# Questions tagged [linear-algebra]

Questions about the properties of vector spaces and linear transformations, including linear systems in general.

1,347
questions with no upvoted or accepted answers

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2k views

### What did Gelfand mean by suggesting to study “Heredity Principle” structures instead of categories?

Israel Gelfand wrote in his remarkable talk "Mathematics as an adequate language (a few remarks)", given at "The Unity of Mathematics" Conference in honor of his 90th birthday, the ...

**34**

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2k views

### Correspondence between eigenvalue distributions of random unitary and random orthogonal matrices

In the course of a physics problem (arXiv:1206.6687), I stumbled on a curious correspondence between the eigenvalue distributions of the matrix product $U\bar{U}$, with $U$ a random unitary matrix and ...

**24**

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854 views

### Real square roots of symmetric matrices

In joint work with Andreas Fischle (TU Dresden, Germany) and Patrizio Neff (U Essen, Germany) we needed to use the following statement: If $S$ is a real $n\times n$ matrix with $S^2$ symmetric, then ...

**23**

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921 views

### conjectures regarding a new Renyi information quantity

In a recent paper http://arxiv.org/abs/1403.6102, we defined a quantity that we called the "Renyi conditional mutual information" and investigated several of its properties. We have some open ...

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6k views

### An $n \times n$ matrix $A$ is similar to its transpose $A^{\top}$: elementary proof?

A famous result in linear algebra is the following.
An $n \times n$ matrix $A$ over a field $\mathbb{F}$ is similar to its transpose $A^T$.
I know one proof using the Smith Normal Form (SNF). ...

**21**

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834 views

### Cauchy matrices with elementary symmetric polynomials

$\newcommand{\vx}{\mathbf{x}}$
Let $e_k(\vx)$ denote the elementary symmetric polynomial, defined for $k=0,1,\ldots,n$ over a vector $\vx=(x_1,\ldots,x_n)$ by
\begin{equation*}
e_k(\vx) := \sum_{1 \...

**18**

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474 views

### Fundamental Theorem of Algebra via multiple integrals

Consider the product of complex linear monic polynomials times polynomials of degree less than $n$, that is $\big( (z-\lambda), p(z)\big)\mapsto (z-\lambda)p(z)$. If we represent a polynomial by its ...

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434 views

### A curious switch in infinite dimensions

Let $V$ be a finite dimensional real vector space. Let $GL(V)$ be the set of invertible linear transformations, and $\Phi(V)$ be the set of all linear transformations. We can also characterize $\Phi(V)...

**17**

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400 views

### Is it consistent with ZF that $V\to V^{\ast \ast}$ is always surjective?

In a comment to a recent question, Jeremy Rickard asked whether it is consistent with ZF that the map $V \to V^{**}$ from a vector space to its double dual is always surjective. We know that "always ...

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497 views

### Bunnity of multilinear maps

Is there a way to compute the following nullity of multilinear maps? As it is different from any nullity I know of, I call it bunnity after myself:-)) If it already has a name, it be nice to know it. ...

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669 views

### Is there a “natural” proof of the equality $4^2=2^4$?

This question, or rather any answer that it might receive, would probably belong to the realm of Awfully sophisticated proof for simple facts. Still, I claim that I have quite serious motivation for ...

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492 views

### Are $0, 1, 4, 7, 8$ the only dimensions in which a bivector-valued cross product exists?

It is a well-known mathematical curiosity that ordinary (vector-valued) cross products over $\mathbb{R}$ exist only in dimensions $0, 1, 3$ and $7$ (this fact is related to Hurwitz's theorem that real ...

**16**

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712 views

### How to explain the picturesque patterns in François Brunault's matrix?

How to explain the patterns in the matrix defined in François Brunault's
answer to the question Freeness of a Z[x] module depicted below? --
Choosing colors according to the highest power of 2 which ...

**15**

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292 views

### a Vandermonde-type of determinants summed over permutations

Let $S_n$ be the symmetric group. Consider
$$D:=\sum_{\sigma\in S_n} \text{sgn}(\sigma)\cdot \det\begin{pmatrix}1 & a_{\sigma(1)}-0 & (a_{\sigma(1)}-0)^2 & \cdots & (a_{\sigma(1)}-0)^{...

**15**

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332 views

### An inequality for matrix norms

Working on a problem in combinatorics I come up with the following inequality on matrix norms, which I checked it also numerically:
Let $A=(a_{ij})$ be a real symmetric $n\times n$ matrix with ...

**15**

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697 views

### Determinant inequality involving Hermitian, positive definite matrices

Let $A,B,C\in M_{n}(\mathbb C)$ be Hermitian and positive-definite matrices such that $A+B+C=I_{n}$.
Show that
$$\det\left(6(A^3+B^3+C^3)+I_{n}\right)\ge 5^n\det(A^2+B^2+C^2)$$
This question has been ...

**14**

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540 views

### Cardinality vs. isomorphism type of vector spaces without choice

One of the classical uses of the existence of bases of vector spaces (which is equivalent to the axiom of choice) is the following theorem:
If $V$ is an infinite vector space over a field $F$, and $...

**14**

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390 views

### The rank of a “triangle-free” matrix

This is a version of the question I asked recently, but the assumptions got now strengthened substantially.
Suppose that $A=(a_{ij})_{1\le i,j\le n}$ is a square matrix with all elements in $\{0,\...

**14**

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511 views

### Who stated and proved the “Hopf lemma” on bilinear maps?

If $A\otimes B\rightarrow C$ is a nondegenerate linear map, where $A, B, C$ are vector spaces over an algebraically closed field, then $\dim C\ge \dim A + \dim B -1$.
Nondegenerate here means that ...

**13**

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231 views

### Is the set of power matrices decidable?

Let $\text{Mat}(n\times n,\mathbb{Z})$ denote the collection of integer $n\times n$ matrices. We say $M\in \text{Mat}(n\times n,\mathbb{Z})$ is a power matrix if there is an integer $k>1$ and a ...

**13**

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321 views

### A determinant problem for primes $p\equiv 1\pmod4$

Let $p$ be an odd prime, and let $A_p$ denote the matrix
$$[a_{ij}]_{1\le i,j\le (p-1)/2},$$
where
$$a_{1j}=\left(\frac jp\right),\ \ \text{and}\ \ a_{ij}=\left(\frac{i^2+j^2}p\right)\ \text{for}\ i&...

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660 views

### Regular languages of matrices and their generating functions

My question is somewhat related to this question.
Let us fix natural numbers $k$ and $C$. Let $A$ be an automaton whose alphabet consists of $k\times k$ matrices with integer coefficients of ...

**12**

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225 views

### A Dynkin type classification result in linear algebra

Let $G$ be a finite directed acyclic graph. The Cartan matrix $C_G=C$ of $G$ is defined as the matrix with rows and colums indexed by the vertices of $G$ and $c_{i,j}$ counts the number of paths from $...

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293 views

### Combinatorial proof of invertibility of a symmetric matrix associated to the ring of matrices over a finite field

Let $F$ be a finite field of $q$ elements with characteristic $p$. Let $M_n(F)$ be the ring of $n\times n$ matrices over $F$. We define a $q^{n^2}\times q^{n^2}$ symmetric matrix $L$ over the ...

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234 views

### Can one Gershgorin circle (only) contain all eigenvalues, when the other circles are not contained in it

In short, following a question from my students, I am trying to find a special case where all the eigenvalues of a matrix lie within only one circle, but not in the others, and the other circles are ...

**12**

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271 views

### How many steps on $S_n$ are required to span $V\wedge V$, $V = K^n$?

Let $A$ be a set of generators of $G=S_n$; assume $e\in A$,
$A=A^{-1}$. Let $V = K^n$, $K$ a field. Consider the natural
action of $G$ on $V$ (namely, $g(e_i) = e_{g(i)}$) and on $W = V\wedge V$
(...

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747 views

### Pointwise (Hadamard) matrix product and the rank

$\DeclareMathOperator{\rk}{rk}$
Suppose that $A$ is a square matrix of order $n$. If, for any polynomials $P$ and $Q$ with $\deg P+\deg Q\le 2$, we have
$$ P(A)\circ Q(A^t) = P(1)Q(1)\, I_n \tag{$\...

**12**

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204 views

### Which ordering of factors is needed to obtain this kind of determinantal inequalities?

Let $A$ and $B$ be $n\times n$ Hermitian positive definite matrices. The curious determinantal inequality given here, which can be stated as $$\det (A^{4}+ ABBA+BAAB+B^{4})\ge\det(A^{4}+ AABB+BBAA+B^{...

**12**

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290 views

### Ratio of entries of A and log A where A is a triangular matrix

Consider triangular matrices $A = \left( {a(n,k)} \right)$ of arbitrary order with $a(n,k) = 0$ if $n + k$ is odd and $a(n,n - 2k) = \frac{{n!}}{{k!(n - 2k)!}}\frac{{(m + n - k - 1)!}}{{(m + n - 1)!}}$...

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741 views

### Eigenvalues of permutations of a real matrix: how complex can they be?

This is sort of complementary to this thread. I’ll repeat the definitions here:
For a matrix $M\in GL(n,\mathbb R)$, consider the $n!$ matrices obtained by permutations of the rows (say) of $M$ and ...

**12**

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575 views

### On a tentative generalization of the Schmidt decomposition

Background
I am a PhD student in Physics and I am currently developing quite refined computer codes that allow to simulate many-body quantum systems living on a lattice. The difficulty resides in ...

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339 views

### Matroids with prescribed independent sets

Let $A$ be a finite set. Let $B$ be a family of subsets of $A$. We are interested in a matroid with a minimum rank such that every element of $B$ is independent. The answer is obvious - a uniform ...

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338 views

### Cohomology for distributive lattices

(edit: Here is a PDF with 5 examples of distributive lattices $L$ with the grades of every point of $L$: https://docdro.id/cUIOb2T . Another class of examples are the divisor lattice where the grade ...

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151 views

### Characterization of certain 4-dimensional lattices

Let $\Lambda \subset {\bf Q}^4$ be a lattice, i.e., $\Lambda$ is a free abelian group and $\Lambda \otimes {\bf Q} = {\bf Q^4}$.
The determinants of those dilation-rotations (i.e. linear maps of ${\bf ...

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282 views

### More mysterious properties of Gram matrix

This is another question related to the mysterious properties of the Gram matrix in dimension $4$. Here's the previous question.
The following fact could be extracted from 0402087:
For any $a_i\...

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213 views

### Matrices that admit a power that is symmetric

We fix an integer $n\geq 2$. Let $S_n$ be the set of real symmetric matrices in $M_n(\mathbb{R})$. We consider the algebraic sets $Y_k=\{A\in M_n(\mathbb{R});A^k\in S_n\},k\geq 2$ and the sequence $...

**11**

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423 views

### Fast computation of matrix product $AXA^T$ with fixed $A$?

Suppose we have two $n$-by-$n$ matrices $X$ and $A$, where $A$ is known and $X$ may change in different invocations, and we want to compute $AXA^T$. Is there an algorithm that beats the naive one of ...

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269 views

### Jaffard's theorem - finite matrices

For infinite matrices, Jaffard's theorem states that if $(A(k,l))_{k,l\in \mathbb{Z}}$ is invertible and satisfies
$$
A(k,l) \leq C (1+\left|k-l\right|)^{-r},
$$
for some $C>0$,
then
$$
A^{-1}(k,...

**11**

votes

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620 views

### An elementary linear algebra problem

Let $K$ be a field, and let $E$ be the algebra of $n\times n$ matrices over $K$. Let $V_0$ and $V_1$ be the (left) $E$-modules of matrices of size $n\times n_0$ and $n\times n_1$. Let $W \subseteq V_0$...

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301 views

### Generalized Classical Adjoints and Factorizations of the Characteristic Polynomial

This is idle noodling, and I'm prepared to learn that it's foolish as well as idle. But....
Let $M$ be an $n\times n$ matrix over, oh, let's say an algebraically closed field for now. There have ...

**10**

votes

**0**answers

379 views

### Words and ranks

Let me state two problems that look very much alike. The first one can be solved putting together answers that different people have given to some questions I asked here a few weeks ago. The second ...

**10**

votes

**0**answers

263 views

### Interpretation of determinants on commutative rings

In real Euclidian space, the result of the determinant can be interpreted as the oriented volume of the image of the unit cube under an invertible linear map.
This interpretation conceptually depends ...

**10**

votes

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217 views

### Generalized eigen property of a matrix

Given a $n \times n$ invertible matrix $A$, I am interested in the set
$$
\mathcal{S}(A) = \{ D \textrm{ diagonal matrix } \mid \det(D - A) = 0 \}.
$$
Thus, for all eigenvalues $\lambda_i$, we have $...

**10**

votes

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198 views

### Maximum dimension of a space of $n\times n$ real matrices with at least $k$ nonzero eigenvalues

Let $M_n(\mathbb{R})$ denote the $n^2$-dimensional real vector space
of real $n\times n$ matrices. Let $\rho_k(n)$ denote the maximum
dimension of a subspace $V$ of $M_n(\mathbb{R})$ such that every
...

**10**

votes

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170 views

### Cospectral mate of rhombic dodecahedron

I am wondering if the following pair of cospectral graphs was previously known.
The rhombic dodecahedron graph looks like this (graph6 string: 'M?????rrAiTOd_YO?'):
As far as I know, it was previously ...

**10**

votes

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749 views

### Dimensions of dual vector spaces

Let $V_F$ be an infinite dimensional right $F$-vector space (over a field $F$, or even over a division ring). The dual space $V^{\ast}={\rm Hom}(V,F)$ is naturally a left $F$-vector space (coming ...

**10**

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225 views

### A $k \times n$ matrix with a lot of invertible $k \times k$ submatrices over $\mathbb{F}_2$

In the appendix of the paper by Tolhuizen (
http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?arnumber=841182) there is a very fast and easy probabilistic proof that for $k=cn$ where $c \in [0,1]$ is fixed, ...

**9**

votes

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259 views

### Triangle $X'\to X\to X''\to\Sigma X'$ splits if $X\simeq X'\oplus X''$?

Given a commutative ring $R$ and a distinguished triangle $X'\to X\to X''\xrightarrow e\Sigma X'$ in the derived category $D(R)$, where $X',X,X''$ are perfect complexes. If we have an equivalence $X\...

**9**

votes

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185 views

### The number of non-singular $n\times n$ matrices over $\mathbb{F}_2$ with exactly $k$ non-zero entries

Suppose $M_{n}^{k}$ is the number of non-singular $n\times n$ matrices over $\mathbb{F}_2$, that have exactly $k$ non-zero entries.
Is there some sort of formula to calculate $M_n^k$?
If $k < n$ ...

**9**

votes

**0**answers

298 views

### Gram matrix determinant in dimension 4 and $E_8$

Consider a determinant of a Gram matrix in dimension $4$.
$$\begin{vmatrix}
1 & -\cos(\alpha_1) & -\cos(\alpha_2) & -\cos(\alpha_3)\\
-\cos(\alpha_1) & 1 & -\cos(\alpha_6)& -\...