# Questions tagged [lorentzian-geometry]

Lorentzian geometry is the geometry of Minkowski spacetime, hence essentially of a Euclidean space, but equipped not with the standard Euclidean Riemannian metric of signature $(+,+,+,…,+)$ (which yields Euclidean geometry) but with the pseudo-Riemannian metric of signature $(−,+,+,…,+).$

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### conformal changes to Lorentzian curvature

Let $(M,g)$ be a Lorentzian manifold and let $R$ be the curvature tensor. We say $R\leq 0$ if
$$ g(R(X,Y)Y,X) \leq 0\quad \forall \, X,Y \in TM.$$
My question is whether given a Lorentzian manifold $...

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### Lorentzian manifolds of negative spacelike sectional curvature

Suppose $(M,g)$ is a simply connected Lorentzian manifold of signature $(-,+,\ldots,+)$ and such that the sectional curvature of any space-like surface is non-positive. Is it true that there are no ...

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### Distance function and Hessian in Lorentzian geometries with positive curvature

Suppose $(M,g)$ is a Lorentzian manifold with signature $(-,+,\ldots,+)$ and a positive curvature. Let $p \in M$. Let $U$ be a sufficiently small neighborhood of $p$ in the exterior of the double null ...

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### Lower bound for domain of exponential map on Lorentzian manifolds

Let $M$ denote a manifold admitting a Lorentzian metric $g_{ab}$. Essentially, I would like to know the "minimum domain" on which the exponential map is defined at $p\in M$. To make this concrete, ...

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### Fourier transform on Minkowski space

Physicists Some people like to define the "Fourier transform" on Minkowski space as $\hat f(\xi) = \int e^{i \eta(x,\xi)} f(x) dx$, where $\eta(x,\xi)$ is the Minkowski form. I'm used to thinking of ...

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### A Riemannian manifold with a non-degenerate metric and an inner product $u_{\beta} u^{\beta}=1$

The question is: given a Riemannian manifold with a non-degenerate metric g and an inner product $u_{\beta}u^{\beta}=1$, is $\nabla_{\mu} (u_{\alpha}u_{\beta})=0$ without demanding the trivial ...

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### Is it possible for null geodesics to suddenly “stop”?

Suppose $(M,g)$ is a smooth globally hyperbolic Lorentzian manifold of dimension $n$. Let $\beta:I \to M$ be a finite null geodesic in $M$, that is to say:
$$ \nabla^g_{\dot{\beta}}\dot{\beta} = 0, \...

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### What's the “actual” shape of a black hole accretion disk?

[Warning: I have no expertise in general relativity, so this question might not be very rigorous]
More and more often we come across science popularization articles like this one which show beautiful ...

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### Literature Request: Berger Spheres and their Construction

In a previous question by me I asked about Berger spheres and their Lorentzian analogue, squashed $AdS_3$ along Hopf fibres. It was well answered (by https://mathoverflow.net/users/13268/ben-mckay) ...

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### Definition of twisted geometries and existence of coordinate transformation for twisted $AdS_2 \times S^2$

In the paper Multiply Twisted Products by Yong Wang, general definitions for so called warped and twisted products are given:
A (singly) warped product $B \times_b F$ of two pseudo-Riemannian ...

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### Explanation for “Squashing” and “Stretching” (Lorentzian Analogue of Berger Spheres)

In the paper Anti-de Sitter space, squashed and stretched Bengtsson and Sandin introduce the Lorentzian analogue of the squashed 3-sphere. After looking up Berger spheres, it seems what is meant with "...

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### Transformation Poincaré-coordinates to global coordinates in $\mathrm{AdS}_2$

For the two dimensional anti de-sitter space $\mathrm{AdS}_2$ one can consider the Poincaré-coordinates $\mathrm{d}s^2_P = -r^2 \mathrm{d}t^2 + \frac{1}{r^2} \mathrm{d}r^2$ which covers only half of ...

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### Example of a Lorentz-invariant probability measure?

What is an example of a Lorentz-invariant probability measure on Minkowski space other than the delta measure at the origin?
Euclidean-invariance is easy to attain: the uniform measure on a ball does ...

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### Do (3+1)-dimensional Lorentzian manifolds admit unique smoothings?

Of course, 3-dimensional topological manifolds admit unique smoothings while 4-dimensional topological manifolds generally do not. A (3+1)-dimensional topological Lorentzian manifold (definition below)...

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### Existence of transverse null vector bundle in a degenerate Lorentzian hypersurface

This question is cross-posted at https://math.stackexchange.com/questions/3234895/existence-of-transverse-null-vector-bundle
Let $(M,g)$ be a Lorentzian manifold. Let $\dim(M)=d$. Given a null ...

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### maximal surface, parametric approach

I am interesting in maximal surfaces: space-like surface in Minkowsky $\mathbb{R}^{2,1}$ (or De Sitter $dS^3$). Of course space-like implies locally graph and almost all the literature is interested ...

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### Harmonic maps into de Sitter Space

I am looking some references on the existence and non-existence of (space-like) harmonic maps solving the Dirichlet into the de-Sitter space.
More precisely: Let, for $n\geq 3$,
$$dS^n=\{ u\in \...

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### $(M,g)$ is complete iff $(\tilde{M},\tilde{g})$ is complete (non-Riemannian version)

I'm not sure if this question is too low level for Math Overflow (so feel free to move this to SE if you think it is).
Inspired by this and this question I'm wondering if the following statement is ...

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### Are there Lorentzian complex manifolds?

Quick and simple...
Is it possible to define complex structures on Lorentzian manifolds? If so, Can you point me to some example(s)?

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### Decomposition of a Jacobi field along a lightlike geodesic

Consider a Lorentzian manifold of dimension $1+n$ (with $n\geq1$) and a lightlike geodesic $\gamma(t)$ on it.
One can define a Jacobi field $J(t)$ along $\gamma$ in the usual way without issues.
In ...

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### Lorentzian analogue to Thurston geometries

Is there an analogue to the eight Thurston geometries for Lorentz metrics?
If so, how many "disctinct" geometries are there in the Lorentzian case?
And which closed 3-manifolds admit metrics which ...

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### Is the set of Lorentzian metrics metrizable?

Fix a differentiable non-compact manifold $M$. Denote by $\mathrm{Lor}(M) := \{\text{Lorentzian metrics on $M$}\}.$ One can define a topology on this set via: fix any open covering $\mathcal{A}$ on $M$...

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### Closed Semi-Riemannian manifolds with non-compact isometry group

Does anyone know a good reference for general results about closed Semi-Riemannian manifolds which have a non-compact isometry group?
Edit: My goal is to understand a bit better what the intuition ...

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### Canonical Metrics on 3- and 4-Manifolds

From the Uniformization Theorem, it is known that every conformal class of metrics on a genus-$g$ Riemann surface with $n$ boundaries/punctures, subject to the condition $2g+n\ge 3$, contains a unique ...

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### Support of functions on Minkowski space and their Fourier transform

Suppose that a tempered distribution $f(x)$ on 4-dimensional Minkowski space with signature $+---$ vanishes for $x^2<0$ and its Fourier transform $\hat f(p)$ vanishes for $p^2<0$.
Are then $f$ ...

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### Find the fixed geodesic of an orientation-preserving isometry of the $3D$ hyperboloid model

Let $\mathcal{I}^3\subset\mathbb{R}^4$
be the standard hyperboloid model for hyperbolic $3$-space and consider the usual $\mathrm{SO}(3,1)$
action of $\mathrm{PSL}(2,\mathbb{C})$
on $\mathcal{I}^3$.
...

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### Distributional PDE solutions as topological linear duals of PDE solutions

Let
$$
P \;\colon\; \Gamma_\Sigma(E) \to \Gamma_\Sigma(\tilde E^\ast)
$$
be a formally self-adjoint hyperbolic linear differential operator ($\tilde E^\ast$ denotes the densitized dual of a ...

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### Continuous dependence on initial data for (null) geodesics in Lorentzian manifolds

I'm looking for a reference for the following theorem:
Theorem
Let $\mathcal M$ be a smooth manifold with smooth Lorentzian metric $g$. Let $p$ and $q$ be two points on the same (causal) geodesic, ...

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### On the topology induced by a Lorentzian metric

Let $(M,g)$ be a time-oriented smooth Lorentzian manifold, with Lorentzian metric $g$. In the following thread:
https://physics.stackexchange.com/questions/228669/why-pseudo-riemannian-metric-cannot-...

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### On the causal structure of spacetimes: piecewise $C^1$, $C^k$ or $C^\infty$?

This is a more technical question but it seems that there is some confusion in the literature on the choice of curves used to define the causal relations in time-oriented Lorentz manifolds: the ...

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### Tensor Field Decomposition in Space time

For vector fields in $R^3$ one knows that there exists a unique decomposition of vector fields in to solenoidal (divergence free) and potential parts. A generalization of this Theorem for symmetric ...

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### Conformal Transformations that are Ricci Positive Invariant

Is there any known class of conformal transformations $\phi : M \to M$ of a riemannian/semi-riemanian manifold $(M,g)$ that have the property: $g$ is ricci-positive iff $\phi^* g$ ricci positive?
...

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### Induced connection on null hypersurfaces

I will use a local coordinate formalism here, since this is related to research in general relativity, and my supervisor only tolerates local coordinate formalisms. Plus the research papers I base my ...

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### Decay estimates for wave and Klein-Gordon equation in “generic” curved backgrounds

Consider a $d$-dimensional smooth Lorentzian manifold $(M,g)$ (we assume $d\geq 3$, $M$ to be Hausdorff, paracompact and connected, hence second-countable, and that the signature convention of $g$ is $...

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### Reference for Bonnet Fundamental theorem of surfaces in Lorentzian spaces

I am looking for a reference for the following folklore theorem, which is the Lorentzian analogue of the Bonnet fundamental theorem of surface in Euclidean space, hyperbolic space or $3$d sphere.
...

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### Smoothness of the twistor space of a lorentzian manifold, or “convexity wrt null geodesics”

Null lines in Minkowski space form a 5-dimensional manifold, represented as a (real) quadric $\mathbf{PN}\subset\mathbb{C}\mathbf{P}^3$. This is a well-known fact, on which R. Penrose’s twistor ...

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### Time-separation function on “globally hyperbolic” spacetimes with everywhere timelike boundary

It is well-known that, in globally hyperbolic spacetimes, the time separation function $\tau$ (aka Lorentzian distance function) enjoys the following property: fix a point $p$ and a point $q \in I^-(p)...

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### Number of connected components of the isometry group of a simply-connected lorentzian manifold

Let $(M,g)$ be a finite-dimensional connected lorentzian manifold. Then the group $G$ of isometries of $M$ (i.e., the group of diffeomorphisms $\varphi : M \to M$ with $\varphi^* g = g$) is a Lie ...