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Questions tagged [linear-algebra]

Questions about the properties of vector spaces and linear transformations, including linear systems in general.

51
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4answers
52k views

Eigenvalues of matrix sums

Is there a relationship between the eigenvalues of individual matrices and the eigenvalues of their sum? What about the special case when the matrices are Hermitian and positive definite? I am ...
18
votes
3answers
4k views

Number of unique determinants for an NxN (0,1)-matrix

I'm interested in bounds for the number of unique determinants of NxN (0,1)-matrices. Obviously some of these matrices will be singular and therefore will trivially have zero determinant. While it ...
38
votes
3answers
3k views

The probability for a symmetric matrix to be positive definite

Let me give a reasonable model for the question in the title. In ${\rm Sym}_n({\mathbb R})$, the positive definite matrices form a convex cone $S_n^+$. The probability I have in mind is the ratio $p_n=...
45
votes
6answers
3k views

Is the non-triviality of the algebraic dual of an infinite-dimensional vector space equivalent to the axiom of choice?

If $V$ is given to be a vector space that is not finite-dimensional, it doesn't seem to be possible to exhibit an explicit non-zero linear functional on $V$ without further information about $V$. The ...
58
votes
4answers
6k views

explicit big linearly independent sets

In the following, I use the word "explicit" in the following sense: No choices of bases (of vector spaces or field extensions), non-principal ultrafilters or alike which exist only by Zorn's Lemma (or ...
36
votes
6answers
36k views

Determinant of sum of positive definite matrices

Say $A$ and $B$ are symmetric, positive definite matrices. I've proved that $$\det(A+B) \ge \det(A) + \det(B)$$ in the case that $A$ and $B$ are two dimensional. Is this true in general for $n$-...
41
votes
4answers
6k views

Does the fact that this vector space is not isomorphic to its double-dual require choice?

Let $V$ denote the vector space of sequences of real numbers that are eventually 0, and let $W$ denote the vector space of sequences of real numbers. Given $w \in W$ and $v \in V$, we can take their "...
18
votes
4answers
2k views

Jacobi's equality between complementary minors of inverse matrices

What's a quick way to prove the following fact about minors of an invertible matrix $A$ and its inverse? Let $A[I,J]$ denote the submatrix of an $n \times n$ matrix $A$ obtained by keeping only the ...
11
votes
5answers
17k views

Eigenvalues of Symmetric Tridiagonal Matrices

Suppose I have the symmetric tridiagonal matrix: $ \begin{pmatrix} a & b_{1} & 0 & ... & 0 \\\ b_{1} & a & b_{2} & & ... \\\ 0 & b_{2} & a & ... & 0 \...
7
votes
4answers
1k views

Is there a useful generalization of the Schmidt decomposition to the tensoring together of 3 or more vector spaces?

I've rewritten the question in math notation, and I've left the old version in physics bra-ket notation here. Background A simple consequence of the singular value decomposition is that any vector $...
21
votes
1answer
2k views

What kind of random matrices have rapidly decaying singular values?

I've been told that in machine learning it's common to compute the singular value decomposition of matrices in order to throw out all information in the matrix except that corresponding to, say, the $...
2
votes
5answers
1k views

About adding a negative definite rank-1 matrix to a symmetric matrix

If $B$ is a symmetric matrix then how do its eigenvalues compare to the eigenvalues of $B - vv^T$? ( where $v$ is a vector of the same dimension as $B$) I guess that the eigenvalues of $B - vv^T$ ...
44
votes
22answers
15k views

Why linear algebra is fun!(or ?)

Edit: the original poster is Menny, but the question is CW; the first-person pronoun refers to Menny, not to the most recent editor. I'm doing an introductory talk on linear algebra with the ...
87
votes
9answers
16k views

Should the formula for the inverse of a 2x2 matrix be obvious?

As every MO user knows, and can easily prove, the inverse of the matrix $\begin{pmatrix} a & b \\\ c & d \end{pmatrix}$ is $\frac{1}{ad - bc} \begin{pmatrix} d & -b \\\ -c & a \end{...
40
votes
6answers
7k views

“A gentleman never chooses a basis.”

Around these parts, the aphorism "A gentleman never chooses a basis," has become popular. Question. Is there a gentlemanly way to prove that the natural map from $V$ to $V^{**}$ is surjective if $V$...
27
votes
1answer
6k views

Infinite Tensor Products

Let $A$ be a commutative ring and $M_i, i \in I$ be a infinite family of $A$-modules. Define their tensor product $\bigotimes_{i \in I} M_i$ to be a representing object of the functor of multilinear ...
20
votes
4answers
2k views

Does Smith normal form imply PID?

Let $R$ be a nonzero commutative ring with $1$, such that all finite matrices over $R$ have a Smith normal form. Does it follow that $R$ is a principal ideal domain? If this fails, suppose we ...
19
votes
1answer
13k views

Eigenvalues of the product of two symmetric matrices

This is mostly a reference request, as this must be well-known! Let $A$ and $B$ be two real symmetric matrices, one of which is positive definite. Then it is easy to see that the product $AB$ (or $BA$...
16
votes
2answers
2k views

Optimizing the condition number

Suppose I have a set $S$ of $N$ vectors in $W=\mathbb{R}^m,$ with $N \gg m.$ I want to choose a subset $\{v_1, \dots, v_m\}$ of $S$ in such a way that the condition number of the matrix with columns $...
1
vote
1answer
431 views

Conjecture that relates matrix systems with some polynomials of integer coefficients as solution sets

Assume $x$ is a variable belongs to $\mathbb R \setminus \{ 0,-1,+1 \}$ and consider for all $i, j \in \mathbb N$, $$a(i,j) = \frac{(x^{i+1} + 1)^{j-1} + (x-1)}{x}$$ then for all $n \in \mathbb N$ ...
237
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25answers
41k views

Geometric Interpretation of Trace

This afternoon I was speaking with some graduate students in the department and we came to the following quandry; Is there a geometric interpretation of the trace of a matrix? This question should ...
37
votes
17answers
10k views

Linear Algebra Proofs in Combinatorics?

Simple linear algebra methods are a surprisingly powerful tool to prove combinatorial results. Some examples of combinatorial theorems with linear algebra proofs are the (weak) perfect graph theorem, ...
78
votes
12answers
8k views

Why are matrices ubiquitous but hypermatrices rare?

I am puzzled by the amazing utility and therefore ubiquity of two-dimensional matrices in comparison to the relative paucity of multidimensional arrays of numbers, hypermatrices. Of course ...
37
votes
10answers
16k views

real symmetric matrix has real eigenvalues - elementary proof

Every real symmetric matrix has at least one real eigenvalue. Does anyone know how to prove this elementary, that is without the notion of complex numbers?
28
votes
2answers
4k views

Dimension of infinite product of vector spaces

This question is motivated by the question link text, which compares the infinite direct sum and the infinite direct product of a ring. It is well-known that an infinite dimensional vector space is ...
18
votes
3answers
3k views

“Natural” pairings between exterior powers of a vector space and its dual

Let $V$ be a finite-dimensional vector space over a field $k$, $v_1, ... v_n \in V$ a set of vectors, and $f_1, ... f_n \in V^{\ast}$ a set of covectors. Up to permutation, there seem to be at least ...
26
votes
2answers
1k views

When is $SL(n,R) \rightarrow SL(n,R/q)$ surjective?

Let $R$ be a commutative ring with unit and let $q$ be an ideal of $R$. There is thus a natural map $SL(n,R) \rightarrow SL(n,R/q)$ for all $n$. This map is surjective if $SL(n,R/q)$ is generated by ...
20
votes
6answers
5k views

how to find/define eigenvectors as a continuous function of matrix?

I asked this (with background) here https://stats.stackexchange.com/questions/38494/principal-component-analysis-bootstrap-and-probability-of-eigenvalue-collision but did not really get any answers. ...
25
votes
5answers
1k views

Is the matrix $\left({2m\choose 2j-i}\right)_{i,j=1}^{2m-1}$ nonsingular?

Suppose we have a $(2m-1) \times (2m-1)$ matrix defined as follows: $$\left({2m\choose 2j-i}\right)_{i,j=1}^{2m-1}.$$ For example, if $m=3$, the matrix is $$\begin{pmatrix}6 & 20 & 6& 0 ...
25
votes
1answer
2k views

If $V$ is a vector space with a basis. $W\subseteq V$ has to have a basis too?

Suppose $V$ is a vector space, we say that $\mathcal B$ is a basis for $V$ if: Every $v\in V$ can be written as a linear combination of elements of $\mathcal B$; If $\sum\alpha_i b_i = 0$, where $\...
8
votes
1answer
1k views

A spectral inequality for positive-definite matrices

Question. Given a positive-definite $n \times n$ matrix $A = (a_{ij})$ with eigenvalues $$ \lambda_1 \leq \cdots \leq \lambda_n , $$ is there a sharp upper bound for the product $\lambda_2 \cdots \...
20
votes
3answers
1k views

Simultaneous “orthonormalization” in $\mathbb{C}^4$

Let $A$ be a positive, invertible $4 \times 4$ hermitian complex matrix. So we have a positive sesquilinear form $\langle Av,w\rangle$. Say that a pair $(v,w)$ of vectors in $\mathbb{C}^4$ is good ...
13
votes
3answers
13k views

How to solve this quadratic matrix equation?

I would like to solve for $X$ in the matrix equation $$ XCX + AX = I $$ where all the matrices are $n\times n$, have real components, $X$ is positive semidefinite and $C$ is symmetric. My (possibly ...
20
votes
2answers
2k views

Sizes of bases of vector spaces without the axiom of choice

Assuming the axiom of choice does not hold we have that there is a vector space without a basis. The situation can be, in some sense, worse. It is consistent that there are vector spaces that have two ...
14
votes
4answers
1k views

Eigenvectors of a particular transition matrix

I am considering a Markov chain with $n$ states with a particularly nice structure. The transition matrix is as follows: \begin{equation}\mathbf{P}=\begin{pmatrix} 0 & 0& \dots&0 & 0 &...
13
votes
2answers
592 views

in search of a transformation between determinants

Motivated by this MO question. Consider the two matrices $A_n$ and $B_n$ with entries $\binom{2j}i$ and $\binom{n+1}{2j-i}$, respectively; for $1\leq i, \,j\leq n$. I can show $\det A_n=\det B_n=2^{\...
6
votes
0answers
322 views

concentration for eigenvectors

I am interested in bounding from above the ratio between the maximum and minimum entries of a Perron vector. The only results that I found in the literature are from the classic masters (Ostrowski and ...
18
votes
8answers
2k views

Finitely presented sub-groups of GL(n,C)

Here are two questions about finitely generated and finitely presented groups (FP): 1) Is there an example of an FP group that does not admit a homomorphism to $GL(n,C)$ with trivial kernel for any n?...
10
votes
1answer
570 views

$2 \times 2$ matrix question

Let $A$, $B$, and $C$ be $2\times 2$ complex matrices, with $A$ and $C$ rank $1$ Hermitian. Can we find a real number $a$ and a $2\times 2$ unitary $U$ such that $$A + BV + V^*B^* + V^*CV$$ is a ...
7
votes
0answers
147 views

Bound on gap between least eigenvalues of $n \times n$ correlation matrix and of its $(n -1) \times (n-1)$ submatrices

The following problem is motivated by one of my research problems. Let $\Sigma$ be an $n \times n$ correlation matrix whose least eigenvalue is denoted by $\lambda$. $\Sigma_i'$ be an ...
4
votes
1answer
2k views

Eigenvectors as continuous functions of matrix - diagonal perturbations

The general question has been treated here, and the response was negative. My question is about more particular perturbations. The counterexamples given in the previous question have variations not ...
14
votes
0answers
347 views

The rank of a “triangle-free” matrix

This is a version of the question I asked recently, but the assumptions got now strengthened substantially. Suppose that $A=(a_{ij})_{1\le i,j\le n}$ is a square matrix with all elements in $\{0,\...
12
votes
2answers
7k views

Solving a quadratic matrix equation

This might be a well-known problem but I am having trouble to find this. For square matrices $X, A, B,$ how to obtain the general solution for $X$, for the quadratic matrix equation $X A X^{T} = B$ ? ...
12
votes
0answers
562 views

Pointwise (Hadamard) matrix product and the rank

$\DeclareMathOperator{\rk}{rk}$ Suppose that $A$ is a square matrix of order $n$. If, for any polynomials $P$ and $Q$ with $\deg P+\deg Q\le 2$, we have $$ P(A)\circ Q(A^t) = P(1)Q(1)\, I_n \tag{$\...
11
votes
1answer
278 views

A variant of Cholesky decomposition involving binary matrices

Studying a problem that is not directly related to linear algebra I came across the following problem. Let $B$ be $n \times n$ symmetric matrix whose entries are non-negative integers. I would like ...
6
votes
3answers
232 views

Spectrum of orthogonality graph (2)

The orthogonality graph, $\Omega(n)$, has vertex set the set of $\pm 1$ vectors of length $n$, with orthogonal vectors being adjacent. I am only interested when $4|n$, since otherwise $\Omega(n)$ is ...
5
votes
1answer
461 views

The height of the Perron-Frobenius eigenvector

Does the height of a real symmetric matrix with non-negative entries control the height of its Perron-Frobenius eigenvector, under some reasonable definition of heights? Just as an example of what ...
4
votes
2answers
1k views

Iterated calculation of determinants

Given a $4 \times 4$ matrix $S$ over a commutative ring $R$. I want to consider it as a $2\times 2$ matrix over $M_2(R)$. Lets say $S=\left(\begin{array}{cc} A&B \\\ C&D\end{array}\right)$ ...
12
votes
1answer
378 views

Hankel determinants of binomial coefficients

For $\{h_{n}\}_{n=0}^{\infty}$ a real sequence, detone by $H_{n}$ the $n\times n$ Hankel matrix of the form $$ H_{n}:=\begin{pmatrix} h_{0} & h_{1} & \dots & h_{n-1}\\ h_{1} & h_{2} &...
9
votes
6answers
3k views

Status of the Hadamard Circulant conjecture

The following feels like a community wiki question, so I do it here: Recently we have heard of a new proof of the Circulant Hadamard conjecture of Ryser (a long standing difficult conjecture): ...