# Questions tagged [locales]

Questions taking place in the category of locales, which is given by the opposite of the category of frames. Also appropriate for questions about pointless topology.

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### Best introductory texts on pointless topology

As I understand it, there are three canonical textbooks on pointless topology: the classic "Stone Spaces" by Johnstone, "Topology via Logic" by Steve Vickers, and the newer "Frames and Locales" by ...
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### Combination topological space and locale?

The traditional theory of topological spaces (as formalized by Bourbaki) starts with a set of points, then builds a structure on that. In contrast, the theory of locales starts with a frame of opens (...
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### Product of topological spaces and product of corresponding locales

Let $\Omega : \mathbf{Top} \to \mathbf{Loc}$ the functor that takes a topological space to its locale of opens. For a locale morphism $f$, write $f^*$ for the correspoding morphism in $\mathbf{Frm}$, ...
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### Differentiability of the distance function from a (variable) point to a (fixed) set

The distance of from a point $x$ to a set $A$ is defined by $$d(x,S) = \inf\{d(x,a)\mid a\in A\},$$ where you may choose the setting to be $\mathbb R^n$, a Banach space or a complete metric space. ...
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### “Scott completion” of dcpo

If $A$ is poset with all directed suprema, it is common to consider the Scott topology on $A$, whose open subsets are the $U \subset A$ such that $U$ is upward closed and if $\bigcup_I a_i \in U$ for ...
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### What are the 'wonderful consequences' following from the existence of a minimal dense subspace?

In Peddechio & Tholens Categorical Foundations they quote PT Johnstone in their chapter on Frames & Locales: ...the single most important fact which distinguishes locales from spaces: the ...
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### Spatiality of products of locally compact locales

In Johnstone´s Sketches of an Elephant Volume 2, page 716, lemma 4.1.8 states that for spatial locales $X$ and $Y$ with $X$ locally compact then the locale product $X\times Y$ is spatial. Is this ...
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### Another notion of exactness: how to refine it, and where does it fit?

There are many notions of "exactness" in category theory, algebraic geometry, etc. Here I offer another that generalizes the category of frames, the notion of valuation (from probability theory), and ...
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### Locales as spaces of ideal/imaginary points

I posted this question on MSE a few days ago, but got no response (despite a bounty). I hope it will get more answers here, but I'm afraid it might not be appropriate as I'm not sure it's actually ...
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### Compact subspace of sober space

We know from lemma 1.2.5 in part C of Sketches of an Elephant (by Johnstone) that both open and closed subspaces of a sober space are again sober. This raises the following question. Question: Is a ...
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### Which topological manifolds do not correspond to strongly Hausdorff locales?

I'm toying with the idea of using locales as a way to define topological manifolds without beginning with points, largely for philosophical reasons. In this context I think I want to redefine a ...
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### Constructive algebraic geometry

I was just watching Andrej Bauer's lecture Five Stages of Accepting Constructive Mathematics, and he mentioned that in the constructive setting we cannot guarantee that every ideal is contained in a ...
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### Locales in constructive mathematics

It is well known that locales are much more well behaved in a constructive setting than topological spaces. Nevertheless, many authors develop the theory of locales in classical mathematics. Are there ...
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### What does the localic reflection of a classifying topos classify?

Let $\mathbb{T}$ be a geometric theory. Let $\mathrm{Set}[\mathbb{T}]$ be its classifying topos, such that geometric morphisms from any (cocomplete) topos $\mathcal{E}$ into $\mathrm{Set}[\mathbb{T}]$ ...
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### Uniqueness of localic analogue of Radon-Nikodym derivatives

In classical probability theory, Radon-Nikodym derivatives are unique up to measure-0 sets of the background measure. I am wondering whether the following statement, intended to state an analogue of ...
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### Is every frame monomorphism regular?

Is every monomorphism in $\mathbf{Frm}$, the category of frames, regular?
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### Is an open map with open relative diagonal necessarily a local homeomorphism?

Let $f : X \to Y$ be an open (and continuous) map of locales. Suppose the relative diagonal $\Delta_f : X \to X \times_Y X$ is an open embedding of locales. Does it follow that $f : X \to Y$ is a ...
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### Is there a straightforward way to define a differentiable structure on a localic manifold?

I'd ideally like a categorical definition of differentiability that can then be trivially translated into locales. Barring this, I'm still interested in whether the notion make sense for locales.
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### About a construction of Borel $\sigma$-algebra associated to a lattice

Let $(\mathcal{A}, \cup, \cap)$ a lattice (with minimum and maximum elements $\bot$ and $\top$). Let $X\subset \mathcal{A}$ a generator set (a set of minimal cardinality that generate $\mathcal{A}$ i....
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### The real numbers object in Sh(Top)

If $X$ is a sober topological space, the real numbers object in the topos $\mathrm{Sh}(X)$ is the sheaf of continuous real-valued functions on $X$. This is proven very explicitly in Theorem VI.8.2 of ...
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### Are regular epi of locale stably epic?

It is well know that the category of locales is not a regular category, that is the pullback of a regular epimorphism is not always a regular epimorphism: for example, the classical counterexample ...
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### Disjoint arrows in the category of locales

Call two arrows $f$ and $g$ disjoint if the pullback of $f$ by $g$ is the initial object. Here's my question: Does there exist a sublocale $j: J\to L$ which is not disjoint with any other (non-...
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### Coequalizers in the category of algebras of the double power locale monad

$\mathbf{Loc}$ is the category of locales, and $\mathbb{P}$ is the double power locale monad on it. Consider the category $\mathbf{Loc}^{\mathbb{P}}$, of algebras of this monad. Does anyone know ...
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### German translation of “locale” (from pointless topology)

Is there an established German translation of "locale"? The term appears mostly untranslated as "Locale"; a single time I've seen "Lokal". Where I'm located, we say "Örtlichkeit" or "Ort". Quoting ...
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### pullback of a morphism of locale which is an isomorphism?

Let $A,B$ be two locales over a locale $X$, and $f:A\rightarrow B$ a morphism of locale over $X$. Let also $g:X'\rightarrow X$ be a surjection of locale such that the pullback of $f$ along $g$ is an ...
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### What's the link between topological spaces as locales and topological spaces as infinity-groupoids?

I've seen texts that talk about topological spaces being essentially locales, like Topology via Logic by Vickers, and texts related to homotopy theory that talk about topological spaces being ...
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### reference request : constructive measure theory

As the title said, I would like to know if constructive measure theory has been developed somewhere ? I am more precisely interested in the (constructive) theory of completely continuous valuation on ...
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### Is there a translation invariant measure on an infinite dimensional space 'without points'?

This is just a reference request. I thought I'd come across a paper demonstrating that there is a translation invariant measure on an infinite-dimensional space without 'points' whilst browsing the ...
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### Strongly Hausdorff(Isbell Hausdorff)

Can I get a finite Isbell Hausdorff frame which has no Isbell Hausdorff subframe? If not possible is there one such in infinite case? See the book  for definitions. Picado, Jorge, and Ales Pultr. ...
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### On the openness of the map X^I -> X * X.

Hello ! Let $X$ be a locale or a topological spaces. $I$ denote the unit interval of the real numbers, and $X^I$ the space of function from $I$ to $X$ (The locale exponential if $X$ is a locale or ...
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### Are $\infty$-topoi determined by their localic points ?

Hello ! If $T$ is an infinity topos, then you can consider the infinity category of geometric morphism from $Sh_{\infty}(\mathcal{L})$ to $T$ for any locale $\mathcal{L}$. This associate to $T$ an ...
### Defining measures over frames in place of $\sigma$-algebras
Normally, measures and probability spaces are defined over $\sigma$-algebras. I was wondering what would happen if one tries to define it over frames in place of $\sigma$-algebras? Specifically, ...