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Questions tagged [matrices]

Questions where the notion matrix has an important or crucial role (for the latter, note the tag matrix-theory for potential use). Matrices appear in various parts of mathematics, and this tag is typically combined with other tags to make the general subject clear, such as an appropriate top-level tag ra.rings-and-algebras, co.combinatorics, etc. and other tags that might be applicable. There are also several more specialized tags concerning matrices.

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Eigenvalues of matrix sums

Is there a relationship between the eigenvalues of individual matrices and the eigenvalues of their sum? What about the special case when the matrices are Hermitian and positive definite? I am ...
18
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3answers
4k views

Number of unique determinants for an NxN (0,1)-matrix

I'm interested in bounds for the number of unique determinants of NxN (0,1)-matrices. Obviously some of these matrices will be singular and therefore will trivially have zero determinant. While it ...
38
votes
3answers
3k views

The probability for a symmetric matrix to be positive definite

Let me give a reasonable model for the question in the title. In ${\rm Sym}_n({\mathbb R})$, the positive definite matrices form a convex cone $S_n^+$. The probability I have in mind is the ratio $p_n=...
7
votes
1answer
273 views

Bound for largest eigenvalue of symmetric matrices of uniform random variables over $[0,1]$ and fixed $1$s along diagonal and scattered $1$s

Given a $n\times n$ symmetric random matrix whose diagonal elements are all fixed as $1$. In addition, there are $k$ $1$s will be randomly scattered in upper triangular (of course, the corresponding ...
36
votes
6answers
36k views

Determinant of sum of positive definite matrices

Say $A$ and $B$ are symmetric, positive definite matrices. I've proved that $$\det(A+B) \ge \det(A) + \det(B)$$ in the case that $A$ and $B$ are two dimensional. Is this true in general for $n$-...
16
votes
7answers
9k views

Expected determinant of a random NxN matrix

What is the expected value of the determinant over the uniform distribution of all possible 1-0 NxN matrices? What does this expected value tend to as the matrix size N approaches infinity?
18
votes
4answers
2k views

Jacobi's equality between complementary minors of inverse matrices

What's a quick way to prove the following fact about minors of an invertible matrix $A$ and its inverse? Let $A[I,J]$ denote the submatrix of an $n \times n$ matrix $A$ obtained by keeping only the ...
11
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5answers
17k views

Eigenvalues of Symmetric Tridiagonal Matrices

Suppose I have the symmetric tridiagonal matrix: $ \begin{pmatrix} a & b_{1} & 0 & ... & 0 \\\ b_{1} & a & b_{2} & & ... \\\ 0 & b_{2} & a & ... & 0 \...
2
votes
5answers
1k views

About adding a negative definite rank-1 matrix to a symmetric matrix

If $B$ is a symmetric matrix then how do its eigenvalues compare to the eigenvalues of $B - vv^T$? ( where $v$ is a vector of the same dimension as $B$) I guess that the eigenvalues of $B - vv^T$ ...
3
votes
2answers
543 views

functions with orthogonal Jacobian

I'm working on a model that would require to use vectorial functions of $\mathbb{R}^n \rightarrow \mathbb{R}^n$, such that $\forall x, y \in \mathbb{R}^n$, $\lVert \frac{df(x)}{dx}(y) \lVert_2 = \...
87
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9answers
16k views

Should the formula for the inverse of a 2x2 matrix be obvious?

As every MO user knows, and can easily prove, the inverse of the matrix $\begin{pmatrix} a & b \\\ c & d \end{pmatrix}$ is $\frac{1}{ad - bc} \begin{pmatrix} d & -b \\\ -c & a \end{...
13
votes
2answers
5k views

Conditions for smooth dependence of the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of a matrix on a set of parameters

Let $A\in\mathcal M_n$ be an $n\times n$ real [symmetric] matrix which depends smoothly on a [finite] set of parameters, $A=A(\xi_1,\ldots,\xi_k)$. We can view it as a smooth function $A:\mathbb R^k\...
19
votes
1answer
13k views

Eigenvalues of the product of two symmetric matrices

This is mostly a reference request, as this must be well-known! Let $A$ and $B$ be two real symmetric matrices, one of which is positive definite. Then it is easy to see that the product $AB$ (or $BA$...
12
votes
1answer
589 views

A maximal element, where Schur gives a minimal element

Let me recall a result due to I. Schur, which I learnt from F. Goldberg's answer to my MO question Hadamard-like inequalites for positive definite symmetric matrices. If $H$ is a subgroup of $\frak ...
10
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2answers
2k views

Eigenvalues of nonnegative integer matrices

Edit I realized that the key piece of information that I need is question 1, and so I'd like to rephrase this post: What are the possible eigenvalues of nonnegative integer matrices? Any answer to ...
237
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25answers
41k views

Geometric Interpretation of Trace

This afternoon I was speaking with some graduate students in the department and we came to the following quandry; Is there a geometric interpretation of the trace of a matrix? This question should ...
20
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6answers
5k views

how to find/define eigenvectors as a continuous function of matrix?

I asked this (with background) here https://stats.stackexchange.com/questions/38494/principal-component-analysis-bootstrap-and-probability-of-eigenvalue-collision but did not really get any answers. ...
28
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4answers
3k views

Adjacency matrices of graphs

Motivated by the apparent lack of possible classification of integer matrices up to conjugation (see here) and by a question about possible complete graph invariants (see here), let me ask the ...
12
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5answers
1k views

Can always a family of symmetric real matrices depending smoothly on a real parameter be diagonalized by smooth similarity transformations?

This question is related to another question, but it is definitely not the same. Is it always possible to diagonalize (at least locally around each point) a family of symmetric real matrices $A(t)$ ...
20
votes
3answers
1k views

Simultaneous “orthonormalization” in $\mathbb{C}^4$

Let $A$ be a positive, invertible $4 \times 4$ hermitian complex matrix. So we have a positive sesquilinear form $\langle Av,w\rangle$. Say that a pair $(v,w)$ of vectors in $\mathbb{C}^4$ is good ...
15
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3answers
1k views

Distribution of the spectrum of large non-negative matrices

This question is related to that of Thurston. However, I am not interested in algebraic integers, and I wish to focus on random matrices instead of random polynomials. When considering (entrywise) ...
30
votes
7answers
2k views

Does the truth of any statement of real matrix algebra stabilize in sufficiently high dimensions?

This question is related to this recent but currently unanswered MO question of Ricky Demer, where it arose as a comment. Consider the structure $R^n$ consisting of $n\times n$ matrices over the ...
14
votes
5answers
866 views

Eigenvalues of a matrix with entries involving combinatorics

Let $F(n, l, i, j)$ be the cardinality of the set \begin{eqnarray*} \{(k_1, \cdots, k_n)\in\mathbb{Z}^{\oplus n}|0\leq k_r\leq l-1\text{ for }1\leq r\leq n\text{, }k_1+\cdots+k_n=lj-i\}. \end{eqnarray*...
13
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3answers
13k views

How to solve this quadratic matrix equation?

I would like to solve for $X$ in the matrix equation $$ XCX + AX = I $$ where all the matrices are $n\times n$, have real components, $X$ is positive semidefinite and $C$ is symmetric. My (possibly ...
9
votes
2answers
844 views

Is this a metric on the Grassmannian Manifold?

Let $m>n$ and consider the Set $$S_{m,n}=\{A \in \mathbb{R}^{m \times n}\lvert A^TA=I_n \}.$$ Does the function $d\colon S_{m,n} \times S_{m,n} \rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ defined by $$d(A,B)=\sqrt{1-\...
21
votes
1answer
2k views

maximal order of elements in GL(n,p)

I am looking for a formula for the maximal order of an element in the group $\operatorname{GL}\left(n,p\right)$, where $ p$ is prime. I recall seeing such a formula in a paper from the mid- or early ...
14
votes
4answers
1k views

Eigenvectors of a particular transition matrix

I am considering a Markov chain with $n$ states with a particularly nice structure. The transition matrix is as follows: \begin{equation}\mathbf{P}=\begin{pmatrix} 0 & 0& \dots&0 & 0 &...
13
votes
2answers
1k views

A log inequality for positive definite trace-one matrices

Let $\{v_i\}_{i=1}^N$ be a set of $n$-dimensional real vectors and let $X=X^\top\in\mathbb{R}^{n\times n}$ be a positive definite trace-one matrix. I would like to prove (or disprove) the following ...
13
votes
2answers
592 views

in search of a transformation between determinants

Motivated by this MO question. Consider the two matrices $A_n$ and $B_n$ with entries $\binom{2j}i$ and $\binom{n+1}{2j-i}$, respectively; for $1\leq i, \,j\leq n$. I can show $\det A_n=\det B_n=2^{\...
6
votes
0answers
322 views

concentration for eigenvectors

I am interested in bounding from above the ratio between the maximum and minimum entries of a Perron vector. The only results that I found in the literature are from the classic masters (Ostrowski and ...
15
votes
3answers
810 views

Is this lower bound for a norm of some complex matrices true?

Let $A = [a_{ij}]_{n\times n}$ be a Hermitian matrix, such that $|a_{ij}| =1$ for $i \neq j$, and $a_{ii} = 0$ for each $i$. I am interested in a tight lower bound of $\|A\|_*:=\sum_{i=1}^n |\lambda_i(...
12
votes
5answers
2k views

Bounding the absolute sum of entries of the inverse of a 0-1 matrix

I have a non-singular square 0-1 matrix and I want to bound the sum of absolute values of its inverse as a function of n (or the vector 1-norm). Asymptotic results are also useful. Does anyone know ...
12
votes
1answer
359 views

Is the image of the map $A \to \bigwedge^k A$ closed over $\mathbb{R}$?

Let $V$ a real vector space of dimension $d$. Let $1<k < d-1$. Consider the map induced by the exterior algebra functor: $$ \psi:\text{End}(V) \to \text{End}(\bigwedge^kV) \, \, \, \, , \, \, ...
10
votes
1answer
570 views

$2 \times 2$ matrix question

Let $A$, $B$, and $C$ be $2\times 2$ complex matrices, with $A$ and $C$ rank $1$ Hermitian. Can we find a real number $a$ and a $2\times 2$ unitary $U$ such that $$A + BV + V^*B^* + V^*CV$$ is a ...
7
votes
0answers
147 views

Bound on gap between least eigenvalues of $n \times n$ correlation matrix and of its $(n -1) \times (n-1)$ submatrices

The following problem is motivated by one of my research problems. Let $\Sigma$ be an $n \times n$ correlation matrix whose least eigenvalue is denoted by $\lambda$. $\Sigma_i'$ be an ...
4
votes
1answer
2k views

Eigenvectors as continuous functions of matrix - diagonal perturbations

The general question has been treated here, and the response was negative. My question is about more particular perturbations. The counterexamples given in the previous question have variations not ...
14
votes
0answers
347 views

The rank of a “triangle-free” matrix

This is a version of the question I asked recently, but the assumptions got now strengthened substantially. Suppose that $A=(a_{ij})_{1\le i,j\le n}$ is a square matrix with all elements in $\{0,\...
12
votes
0answers
562 views

Pointwise (Hadamard) matrix product and the rank

$\DeclareMathOperator{\rk}{rk}$ Suppose that $A$ is a square matrix of order $n$. If, for any polynomials $P$ and $Q$ with $\deg P+\deg Q\le 2$, we have $$ P(A)\circ Q(A^t) = P(1)Q(1)\, I_n \tag{$\...
11
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1answer
277 views

A variant of Cholesky decomposition involving binary matrices

Studying a problem that is not directly related to linear algebra I came across the following problem. Let $B$ be $n \times n$ symmetric matrix whose entries are non-negative integers. I would like ...
23
votes
3answers
1k views

Is every positive integer the permanent of some 0-1 matrix?

In the course of discussing another MO question we realized that we did not know the answer to a more basic question, namely: Is it true that for every positive integer $k$ there exists a balanced ...
7
votes
1answer
468 views

Grassmann-Plücker relations for permanents

Let $K$ be a field, $1 \leq d \leq n$ integers and $V$ an $n$-dimensional vector space. The Grassmann-Plücker relations are quadratic forms on $\wedge^d V$ whose zero set is exactly the set of ...
7
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1answer
180 views

Eigenvectors of a matrix with entries involving combinatorics

In the question Eigenvalues of a matrix with entries involving combinatorics No_way asked about eigenvectors of $n\times n$ matrix $M$ with entries \begin{eqnarray*} M_{ij}=(-1)^{i+j}F(n, l, i, j), \...
9
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1answer
2k views

Eigenvalues of the sum of a diagonal and a unit matrix

I'm trying to find information on the eigenvalues of an $n \times n$ matrix A such that $A = D + J$ Where $D$ is some complex valued diagonal matrix, and $J$ is an matrix consisting of all $1$'s. ...
5
votes
1answer
178 views

The spectral radius of a binary matrix - polynomial growth?

(This is a follow-up to The spectral radius of a binary matrix) Let $\mathcal B_n$ denote the set of $n\times n$ matrices with entries in $\{0,1\}$. QUESTION. Is there a $\delta\in\bigl(0,\frac12\...
5
votes
0answers
293 views

0-1 matrix combinatorial problem

Let $M \in \{0,1\}^{n \times n}$ and let $r_i$ be its $i$-th row. Given constant $p \in (0,1/2]$, let the number of $1$s in each row be at least $p\,n$. Given constant $c \in (0,1)$, what is the ...
4
votes
0answers
134 views

Generalizing Autonne-Takagi factorization

Autonne-Takagi factorization (Léon Autonne (1915) and Teiji Takagi (1925)) says that: A complex symmetric matrix can be 'diagonalized' using a unitary matrix: If $A$ is a rank-$n$ complex symmetric ...
8
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1answer
886 views

The saturation of Murray von Neumann relation

Edit: According to comment of Pace Nielsen, I remove question 2 of the previous version: Let $R$ be a unital ring. We define Murray Von Neumann relation $M$ on $R$ as follows: We say $a M b$ iff $...
8
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1answer
256 views

“Almost Hankelized” numerical Vandermonde

One of the more utilized determinant is that of Vandermonde's $$\begin{vmatrix} 1&x_1&x_1^2&\dots&x_1^{n-1}\\ 1&x_2&x_2^2&\dots&x_2^{n-1}\\ \ldots&\ldots&\...
5
votes
1answer
260 views

Is there an efficient algorithm to check whether two matrices are the same up to row and column permutations?

Define $\mathcal M_n$ as the set of all $n\times n$ matrices with each entry either 1 or $x$. Two such matrices are equivalent iff they can be obtained from each other by swapping pairs of rows and ...
4
votes
1answer
253 views

Reference for partial Hadamard matrices

Definition. An $m\times n$ matrix is said to be a partial Hadamard matrix (let's say PHM) if its entries are chosen from $\lbrace -1, 1 \rbrace$ such that the dot product of each pair of row vectors ...