# Questions tagged [locales]

Questions taking place in the category of locales, which is given by the opposite of the category of frames. Also appropriate for questions about pointless topology.

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### “Scott completion” of dcpo

If $A$ is poset with all directed suprema, it is common to consider the Scott topology on $A$, whose open subsets are the $U \subset A$ such that $U$ is upward closed and if $\bigcup_I a_i \in U $ for ...

**11**

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**2**answers

345 views

### What are the 'wonderful consequences' following from the existence of a minimal dense subspace?

In Peddechio & Tholens Categorical Foundations they quote PT Johnstone in their chapter on Frames & Locales:
...the single most important fact which distinguishes locales from spaces: the ...

**6**

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### Spatiality of products of locally compact locales

In Johnstone´s Sketches of an Elephant Volume 2, page 716,
lemma 4.1.8 states that for spatial locales $X$ and $Y$ with $X$ locally compact then the locale product $X\times Y$ is spatial.
Is this ...

**24**

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**2**answers

623 views

### Another notion of exactness: how to refine it, and where does it fit?

There are many notions of "exactness" in category theory, algebraic geometry, etc. Here I offer another that generalizes the category of frames, the notion of valuation (from probability theory), and ...

**8**

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**3**answers

302 views

### Locales as spaces of ideal/imaginary points

I posted this question on MSE a few days ago, but got no response (despite a bounty). I hope it will get more answers here, but I'm afraid it might not be appropriate as I'm not sure it's actually ...

**3**

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**0**answers

63 views

### Compact subspace of sober space

We know from lemma 1.2.5 in part C of Sketches of an Elephant (by Johnstone) that both open and closed subspaces of a sober space are again sober. This raises the following question.
Question: Is a ...

**12**

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569 views

### Is it possible to completely embed complete Heyting Algebras into upsets of a poset?

Let $H$ be a Heyting algebra. It is a well-known result that there is a partially ordered set (Kripke frame) X such that there is an embedding of Heyting algebras $f: H \to \mathsf{Up}(X)$, where $\...

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323 views

### Constructive proofs of existence in analysis using locales

There are several basic theorems in analysis asserting the existence of a point in some space such as the following results:
The intermediate value theorem: for every continuous function $f : [0,1] \...

**9**

votes

**1**answer

384 views

### Which topological manifolds do not correspond to strongly Hausdorff locales?

I'm toying with the idea of using locales as a way to define topological manifolds without beginning with points, largely for philosophical reasons.
In this context I think I want to redefine a ...

**30**

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**1**answer

2k views

### Constructive algebraic geometry

I was just watching Andrej Bauer's lecture Five Stages of Accepting Constructive Mathematics, and he mentioned that in the constructive setting we cannot guarantee that every ideal is contained in a ...

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346 views

### Locales in constructive mathematics

It is well known that locales are much more well behaved in a constructive setting than topological spaces. Nevertheless, many authors develop the theory of locales in classical mathematics. Are there ...

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133 views

### What does the localic reflection of a classifying topos classify?

Let $\mathbb{T}$ be a geometric theory. Let $\mathrm{Set}[\mathbb{T}]$ be its classifying topos, such that geometric morphisms from any (cocomplete) topos $\mathcal{E}$ into $\mathrm{Set}[\mathbb{T}]$ ...

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205 views

### Uniqueness of localic analogue of Radon-Nikodym derivatives

In classical probability theory, Radon-Nikodym derivatives are unique up to measure-0 sets of the background measure. I am wondering whether the following statement, intended to state an analogue of ...

**5**

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**1**answer

142 views

### Topological regularity for toposes

A topological space $X$ is regular if a point not belonging to a closed set can be separated from it by disjoint opens. Equivalently, this means if $x\in U$ for an open set $U$, then there are opens $...

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126 views

### Inductive generation of non-spatial locales

Is there an example of a locale/formal space which is not spatial (i.e., one can prove it is not spatial, rather than something like $\mathbb{R}$, where spatiality is independent in a constructive ...

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142 views

### Products of double-negation sublocales (and probability distributions on them)

In locale theory, one can produce from any locale $A$ its double negation sublocale $A_{\neg\neg}$ via the nucleus which maps an open $U$ of $A$ to $\neg \neg U$, which is the interior of the closure ...

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693 views

### Locales as geometric objects

There is the following analogy:
$$\begin{array}{cc} \text{frames} & - & \text{commutative rings} \\ | && | \\\text{locales} & - & \text{affines schemes}\end{array}$$
Here, ...

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299 views

### The theory of frames and locales as elementary topology [closed]

In What is elementary geometry? (pdf) Alfred Tarski defined elementary geometry to be
that part of Euclidean geometry which can be formulated and established without the help of any set-...

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votes

**1**answer

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### Relative local compactness for locales?

I am looking for informations on the relative version of local compactness for locales:
If $f:X \rightarrow Y$ is a morphism of locales I want to say that $f$ is relatively locally compact if ...

**3**

votes

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267 views

### Topos Theory, internal Heyting Algebra

Given a topos $\mathcal{E}$ with subobject classifier $\Omega$.
If we denote by $N\Omega$ the former of all local operators on $\Omega$, that is, Lawvere–Tierney topologies of $\mathcal{E}$, it is ...

**5**

votes

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281 views

### Not sure how to fix an error in the Handbook of Categorical Algebra (vol 3)

In the proof of Theorem 1.5.7 (in which it is shown the the nuclei on a locale, when ordered by pointwise partial order, themselves form a locale) in the computation at the bottom of p.35, there is ...

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91 views

### Locales satisfying DC?

Is there a nice (topological) characterization of the locales such that the axiom of dependant choices holds in the internal logic of the topos of sheaves ? I would also be interested in the case of ...

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150 views

### Detecting positive endomaps of the formal reals

A locale is a sort of "formal topological space", which "may not have enough points to separate its open sets". For instance, there is a "locale of all real numbers that are both rational and ...

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169 views

### Exponential locales and a pointless version of the compact-open topology?

TL;DR: compact-open topology for Homs of locales?
Let $\mathcal{L}$ be a full subcategory of the category $\mathcal{Loc}$ of locales.
For two locales, $A$ and $B$, is there a nice way to make an ...

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vote

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96 views

### Lebesgue covering dimension for locales

A space $(X,\tau)$ is said to have Lebesgue covering dimension $\leq n$ (for some $n\in\mathbb{N}$) if every open covering $\cal U$ has a refinement $\cal V$ such that for every $x\in X$ the set ${\...

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147 views

### Is every frame monomorphism regular?

Is every monomorphism in $\mathbf{Frm}$, the category of frames, regular?

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178 views

### Is an open map with open relative diagonal necessarily a local homeomorphism?

Let $f : X \to Y$ be an open (and continuous) map of locales. Suppose the relative diagonal $\Delta_f : X \to X \times_Y X$ is an open embedding of locales. Does it follow that $f : X \to Y$ is a ...

**3**

votes

**1**answer

172 views

### Is there a straightforward way to define a differentiable structure on a localic manifold?

I'd ideally like a categorical definition of differentiability that can then be trivially translated into locales. Barring this, I'm still interested in whether the notion make sense for locales.

**13**

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944 views

### About a construction of Borel $\sigma$-algebra associated to a lattice

Let $(\mathcal{A}, \cup, \cap)$ a lattice (with minimum and maximum elements $\bot$ and $\top$).
Let $X\subset \mathcal{A}$ a generator set (a set of minimal cardinality that generate $\mathcal{A}$ i....

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704 views

### The real numbers object in Sh(Top)

If $X$ is a sober topological space, the real numbers object in the topos $\mathrm{Sh}(X)$ is the sheaf of continuous real-valued functions on $X$. This is proven very explicitly in Theorem VI.8.2 of ...

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145 views

### Are regular epi of locale stably epic?

It is well know that the category of locales is not a regular category, that is the pullback of a regular epimorphism is not always a regular epimorphism: for example, the classical counterexample ...

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111 views

### Disjoint Arrows in the category of locales

Call two arrows $f$ and $g$ disjoint if the pullback of $f$ by $g$ is the initial object. Here's my question: Does there exist a sublocale $j: J\to L$ which is not disjoint with any other (non-...

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431 views

### Coequalizers in the category of algebras of the double power locale monad

$\mathbf{Loc}$ is the category of locales, and $\mathbb{P}$ is the double power locale monad on it. Consider the category $\mathbf{Loc}^{\mathbb{P}}$, of algebras of this monad. Does anyone know ...

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387 views

### German translation of “locale” (from pointless topology)

Is there an established German translation of "locale"? The term appears mostly untranslated as "Locale"; a single time I've seen "Lokal". Where I'm located, we say "Örtlichkeit" or "Ort".
Quoting ...

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### pullback of a morphism of locale which is an isomorphism?

Let $A,B$ be two locales over a locale $X$, and $f:A\rightarrow B$ a morphism of locale over $X$. Let also $g:X'\rightarrow X$ be a surjection of locale such that the pullback of $f$ along $g$ is an ...

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440 views

### What's the link between topological spaces as locales and topological spaces as infinity-groupoids?

I've seen texts that talk about topological spaces being essentially locales, like Topology via Logic by Vickers, and texts related to homotopy theory that talk about topological spaces being ...

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914 views

### reference request : constructive measure theory

As the title said, I would like to know if constructive measure theory has been developed somewhere ?
I am more precisely interested in the (constructive) theory of completely continuous valuation on ...

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votes

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814 views

### Embedding a brouwerian lattice into a boolean lattice

I have already asked a similar question at
https://math.stackexchange.com/questions/470704/can-a-brouwerian-lattice-be-extended-into-a-boolean-algebra
but have received no answer.
Sorry, I ask a ...

**0**

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**0**answers

199 views

### Is there a translation invariant measure on an infinite dimensional space 'without points'?

This is just a reference request. I thought I'd come across a paper demonstrating that there is a translation invariant measure on an infinite-dimensional space without 'points' whilst browsing the ...

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237 views

### Strongly Hausdorff(Isbell Hausdorff)

Can I get a finite Isbell Hausdorff frame which has no Isbell Hausdorff subframe? If not possible is there one such in infinite case?
See the book [1] for definitions.
Picado, Jorge, and Ales Pultr. ...

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votes

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144 views

### On the openness of the map X^I -> X * X.

Hello !
Let $X$ be a locale or a topological spaces. $I$ denote the unit interval of the real numbers, and $X^I$ the space of function from $I$ to $X$ (The locale exponential if $X$ is a locale or ...

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436 views

### Are $\infty$-topoi determined by their localic points ?

Hello !
If $T$ is an infinity topos, then you can consider the infinity category of geometric morphism from $Sh_{\infty}(\mathcal{L})$ to $T$ for any locale $\mathcal{L}$. This associate to $T$ an ...

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364 views

### Defining measures over frames in place of $\sigma$-algebras

Normally, measures and probability spaces are defined over $\sigma$-algebras. I was wondering what would happen if one tries to define it over frames in place of $\sigma$-algebras? Specifically, ...

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**1**answer

171 views

### Intersection of open sublocale of a compact regular locale ?

Hello !
It's well know that any sublocale of regular locale is the intersection of a familly of open sublocale. Hence if $X$ is a regular locale, the map which to a sublocal $Y \subset X$ associate $ ...

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430 views

### Given a Grothendieck topos, what does its localic groupoid look like? [duplicate]

Possible Duplicate:
Toposes (topoi) as classifying toposes of groupoids
For example, if a topos E is the object classifier, or the preseaf topos on a small category C, is there a way of ...

**2**

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**0**answers

124 views

### surjection of localic infinity toposes?

Hello!
Is there a simple 'topological' condition to detect whenever a morphism of locales $f : X \rightarrow Y$ induces a surjection of infinity-toposes $f : \mathrm{Sh}_{\infty}(X) \rightarrow \...

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votes

**1**answer

540 views

### Counterexemple to Urysohn's lemma in a topos without denombrable choice ?

Hello !
The Urysohn's Lemma assert that in every topological spaces which is normal two closed subset may be separated by a real valued function. It's proof use axiom of countable choice (but not the ...

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876 views

### $\infty$-topos and localic $\infty$-groupoids?

It's known that every classical (Grothendieck) topos is equivalent to the topos of sheaves on a localic groupoid (a groupoid in the category of locales).
For the record, this is proved by, starting ...

**19**

votes

**1**answer

981 views

### Which complete Boolean algebras arise as the algebras of projections of commutative von Neumann algebras?

Projections in an arbitrary commutative von Neumann algebra form a complete Boolean algebra.
Moreover, a morphism of commutative von Neumann algebras induces
a continuous morphism of the corresponding ...

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**3**answers

919 views

### Localic locales? Towards very pointless spaces by iterated internalization.

One can think of locales as (generalizations of) topological spaces which don't necessary have (enough) points. Of course when one studies locales, one "actually" studies frames,
certain sorts of ...