Questions tagged [matrix-analysis]

The study of the properties of real and complex matrices that are more close to analysis and operator theory. For instance: the properties of positive definite matrices, matrix inequalities, perturbation analysis, matrix functions, inequalities between eigenvectors and singular values, majorization.

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35
votes
3answers
3k views

A curious determinantal inequality

In my study, I come across the following curious inequality, which I do not know a proof yet (so I am asking it here). Let $A, B$ be $n\times n$ (Hermitian) positive definite matrices. It is very ...
31
votes
2answers
1k views

Is this proof of Perron's theorem correct, and if so is it original?

A few years ago, I came up with this proof of Perron's theorem for a class presentation: http://www.math.cornell.edu/~web6720/Perron-Frobenius_Hannah%20Cairns.pdf I've written an outline of it below ...
31
votes
5answers
1k views

Trigonometry / Euclidean Geometry for natural numbers?

Let $d(a,b) = 1 - \frac{2\gcd(a,b)^3}{ab(a+b)}$ be a metric on natural numbers without $0$. The metric space $X = \{x_0,x_1,\cdots,x_n\},n>2$ is isometric embeddable in $\mathbb{R}^n$ if and only ...
28
votes
2answers
4k views

Consequences of eigenvector-eigenvalue formula found by studying neutrinos

This article describes the discovery by three physicists, Stephen Parke of Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Xining Zhang of the University of Chicago, and Peter Denton of Brookhaven National ...
27
votes
1answer
2k views

Is there an explicit formula for the hessian of “Determinant”?

Let $f: G= \mbox{GL}(n,\mathbb{R}) \to \mathbb{R}$ be the determinant function. Then $\mbox{Hess} (f)$ is a two linear map on $M_{n}(\mathbb{R})\simeq T_{e}(G)$ where $e$ is the neutral element of $G$,...
25
votes
2answers
40k views

Proof for the derivative of the determinant of a matrix [closed]

I was looking for theorems that might be helpful in order for some proofs that I have and I came across the following one: $$\frac{d}{dt} [\det A(t)]=\det A(t) \cdot \operatorname*{tr}[A^{-1}(t)\cdot ...
25
votes
1answer
931 views

Finding the closest matrix to $\text{SO}_n$ with a given determinant

$\newcommand{\GLp}{\operatorname{GL}_n^+}$ $\newcommand{\SLs}{\operatorname{SL}^s}$ $\newcommand{\dist}{\operatorname{dist}}$ $\newcommand{\Sig}{\Sigma}$ $\newcommand{\id}{\text{Id}}$ $\newcommand{\...
25
votes
0answers
830 views

Real square roots of symmetric matrices

In joint work with Andreas Fischle (TU Dresden, Germany) and Patrizio Neff (U Essen, Germany) we needed to use the following statement: If $S$ is a real $n\times n$ matrix with $S^2$ symmetric, then ...
23
votes
0answers
899 views

conjectures regarding a new Renyi information quantity

In a recent paper http://arxiv.org/abs/1403.6102, we defined a quantity that we called the "Renyi conditional mutual information" and investigated several of its properties. We have some open ...
20
votes
1answer
1k views

The abc-conjecture as an inequality for inner-products?

The abc-conjecture is: For every $\epsilon > 0$ there exists $K_{\epsilon}$ such that for all natural numbers $a \neq b$ we have: $$ \frac{a+b}{\gcd(a,b)}\,\ <\,\ K_{\epsilon}\cdot \text{rad}\...
20
votes
1answer
962 views

Almost commuting unitary matrices

Suppose that $A_1,\dots, A_k$ are unitary matrices such that any two of them can be approximated by commuting unitary matrices. i.e. for any $i$ and $j$, there are unitary matrices $A_i'$ and $A_j'$ ...
19
votes
4answers
770 views

How much redundancy resides in an $n \times n$ orthogonal matrix?

Suppose one has an $n \times n$ orthogonal matrix $M$: $$ \left( \begin{array}{ccc} 0.239326 & 0.846726 & 0.475161 \\ 0.768893 & 0.13356 & -0.625272 \\ 0.592897 & -0....
17
votes
1answer
2k views

2x2 subdeterminants of a matrix

If N>2, it is well known that if two invertible NxN matrices A and B have the same determinants of any 2x2 corresponding submatrices, then A=B or A=-B. Given then all these 2x2 determinants of an ...
16
votes
2answers
2k views

Does the matrix exponential preserve the positive-semi-definite ordering?

Suppose $A$, $B$, are symmetric, real valued matrices and $B-A$ is positive-semidefinite, i.e. $A≼B$. Does that imply $e^A ≼ e^B$? Would love some intuition here. I know for instance that $A≼cI \iff ...
16
votes
2answers
2k views

Optimizing the condition number

Suppose I have a set $S$ of $N$ vectors in $W=\mathbb{R}^m,$ with $N \gg m.$ I want to choose a subset $\{v_1, \dots, v_m\}$ of $S$ in such a way that the condition number of the matrix with columns $...
16
votes
1answer
1k views

Hlawka inequality for determinants of positive definite matrices

It is mentioned here that if $A, B, C\in M_{n}(\mathbb C)$ are positive semidefinite, then $$\det (A+B+C)+\det C\ge \det (A+C)+\det (B+C)$$ (quoted from this article) and the special case ($C=\bf 0$) $...
16
votes
0answers
311 views

An inequality for matrix norms

Working on a problem in combinatorics I come up with the following inequality on matrix norms, which I checked it also numerically: Let $A=(a_{ij})$ be a real symmetric $n\times n$ matrix with ...
15
votes
3answers
882 views

Is this lower bound for a norm of some complex matrices true?

Let $A = [a_{ij}]_{n\times n}$ be a Hermitian matrix, such that $|a_{ij}| =1$ for $i \neq j$, and $a_{ii} = 0$ for each $i$. I am interested in a tight lower bound of $\|A\|_*:=\sum_{i=1}^n |\lambda_i(...
15
votes
1answer
723 views

Operator norms of circulant matrices

The definition and basic properties of circulant matrices can be found here: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Circulant_matrix. For complex numbers $a_1,\ldots,a_n$, I will use the notation $$ \mbox{...
15
votes
1answer
18k views

Sarrus rules for 4 times 4

This question is most probably not research level, but I thought that the MO folks might like it... Feel free to close. Here is the motivation: If you have ever teached a maths course for engineers ...
14
votes
5answers
2k views

Matrix trace & norm [closed]

For any nonnegative semidefinite matrix $A$ and any matrix $B$, we have $$\mbox{tr} (AB) \le \mbox{tr} (A) \, \|B\|$$ where $\mbox{tr}(\cdot)$ is the trace and $\|\cdot\|$ is the operator norm. How ...
14
votes
2answers
542 views

A simple but curious determinantal inequality

Let $A$ and $B$ be $n\times n$ Hermitian positive definite matrices and $k>0$ real. Then $A^k$ is well-defined and experimentally, we have $$\det(A^k+BABA^{-1})\geqslant \det(A^k+BA^{-1}BA),$$or ...
13
votes
7answers
893 views

Is the linear span of special orthogonal matrices equal to the whole space of $N\times N$ matrices?

(Disclaimer : I know very well that $SO(N)$ has a Lie algebra of dimension $N(N-1)/2$ etc. This absolutely not the point of my question.) To make my problem more understandable, I start with the ...
13
votes
4answers
2k views

Vandermonde matrix is totally positive

A totally positive matrix $M\in \mathcal{M}_{n\times m}(\mathbb R)$ is such that all of its minors of all sizes are positive. It is true that any Vandermonde matrix (with well-ordered positive entries)...
13
votes
2answers
2k views

The singular values of the Hilbert matrix

The $n\times n$ Hilbert matrix $H$ is defined as follows $$H_{ij} = \frac{1}{i+j-1}, \qquad 1\leq i,j\leq n$$ What is known about the singular values $\sigma_1 \geq \cdots \geq \sigma_n$ of $H$? ...
13
votes
2answers
817 views

Computing a large permanent

Is there a practical way to compute the permanent of a large ($91 \times 91$) $(0,1)$ matrix? I have tried to use the matlab function written by Luke Winslow which works great for smaller matrices ...
12
votes
3answers
2k views

Determinant of a $k \times k$ block matrix

Consider the $k \times k$ block matrix: $$C = \left(\begin{array}{ccccc} A & B & B & \cdots & B \\ B & A & B &\cdots & B \\ \vdots & \vdots & \vdots & \...
12
votes
2answers
1k views

Matrix inequality $(A-B)^2 \leq c (A+B)^2$ ?

Let A and B be positive semidefinite matrices. It is not hard to see that $(A-B)^2 \leq 2A^2 + 2B^2$. In fact, $2A^2 + 2B^2 - (A-B)^2 = (A+B)^2$ is positive semidefinite. My question is: Is there a ...
12
votes
0answers
198 views

Which ordering of factors is needed to obtain this kind of determinantal inequalities?

Let $A$ and $B$ be $n\times n$ Hermitian positive definite matrices. The curious determinantal inequality given here, which can be stated as $$\det (A^{4}+ ABBA+BAAB+B^{4})\ge\det(A^{4}+ AABB+BBAA+B^{...
12
votes
0answers
283 views

Ratio of entries of A and log A where A is a triangular matrix

Consider triangular matrices $A = \left( {a(n,k)} \right)$ of arbitrary order with $a(n,k) = 0$ if $n + k$ is odd and $a(n,n - 2k) = \frac{{n!}}{{k!(n - 2k)!}}\frac{{(m + n - k - 1)!}}{{(m + n - 1)!}}$...
11
votes
2answers
702 views

Trace of non-commutable matrices

Let $M_1$ and $M_2$ be two symmetric $d\times d$ matrices. What is the relationship between $tr(M_1M_2M_1M_2)$ and $tr(M_1^2 M_2^2 )$? P.S. I tried a few examples and found $$ tr(M_1M_2M_1M_2) \le tr(...
11
votes
2answers
2k views

On the Positive Definiteness of a Linear Combination of Matrices

In my work in PDE, the following problem in linear algebra came up. Any help in this direction is appreciated. QUESTION: Let $m,n\in\mathbb{N}$ and let $A_1,\ldots, A_m\in M_n(\mathbb{R})$ be real, ...
11
votes
2answers
866 views

Inverse of a small submatrix

Let $A$ be a large matrix (say, $1000 \times 1000$), and let $\mathcal I = \{2,3,5\}$ be a set of row/column indices. Let $(A^{-1})_{\cal I \times I}$ denote the submatrix of $A^{-1}$ that consists of ...
11
votes
2answers
584 views

Multiplicative Identity for all elements in SU(n)

Let $\{P_i\}$ be a subset of $SU(n)$ such that for any $U$ in another subset (or perhaps subgroup) $H$ of $SU(n)$: $$P_1UP_2U\cdots P_mU=I$$ where $I$ is the identity element. Is there a sequence $\{...
11
votes
1answer
437 views

Is there a “formula” for the point in $\text{SO}(n)$ which is closest to a given matrix?

$\newcommand{\Sig}{\Sigma}$ $\newcommand{\dist}{\operatorname{dist}}$ $\newcommand{\distSO}[1]{\dist(#1,\SO)}$ $\newcommand{\distO}[1]{\text{dist}(#1,\On)}$ $\newcommand{\tildistSO}[1]{\operatorname{...
11
votes
1answer
745 views

A generalization of the Powers-Stormer inequality

The well-known Powers-Stormer inequality says the following: for positive semidefinite operators $A, B$, we have that $\mathrm{Tr}((A - B)(A - B)) \leq \| A^2 - B^2 \|_1$, where $\| \cdot \|_1$ ...
11
votes
0answers
254 views

More mysterious properties of Gram matrix

This is another question related to the mysterious properties of the Gram matrix in dimension $4$. Here's the previous question. The following fact could be extracted from 0402087: For any $a_i\...
11
votes
0answers
263 views

Jaffard's theorem - finite matrices

For infinite matrices, Jaffard's theorem states that if $(A(k,l))_{k,l\in \mathbb{Z}}$ is invertible and satisfies $$ A(k,l) \leq C (1+\left|k-l\right|)^{-r}, $$ for some $C>0$, then $$ A^{-1}(k,...
10
votes
2answers
935 views

When the sum of positive definite matrices converges, does the sum of the norm of the associate matrices converges?

Suppose $A_k>0$ (which means they are positive definitive square $n\times n$-matrices with $n>1$). If $\sum_{k=1}^\infty A_k$ exists, then $\sum_{k=1}^\infty \|A_k\| < +\infty$, Where $\|A\|=\...
10
votes
1answer
468 views

is it possible to have two non-isomorphic non-regular graphs with the same adjacent spectrum and the same laplacian spectrum?

For two regular graphs $G$ and $H$, it is possible for them to share the same adjacent spectrum and the same laplacian spectrum. While, on the other hand, is it possible to have two non-regular graphs ...
10
votes
2answers
498 views

Nearby matrices have nearby leading eigenvectors?

Suppose I have a symmetric positive semidefinite matrix $A$ with leading eigenvalue $1$ of multiplicity $1$ and remaining eigenvalues $\leq\epsilon$. I am told that another symmetric positive ...
10
votes
1answer
586 views

A curious determinantal inequality I

Let $A, B$ be Hermitian matrices. Does the following hold? $$\det(A^{2}+B^{2}+|AB+BA|)\leq \det(A^{2}+B^{2}+|AB|+|BA|)$$ As usual, $|X|=(X^*X)^{1/2}$. Clearly, quantities on both sides are no less ...
10
votes
1answer
2k views

Reverse Minkowski (and related) Determinant Inequalities

For positive semidefinite matrices $A,B,C \in \mathbb{R}^{n\times n}$, the following inequalities are well known: $$(\det(A+B))^{1/n} \geq (\det A)^{1/n} + (\det B)^{1/n} $$ and $$\det(A+B+C) + \...
10
votes
0answers
639 views

Two questions around the $abc$-conjecture

Let $d(a,b) = 1-\frac{2 \gcd(a,b)}{a+b}$, $d_{ABC}(a,b) = 1-\frac{2\gcd(a,b)^3}{ab(a+b)}$ be two metrics on natural numbers. The abc-conjecture can be formulated using these two metrics as: For ...
10
votes
2answers
456 views

A (linear) optimization problem subject to (linear) matrix inequality constraints

Let $A \in \mathbb{R}^{n \times n}$ be a Hurwitz matrix, i.e. $A$ satisfies $\mathrm{Re}\,\lambda_i< 0$, where $\{\lambda_i\}_{i=1}^n$ is the set of eigenvalues of $A$. Suppose that the trace of $A$...
9
votes
2answers
655 views

Inverse of special upper triangular matrix

Consider the following $n \times n$ upper triangular matrix with a particularly nice structure: \begin{equation}\mathbf{P} = \begin{pmatrix} 1 & \beta & \alpha+\beta & \dots & (n-3)\...
9
votes
2answers
2k views

Do singular values dominate eigenvalues?

Suppose $A$ is an $n \times n$ complex matrix with singular values $s_1 \ge s_2 \ge \cdots \ge s_n$ and eigenvalues $(\lambda_i)_{i=1}^{n}$ arranged so that $|\lambda_1| \ge |\lambda_2| \ge \cdots \...
9
votes
2answers
568 views

Product $PVPVP$ is elementwise nonnegative?

Let $P\in \mathbb{R}^{n\times n}$ be the inverse of a positive definite M-matrix and $V\in \mathbb{R}^{n\times n}$ be any diagonal matrix. Prove (or disprove) that $PVPVP$ is elementwise nonnegative. ...
9
votes
2answers
267 views

Maximum of a quantity for two normal orthogonal vectors in $\mathbb{R}^n$

Let's define for every pair of vectors $u,v\in\mathbb{R}^n$, a quantity as follows: $$f(u,v) = \sum_{1\leq i,j\leq n}|u_iu_j-v_iv_j|.$$ I want to find: $$M(n)= \max \{f(u,v): u,v\in \mathbb{R}^n, |u|=...
9
votes
1answer
396 views

Well known matrix inequality?

I suspect that the following matrix inequality is well known, but I can't find a reference or proof: Given $n \times n$ symmetric matrices $A,B$ such that $I_n \leq A,B$, is the following true? $${...

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