perron's theorem for a class presentation:
http://www.math.cornell.edu/~web6720/Perron-Frobenius_Hannah%20Cairns.pdf
I've written an outline of it below ...

**31**

votes

**5**answers

1k views

### Trigonometry / Euclidean Geometry for natural numbers?

Let $d(a,b) = 1 - \frac{2\gcd(a,b)^3}{ab(a+b)}$ be a metric on natural numbers without $0$.
The metric space $X = \{x_0,x_1,\cdots,x_n\},n>2$ is isometric embeddable in $\mathbb{R}^n$ if and only ...

**28**

votes

**2**answers

4k views

### Consequences of eigenvector-eigenvalue formula found by studying neutrinos

This article describes the discovery by three physicists, Stephen Parke of Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Xining Zhang of the University of Chicago, and Peter Denton of Brookhaven National ...

**27**

votes

**1**answer

2k views

### Is there an explicit formula for the hessian of “Determinant”?

Let $f: G= \mbox{GL}(n,\mathbb{R}) \to \mathbb{R}$ be the determinant function.
Then $\mbox{Hess} (f)$ is a two linear map on $M_{n}(\mathbb{R})\simeq T_{e}(G)$ where $e$ is the neutral element of $G$,...

**25**

votes

**2**answers

40k views

### Proof for the derivative of the determinant of a matrix [closed]

I was looking for theorems that might be helpful in order for some proofs that I have and I came across the following one:
$$\frac{d}{dt} [\det A(t)]=\det A(t) \cdot \operatorname*{tr}[A^{-1}(t)\cdot ...

**25**

votes

**1**answer

931 views

### Finding the closest matrix to $\text{SO}_n$ with a given determinant

$\newcommand{\GLp}{\operatorname{GL}_n^+}$
$\newcommand{\SLs}{\operatorname{SL}^s}$
$\newcommand{\dist}{\operatorname{dist}}$
$\newcommand{\Sig}{\Sigma}$
$\newcommand{\id}{\text{Id}}$
$\newcommand{\...

**25**

votes

**0**answers

830 views

### Real square roots of symmetric matrices

In joint work with Andreas Fischle (TU Dresden, Germany) and Patrizio Neff (U Essen, Germany) we needed to use the following statement: If $S$ is a real $n\times n$ matrix with $S^2$ symmetric, then ...

**23**

votes

**0**answers

899 views

### conjectures regarding a new Renyi information quantity

In a recent paper http://arxiv.org/abs/1403.6102, we defined a quantity that we called the "Renyi conditional mutual information" and investigated several of its properties. We have some open ...

**20**

votes

**1**answer

1k views

### The abc-conjecture as an inequality for inner-products?

The abc-conjecture is:
For every $\epsilon > 0$ there exists $K_{\epsilon}$ such that for all natural numbers $a \neq b$ we have:
$$ \frac{a+b}{\gcd(a,b)}\,\ <\,\ K_{\epsilon}\cdot \text{rad}\...

**20**

votes

**1**answer

962 views

### Almost commuting unitary matrices

Suppose that $A_1,\dots, A_k$ are unitary matrices such that any two of them can be approximated by commuting unitary matrices. i.e. for any $i$ and $j$, there are unitary matrices $A_i'$ and $A_j'$ ...

**19**

votes

**4**answers

770 views

### How much redundancy resides in an $n \times n$ orthogonal matrix?

Suppose one has an $n \times n$ orthogonal matrix $M$:
$$
\left(
\begin{array}{ccc}
0.239326 & 0.846726 &
0.475161 \\
0.768893 & 0.13356 &
-0.625272 \\
0.592897 & -0....

**17**

votes

**1**answer

2k views

### 2x2 subdeterminants of a matrix

If N>2, it is well known that if two invertible NxN matrices A and B have the same determinants of any 2x2 corresponding submatrices, then A=B or A=-B.
Given then all these 2x2 determinants of an ...

**16**

votes

**2**answers

2k views

### Does the matrix exponential preserve the positive-semi-definite ordering?

Suppose $A$, $B$, are symmetric, real valued matrices and $B-A$ is positive-semidefinite, i.e. $A≼B$. Does that imply $e^A ≼ e^B$? Would love some intuition here.
I know for instance that $A≼cI \iff ...

**16**

votes

**2**answers

2k views

### Optimizing the condition number

Suppose I have a set $S$ of $N$ vectors in $W=\mathbb{R}^m,$ with $N \gg m.$ I want to choose a subset $\{v_1, \dots, v_m\}$ of $S$ in such a way that the condition number of the matrix with columns $...

**16**

votes

**1**answer

1k views

### Hlawka inequality for determinants of positive definite matrices

It is mentioned here that if $A, B, C\in M_{n}(\mathbb C)$ are positive semidefinite, then $$\det (A+B+C)+\det C\ge \det (A+C)+\det (B+C)$$ (quoted from this article) and the special case ($C=\bf 0$) $...

**16**

votes

**0**answers

311 views

### An inequality for matrix norms

Working on a problem in combinatorics I come up with the following inequality on matrix norms, which I checked it also numerically:
Let $A=(a_{ij})$ be a real symmetric $n\times n$ matrix with ...

**15**

votes

**3**answers

882 views

### Is this lower bound for a norm of some complex matrices true?

Let $A = [a_{ij}]_{n\times n}$ be a Hermitian matrix, such that $|a_{ij}| =1$ for $i \neq j$, and $a_{ii} = 0$ for each $i$.
I am interested in a tight lower bound of $\|A\|_*:=\sum_{i=1}^n |\lambda_i(...

**15**

votes

**1**answer

723 views

### Operator norms of circulant matrices

The definition and basic properties of circulant matrices can be found here: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Circulant_matrix.
For complex numbers $a_1,\ldots,a_n$, I will use the notation
$$
\mbox{...

**15**

votes

**1**answer

18k views

### Sarrus rules for 4 times 4

This question is most probably not research level, but I thought that the MO folks might like it... Feel free to close.
Here is the motivation: If you have ever teached a maths course for engineers ...

**14**

votes

**5**answers

2k views

### Matrix trace & norm [closed]

For any nonnegative semidefinite matrix $A$ and any matrix $B$, we have
$$\mbox{tr} (AB) \le \mbox{tr} (A) \, \|B\|$$
where $\mbox{tr}(\cdot)$ is the trace and $\|\cdot\|$ is the operator norm. How ...

**14**

votes

**2**answers

542 views

### A simple but curious determinantal inequality

Let $A$ and $B$ be $n\times n$ Hermitian positive definite matrices and $k>0$ real. Then $A^k$ is well-defined and experimentally, we have $$\det(A^k+BABA^{-1})\geqslant \det(A^k+BA^{-1}BA),$$or ...

**13**

votes

**7**answers

893 views

### Is the linear span of special orthogonal matrices equal to the whole space of $N\times N$ matrices?

(Disclaimer : I know very well that $SO(N)$ has a Lie algebra of dimension $N(N-1)/2$ etc. This absolutely not the point of my question.)
To make my problem more understandable, I start with the ...

**13**

votes

**4**answers

2k views

### Vandermonde matrix is totally positive

A totally positive matrix $M\in \mathcal{M}_{n\times m}(\mathbb R)$ is such that all of its minors of all sizes are positive. It is true that any Vandermonde matrix (with well-ordered positive entries)...

**13**

votes

**2**answers

2k views

### The singular values of the Hilbert matrix

The $n\times n$ Hilbert matrix $H$ is defined as follows
$$H_{ij} = \frac{1}{i+j-1}, \qquad 1\leq i,j\leq n$$
What is known about the singular values $\sigma_1 \geq \cdots \geq \sigma_n$ of $H$?
...

**13**

votes

**2**answers

817 views

### Computing a large permanent

Is there a practical way to compute the permanent of a large ($91 \times 91$) $(0,1)$ matrix?
I have tried to use the matlab function written by Luke Winslow which works great for smaller matrices ...

**12**

votes

**3**answers

2k views

### Determinant of a $k \times k$ block matrix

Consider the $k \times k$ block matrix:
$$C = \left(\begin{array}{ccccc} A & B & B & \cdots & B \\ B & A & B &\cdots & B \\ \vdots & \vdots & \vdots & \...

**12**

votes

**2**answers

1k views

### Matrix inequality $(A-B)^2 \leq c (A+B)^2$ ?

Let A and B be positive semidefinite matrices. It is not hard to see that $(A-B)^2 \leq 2A^2 + 2B^2$. In fact, $2A^2 + 2B^2 - (A-B)^2 = (A+B)^2$ is positive semidefinite.
My question is: Is there a ...

**12**

votes

**0**answers

198 views

### Which ordering of factors is needed to obtain this kind of determinantal inequalities?

Let $A$ and $B$ be $n\times n$ Hermitian positive definite matrices. The curious determinantal inequality given here, which can be stated as $$\det (A^{4}+ ABBA+BAAB+B^{4})\ge\det(A^{4}+ AABB+BBAA+B^{...

**12**

votes

**0**answers

283 views

### Ratio of entries of A and log A where A is a triangular matrix

Consider triangular matrices $A = \left( {a(n,k)} \right)$ of arbitrary order with $a(n,k) = 0$ if $n + k$ is odd and $a(n,n - 2k) = \frac{{n!}}{{k!(n - 2k)!}}\frac{{(m + n - k - 1)!}}{{(m + n - 1)!}}$...

**11**

votes

**2**answers

702 views

### Trace of non-commutable matrices

Let $M_1$ and $M_2$ be two symmetric $d\times d$ matrices. What is the relationship between
$tr(M_1M_2M_1M_2)$ and $tr(M_1^2 M_2^2 )$?
P.S. I tried a few examples and found
$$
tr(M_1M_2M_1M_2) \le tr(...

**11**

votes

**2**answers

2k views

### On the Positive Definiteness of a Linear Combination of Matrices

In my work in PDE, the following problem in linear algebra came up. Any help in this direction is appreciated.
QUESTION:
Let $m,n\in\mathbb{N}$ and let $A_1,\ldots, A_m\in M_n(\mathbb{R})$ be real, ...

**11**

votes

**2**answers

866 views

### Inverse of a small submatrix

Let $A$ be a large matrix (say, $1000 \times 1000$), and let $\mathcal I = \{2,3,5\}$ be a set of row/column indices. Let $(A^{-1})_{\cal I \times I}$ denote the submatrix of $A^{-1}$ that consists of ...

**11**

votes

**2**answers

584 views

### Multiplicative Identity for all elements in SU(n)

Let $\{P_i\}$ be a subset of $SU(n)$ such that for any $U$ in another subset (or perhaps subgroup) $H$ of $SU(n)$: $$P_1UP_2U\cdots P_mU=I$$ where $I$ is the identity element. Is there a sequence $\{...

**11**

votes

**1**answer

437 views

### Is there a “formula” for the point in $\text{SO}(n)$ which is closest to a given matrix?

$\newcommand{\Sig}{\Sigma}$
$\newcommand{\dist}{\operatorname{dist}}$
$\newcommand{\distSO}[1]{\dist(#1,\SO)}$
$\newcommand{\distO}[1]{\text{dist}(#1,\On)}$
$\newcommand{\tildistSO}[1]{\operatorname{...

**11**

votes

**1**answer

745 views

### A generalization of the Powers-Stormer inequality

The well-known Powers-Stormer inequality says the following: for positive semidefinite operators $A, B$, we have that $\mathrm{Tr}((A - B)(A - B)) \leq \| A^2 - B^2 \|_1$, where $\| \cdot \|_1$ ...

**11**

votes

**0**answers

254 views

### More mysterious properties of Gram matrix

This is another question related to the mysterious properties of the Gram matrix in dimension $4$. Here's the previous question.
The following fact could be extracted from 0402087:
For any $a_i\...

**11**

votes

**0**answers

263 views

### Jaffard's theorem - finite matrices

For infinite matrices, Jaffard's theorem states that if $(A(k,l))_{k,l\in \mathbb{Z}}$ is invertible and satisfies
$$
A(k,l) \leq C (1+\left|k-l\right|)^{-r},
$$
for some $C>0$,
then
$$
A^{-1}(k,...

**10**

votes

**2**answers

935 views

### When the sum of positive definite matrices converges, does the sum of the norm of the associate matrices converges?

Suppose $A_k>0$ (which means they are positive definitive square $n\times n$-matrices with $n>1$).
If $\sum_{k=1}^\infty A_k$ exists, then
$\sum_{k=1}^\infty \|A_k\| < +\infty$,
Where $\|A\|=\...

**10**

votes

**1**answer

468 views

### is it possible to have two non-isomorphic non-regular graphs with the same adjacent spectrum and the same laplacian spectrum?

For two regular graphs $G$ and $H$, it is possible for them to share the same adjacent spectrum and the same laplacian spectrum. While, on the other hand, is it possible to have two non-regular graphs ...

**10**

votes

**2**answers

498 views

### Nearby matrices have nearby leading eigenvectors?

Suppose I have a symmetric positive semidefinite matrix $A$ with leading eigenvalue $1$ of multiplicity $1$ and remaining eigenvalues $\leq\epsilon$. I am told that another symmetric positive ...

**10**

votes

**1**answer

586 views

### A curious determinantal inequality I

Let $A, B$ be Hermitian matrices. Does the following hold?
$$\det(A^{2}+B^{2}+|AB+BA|)\leq \det(A^{2}+B^{2}+|AB|+|BA|)$$
As usual, $|X|=(X^*X)^{1/2}$. Clearly, quantities on both sides are no less ...

**10**

votes

**1**answer

2k views

### Reverse Minkowski (and related) Determinant Inequalities

For positive semidefinite matrices $A,B,C \in \mathbb{R}^{n\times n}$, the following inequalities are well known:
$$(\det(A+B))^{1/n} \geq (\det A)^{1/n} + (\det B)^{1/n} $$
and
$$\det(A+B+C) + \...

**10**

votes

**0**answers

639 views

### Two questions around the $abc$-conjecture

Let $d(a,b) = 1-\frac{2 \gcd(a,b)}{a+b}$, $d_{ABC}(a,b) = 1-\frac{2\gcd(a,b)^3}{ab(a+b)}$ be two metrics on natural numbers.
The abc-conjecture can be formulated using these two metrics as:
For ...

**10**

votes

**2**answers

456 views

### A (linear) optimization problem subject to (linear) matrix inequality constraints

Let $A \in \mathbb{R}^{n \times n}$ be a Hurwitz matrix, i.e. $A$ satisfies $\mathrm{Re}\,\lambda_i< 0$, where $\{\lambda_i\}_{i=1}^n$ is the set of eigenvalues of $A$. Suppose that the trace of $A$...

**9**

votes

**2**answers

655 views

### Inverse of special upper triangular matrix

Consider the following $n \times n$ upper triangular matrix with a particularly nice structure:
\begin{equation}\mathbf{P} = \begin{pmatrix}
1 & \beta & \alpha+\beta & \dots & (n-3)\...

**9**

votes

**2**answers

2k views

### Do singular values dominate eigenvalues?

Suppose $A$ is an $n \times n$ complex matrix with singular values $s_1 \ge s_2 \ge \cdots \ge s_n$ and eigenvalues $(\lambda_i)_{i=1}^{n}$ arranged so that $|\lambda_1| \ge |\lambda_2| \ge \cdots \...

**9**

votes

**2**answers

568 views

### Product $PVPVP$ is elementwise nonnegative?

Let $P\in \mathbb{R}^{n\times n}$ be the inverse of a positive definite M-matrix and $V\in \mathbb{R}^{n\times n}$ be any diagonal matrix. Prove (or disprove) that $PVPVP$ is elementwise nonnegative.
...

**9**

votes

**2**answers

267 views

### Maximum of a quantity for two normal orthogonal vectors in $\mathbb{R}^n$

Let's define for every pair of vectors $u,v\in\mathbb{R}^n$, a quantity as follows:
$$f(u,v) = \sum_{1\leq i,j\leq n}|u_iu_j-v_iv_j|.$$
I want to find:
$$M(n)= \max \{f(u,v): u,v\in \mathbb{R}^n, |u|=...

**9**

votes

**1**answer

396 views

### Well known matrix inequality?

I suspect that the following matrix inequality is well known, but I can't find a reference or proof:
Given $n \times n$ symmetric matrices $A,B$ such that $I_n \leq A,B$, is the following true?
$${...