# Questions tagged [locales]

Questions taking place in the category of locales, which is given by the opposite of the category of frames. Also appropriate for questions about pointless topology.

59
questions

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### Best introductory texts on pointless topology

As I understand it, there are three canonical textbooks on pointless topology: the classic "Stone Spaces" by Johnstone, "Topology via Logic" by Steve Vickers, and the newer "Frames and Locales" by ...

**13**

votes

**1**answer

223 views

### Combination topological space and locale?

The traditional theory of topological spaces (as formalized by Bourbaki) starts with a set of points, then builds a structure on that. In contrast, the theory of locales starts with a frame of opens (...

**3**

votes

**1**answer

93 views

### Product of topological spaces and product of corresponding locales

Let $\Omega : \mathbf{Top} \to \mathbf{Loc}$ the functor that takes a topological space to its locale of opens.
For a locale morphism $f$, write $f^*$ for the correspoding morphism in $\mathbf{Frm}$, ...

**7**

votes

**1**answer

352 views

### Differentiability of the distance function from a (variable) point to a (fixed) set

The distance of from a point $x$ to a set $A$ is defined by
$$ d(x,S) = \inf\{d(x,a)\mid a\in A\}, $$
where you may choose the setting to be $\mathbb R^n$,
a Banach space or a complete metric space.
...

**12**

votes

**1**answer

340 views

### “Scott completion” of dcpo

If $A$ is poset with all directed suprema, it is common to consider the Scott topology on $A$, whose open subsets are the $U \subset A$ such that $U$ is upward closed and if $\bigcup_I a_i \in U $ for ...

**13**

votes

**3**answers

630 views

### What are the 'wonderful consequences' following from the existence of a minimal dense subspace?

In Peddechio & Tholens Categorical Foundations they quote PT Johnstone in their chapter on Frames & Locales:
...the single most important fact which distinguishes locales from spaces: the ...

**6**

votes

**0**answers

121 views

### Spatiality of products of locally compact locales

In Johnstone´s Sketches of an Elephant Volume 2, page 716,
lemma 4.1.8 states that for spatial locales $X$ and $Y$ with $X$ locally compact then the locale product $X\times Y$ is spatial.
Is this ...

**24**

votes

**2**answers

731 views

### Another notion of exactness: how to refine it, and where does it fit?

There are many notions of "exactness" in category theory, algebraic geometry, etc. Here I offer another that generalizes the category of frames, the notion of valuation (from probability theory), and ...

**12**

votes

**5**answers

732 views

### Locales as spaces of ideal/imaginary points

I posted this question on MSE a few days ago, but got no response (despite a bounty). I hope it will get more answers here, but I'm afraid it might not be appropriate as I'm not sure it's actually ...

**4**

votes

**0**answers

91 views

### Compact subspace of sober space

We know from lemma 1.2.5 in part C of Sketches of an Elephant (by Johnstone) that both open and closed subspaces of a sober space are again sober. This raises the following question.
Question: Is a ...

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votes

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610 views

### Is it possible to completely embed complete Heyting Algebras into upsets of a poset?

Let $H$ be a Heyting algebra. It is a well-known result that there is a partially ordered set (Kripke frame) X such that there is an embedding of Heyting algebras $f: H \to \mathsf{Up}(X)$, where $\...

**13**

votes

**2**answers

374 views

### Constructive proofs of existence in analysis using locales

There are several basic theorems in analysis asserting the existence of a point in some space such as the following results:
The intermediate value theorem: for every continuous function $f : [0,1] \...

**9**

votes

**1**answer

406 views

### Which topological manifolds do not correspond to strongly Hausdorff locales?

I'm toying with the idea of using locales as a way to define topological manifolds without beginning with points, largely for philosophical reasons.
In this context I think I want to redefine a ...

**33**

votes

**1**answer

3k views

### Constructive algebraic geometry

I was just watching Andrej Bauer's lecture Five Stages of Accepting Constructive Mathematics, and he mentioned that in the constructive setting we cannot guarantee that every ideal is contained in a ...

**13**

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**2**answers

405 views

### Locales in constructive mathematics

It is well known that locales are much more well behaved in a constructive setting than topological spaces. Nevertheless, many authors develop the theory of locales in classical mathematics. Are there ...

**9**

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**0**answers

219 views

### What does the localic reflection of a classifying topos classify?

Let $\mathbb{T}$ be a geometric theory. Let $\mathrm{Set}[\mathbb{T}]$ be its classifying topos, such that geometric morphisms from any (cocomplete) topos $\mathcal{E}$ into $\mathrm{Set}[\mathbb{T}]$ ...

**5**

votes

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234 views

### Uniqueness of localic analogue of Radon-Nikodym derivatives

In classical probability theory, Radon-Nikodym derivatives are unique up to measure-0 sets of the background measure. I am wondering whether the following statement, intended to state an analogue of ...

**5**

votes

**1**answer

155 views

### Topological regularity for toposes

A topological space $X$ is regular if a point not belonging to a closed set can be separated from it by disjoint opens. Equivalently, this means if $x\in U$ for an open set $U$, then there are opens $...

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157 views

### Inductive generation of non-spatial locales

Is there an example of a locale/formal space which is not spatial (i.e., one can prove it is not spatial, rather than something like $\mathbb{R}$, where spatiality is independent in a constructive ...

**5**

votes

**2**answers

150 views

### Products of double-negation sublocales (and probability distributions on them)

In locale theory, one can produce from any locale $A$ its double negation sublocale $A_{\neg\neg}$ via the nucleus which maps an open $U$ of $A$ to $\neg \neg U$, which is the interior of the closure ...

**14**

votes

**2**answers

889 views

### Locales as geometric objects

There is the following analogy:
$$\begin{array}{cc} \text{frames} & - & \text{commutative rings} \\ | && | \\\text{locales} & - & \text{affines schemes}\end{array}$$
Here, ...

**2**

votes

**0**answers

332 views

### The theory of frames and locales as elementary topology [closed]

In What is elementary geometry? (pdf) Alfred Tarski defined elementary geometry to be
that part of Euclidean geometry which can be formulated and established without the help of any set-...

**4**

votes

**1**answer

87 views

### Relative local compactness for locales?

I am looking for informations on the relative version of local compactness for locales:
If $f:X \rightarrow Y$ is a morphism of locales I want to say that $f$ is relatively locally compact if ...

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305 views

### Topos Theory, internal Heyting Algebra

Given a topos $\mathcal{E}$ with subobject classifier $\Omega$.
If we denote by $N\Omega$ the former of all local operators on $\Omega$, that is, Lawvere–Tierney topologies of $\mathcal{E}$, it is ...

**5**

votes

**1**answer

285 views

### Not sure how to fix an error in the Handbook of Categorical Algebra (vol 3)

In the proof of Theorem 1.5.7 (in which it is shown the the nuclei on a locale, when ordered by pointwise partial order, themselves form a locale) in the computation at the bottom of p.35, there is ...

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94 views

### Locales satisfying DC?

Is there a nice (topological) characterization of the locales such that the axiom of dependant choices holds in the internal logic of the topos of sheaves ? I would also be interested in the case of ...

**8**

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**1**answer

164 views

### Detecting positive endomaps of the formal reals

A locale is a sort of "formal topological space", which "may not have enough points to separate its open sets". For instance, there is a "locale of all real numbers that are both rational and ...

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**1**answer

203 views

### Exponential locales and a pointless version of the compact-open topology?

TL;DR: compact-open topology for Homs of locales?
Let $\mathcal{L}$ be a full subcategory of the category $\mathcal{Loc}$ of locales.
For two locales, $A$ and $B$, is there a nice way to make an ...

**1**

vote

**1**answer

100 views

### Lebesgue covering dimension for locales

A space $(X,\tau)$ is said to have Lebesgue covering dimension $\leq n$ (for some $n\in\mathbb{N}$) if every open covering $\cal U$ has a refinement $\cal V$ such that for every $x\in X$ the set ${\...

**3**

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**1**answer

165 views

### Is every frame monomorphism regular?

Is every monomorphism in $\mathbf{Frm}$, the category of frames, regular?

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232 views

### Is an open map with open relative diagonal necessarily a local homeomorphism?

Let $f : X \to Y$ be an open (and continuous) map of locales. Suppose the relative diagonal $\Delta_f : X \to X \times_Y X$ is an open embedding of locales. Does it follow that $f : X \to Y$ is a ...

**3**

votes

**1**answer

176 views

### Is there a straightforward way to define a differentiable structure on a localic manifold?

I'd ideally like a categorical definition of differentiability that can then be trivially translated into locales. Barring this, I'm still interested in whether the notion make sense for locales.

**13**

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1k views

### About a construction of Borel $\sigma$-algebra associated to a lattice

Let $(\mathcal{A}, \cup, \cap)$ a lattice (with minimum and maximum elements $\bot$ and $\top$).
Let $X\subset \mathcal{A}$ a generator set (a set of minimal cardinality that generate $\mathcal{A}$ i....

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**1**answer

840 views

### The real numbers object in Sh(Top)

If $X$ is a sober topological space, the real numbers object in the topos $\mathrm{Sh}(X)$ is the sheaf of continuous real-valued functions on $X$. This is proven very explicitly in Theorem VI.8.2 of ...

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180 views

### Are regular epi of locale stably epic?

It is well know that the category of locales is not a regular category, that is the pullback of a regular epimorphism is not always a regular epimorphism: for example, the classical counterexample ...

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161 views

### Disjoint arrows in the category of locales

Call two arrows $f$ and $g$ disjoint if the pullback of $f$ by $g$ is the initial object. Here's my question: Does there exist a sublocale $j: J\to L$ which is not disjoint with any other (non-...

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446 views

### Coequalizers in the category of algebras of the double power locale monad

$\mathbf{Loc}$ is the category of locales, and $\mathbb{P}$ is the double power locale monad on it. Consider the category $\mathbf{Loc}^{\mathbb{P}}$, of algebras of this monad. Does anyone know ...

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405 views

### German translation of “locale” (from pointless topology)

Is there an established German translation of "locale"? The term appears mostly untranslated as "Locale"; a single time I've seen "Lokal". Where I'm located, we say "Örtlichkeit" or "Ort".
Quoting ...

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177 views

### pullback of a morphism of locale which is an isomorphism?

Let $A,B$ be two locales over a locale $X$, and $f:A\rightarrow B$ a morphism of locale over $X$. Let also $g:X'\rightarrow X$ be a surjection of locale such that the pullback of $f$ along $g$ is an ...

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**1**answer

501 views

### What's the link between topological spaces as locales and topological spaces as infinity-groupoids?

I've seen texts that talk about topological spaces being essentially locales, like Topology via Logic by Vickers, and texts related to homotopy theory that talk about topological spaces being ...

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**4**answers

1k views

### reference request : constructive measure theory

As the title said, I would like to know if constructive measure theory has been developed somewhere ?
I am more precisely interested in the (constructive) theory of completely continuous valuation on ...

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votes

**2**answers

941 views

### Embedding a brouwerian lattice into a boolean lattice

I have already asked a similar question at
https://math.stackexchange.com/questions/470704/can-a-brouwerian-lattice-be-extended-into-a-boolean-algebra
but have received no answer.
Sorry, I ask a ...

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**0**answers

216 views

### Is there a translation invariant measure on an infinite dimensional space 'without points'?

This is just a reference request. I thought I'd come across a paper demonstrating that there is a translation invariant measure on an infinite-dimensional space without 'points' whilst browsing the ...

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**1**answer

257 views

### Strongly Hausdorff(Isbell Hausdorff)

Can I get a finite Isbell Hausdorff frame which has no Isbell Hausdorff subframe? If not possible is there one such in infinite case?
See the book [1] for definitions.
Picado, Jorge, and Ales Pultr. ...

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votes

**1**answer

156 views

### On the openness of the map X^I -> X * X.

Hello !
Let $X$ be a locale or a topological spaces. $I$ denote the unit interval of the real numbers, and $X^I$ the space of function from $I$ to $X$ (The locale exponential if $X$ is a locale or ...

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votes

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470 views

### Are $\infty$-topoi determined by their localic points ?

Hello !
If $T$ is an infinity topos, then you can consider the infinity category of geometric morphism from $Sh_{\infty}(\mathcal{L})$ to $T$ for any locale $\mathcal{L}$. This associate to $T$ an ...

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390 views

### Defining measures over frames in place of $\sigma$-algebras

Normally, measures and probability spaces are defined over $\sigma$-algebras. I was wondering what would happen if one tries to define it over frames in place of $\sigma$-algebras? Specifically, ...

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vote

**1**answer

182 views

### Intersection of open sublocale of a compact regular locale ?

Hello !
It's well know that any sublocale of regular locale is the intersection of a familly of open sublocale. Hence if $X$ is a regular locale, the map which to a sublocal $Y \subset X$ associate $ ...

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482 views

### Given a Grothendieck topos, what does its localic groupoid look like? [duplicate]

Possible Duplicate:
Toposes (topoi) as classifying toposes of groupoids
For example, if a topos E is the object classifier, or the preseaf topos on a small category C, is there a way of ...

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votes

**0**answers

128 views

### surjection of localic infinity toposes?

Hello!
Is there a simple 'topological' condition to detect whenever a morphism of locales $f : X \rightarrow Y$ induces a surjection of infinity-toposes $f : \mathrm{Sh}_{\infty}(X) \rightarrow \...