# Questions tagged [linear-algebra]

Questions about the properties of vector spaces and linear transformations, including linear systems in general.

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### Eigenvalues of matrix sums

Is there a relationship between the eigenvalues of individual matrices and the eigenvalues of their sum? What about the special case when the matrices are Hermitian and positive definite?
I am ...

**18**

votes

**3**answers

4k views

### Number of unique determinants for an NxN (0,1)-matrix

I'm interested in bounds for the number of unique determinants of NxN (0,1)-matrices. Obviously some of these matrices will be singular and therefore will trivially have zero determinant. While it ...

**38**

votes

**3**answers

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### The probability for a symmetric matrix to be positive definite

Let me give a reasonable model for the question in the title. In ${\rm Sym}_n({\mathbb R})$, the positive definite matrices form a convex cone $S_n^+$. The probability I have in mind is the ratio $p_n=...

**45**

votes

**6**answers

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### Is the non-triviality of the algebraic dual of an infinite-dimensional vector space equivalent to the axiom of choice?

If $V$ is given to be a vector space that is not finite-dimensional, it doesn't seem to be possible to exhibit an explicit non-zero linear functional on $V$ without further information about $V$. The ...

**58**

votes

**4**answers

6k views

### explicit big linearly independent sets

In the following, I use the word "explicit" in the following sense: No choices of bases (of vector spaces or field extensions), non-principal ultrafilters or alike which exist only by Zorn's Lemma (or ...

**36**

votes

**6**answers

36k views

### Determinant of sum of positive definite matrices

Say $A$ and $B$ are symmetric, positive definite matrices. I've proved that
$$\det(A+B) \ge \det(A) + \det(B)$$
in the case that $A$ and $B$ are two dimensional. Is this true in general for $n$-...

**41**

votes

**4**answers

6k views

### Does the fact that this vector space is not isomorphic to its double-dual require choice?

Let $V$ denote the vector space of sequences of real numbers that are eventually 0, and let $W$ denote the vector space of sequences of real numbers. Given $w \in W$ and $v \in V$, we can take their "...

**18**

votes

**4**answers

2k views

### Jacobi's equality between complementary minors of inverse matrices

What's a quick way to prove the following fact about minors of an invertible matrix $A$ and its inverse?
Let $A[I,J]$ denote the submatrix of an $n \times n$ matrix $A$ obtained by keeping only the ...

**11**

votes

**5**answers

17k views

### Eigenvalues of Symmetric Tridiagonal Matrices

Suppose I have the symmetric tridiagonal matrix:
$ \begin{pmatrix}
a & b_{1} & 0 & ... & 0 \\\
b_{1} & a & b_{2} & & ... \\\
0 & b_{2} & a & ... & 0 \...

**7**

votes

**4**answers

1k views

### Is there a useful generalization of the Schmidt decomposition to the tensoring together of 3 or more vector spaces?

I've rewritten the question in math notation, and I've left the old version in physics bra-ket notation here.
Background
A simple consequence of the singular value decomposition is that any vector $...

**21**

votes

**1**answer

2k views

### What kind of random matrices have rapidly decaying singular values?

I've been told that in machine learning it's common to compute the singular value decomposition of matrices in order to throw out all information in the matrix except that corresponding to, say, the $...

**2**

votes

**5**answers

1k views

### About adding a negative definite rank-1 matrix to a symmetric matrix

If $B$ is a symmetric matrix then how do its eigenvalues compare to the eigenvalues of $B - vv^T$? ( where $v$ is a vector of the same dimension as $B$)
I guess that the eigenvalues of $B - vv^T$ ...

**44**

votes

**22**answers

15k views

### Why linear algebra is fun!(or ?)

Edit: the original poster is Menny, but the question is CW; the first-person pronoun refers to Menny, not to the most recent editor.
I'm doing an introductory talk on linear algebra with the ...

**87**

votes

**9**answers

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### Should the formula for the inverse of a 2x2 matrix be obvious?

As every MO user knows, and can easily prove, the inverse of the matrix $\begin{pmatrix} a & b \\\ c & d \end{pmatrix}$ is $\frac{1}{ad - bc} \begin{pmatrix} d & -b \\\ -c & a \end{...

**40**

votes

**6**answers

7k views

### “A gentleman never chooses a basis.”

Around these parts, the aphorism "A gentleman never chooses a basis," has become popular.
Question. Is there a gentlemanly way to prove that the natural map from $V$ to $V^{**}$ is surjective if $V$...

**27**

votes

**1**answer

6k views

### Infinite Tensor Products

Let $A$ be a commutative ring and $M_i, i \in I$ be a infinite family of $A$-modules. Define their tensor product $\bigotimes_{i \in I} M_i$ to be a representing object of the functor of multilinear ...

**20**

votes

**4**answers

2k views

### Does Smith normal form imply PID?

Let $R$ be a nonzero commutative ring with $1$, such that all finite matrices over $R$ have a Smith normal form. Does it follow that $R$ is a principal ideal domain?
If this fails, suppose we ...

**19**

votes

**1**answer

13k views

### Eigenvalues of the product of two symmetric matrices

This is mostly a reference request, as this must be well-known!
Let $A$ and $B$ be two real symmetric matrices, one of which is positive definite. Then it is easy to see that the product $AB$ (or $BA$...

**16**

votes

**2**answers

2k views

### Optimizing the condition number

Suppose I have a set $S$ of $N$ vectors in $W=\mathbb{R}^m,$ with $N \gg m.$ I want to choose a subset $\{v_1, \dots, v_m\}$ of $S$ in such a way that the condition number of the matrix with columns $...

**1**

vote

**1**answer

431 views

### Conjecture that relates matrix systems with some polynomials of integer coefficients as solution sets

Assume $x$ is a variable belongs to $\mathbb R \setminus \{ 0,-1,+1 \}$ and consider for all $i, j \in \mathbb N$,
$$a(i,j) = \frac{(x^{i+1} + 1)^{j-1} + (x-1)}{x}$$
then for all $n \in \mathbb N$ ...

**237**

votes

**25**answers

41k views

### Geometric Interpretation of Trace

This afternoon I was speaking with some graduate students in the department and we came to the following quandry;
Is there a geometric interpretation of the trace of a matrix?
This question should ...

**37**

votes

**17**answers

10k views

### Linear Algebra Proofs in Combinatorics?

Simple linear algebra methods are a surprisingly powerful tool to prove combinatorial results. Some examples of combinatorial theorems with linear algebra proofs are the (weak) perfect graph theorem, ...

**78**

votes

**12**answers

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### Why are matrices ubiquitous but hypermatrices rare?

I am puzzled by the amazing utility and therefore ubiquity of
two-dimensional matrices in comparison to the relative
paucity of multidimensional arrays of numbers, hypermatrices.
Of course ...

**37**

votes

**10**answers

16k views

### real symmetric matrix has real eigenvalues - elementary proof

Every real symmetric matrix has at least one real eigenvalue. Does anyone know how to prove this elementary, that is without the notion of complex numbers?

**28**

votes

**2**answers

4k views

### Dimension of infinite product of vector spaces

This question is motivated by the question link text, which compares the infinite direct sum and the infinite direct product of a ring.
It is well-known that an infinite dimensional vector space is ...

**18**

votes

**3**answers

3k views

### “Natural” pairings between exterior powers of a vector space and its dual

Let $V$ be a finite-dimensional vector space over a field $k$, $v_1, ... v_n \in V$ a set of vectors, and $f_1, ... f_n \in V^{\ast}$ a set of covectors. Up to permutation, there seem to be at least ...

**26**

votes

**2**answers

1k views

### When is $SL(n,R) \rightarrow SL(n,R/q)$ surjective?

Let $R$ be a commutative ring with unit and let $q$ be an ideal of $R$. There is thus a natural map $SL(n,R) \rightarrow SL(n,R/q)$ for all $n$. This map is surjective if $SL(n,R/q)$ is generated by ...

**20**

votes

**6**answers

5k views

### how to find/define eigenvectors as a continuous function of matrix?

I asked this (with background) here
https://stats.stackexchange.com/questions/38494/principal-component-analysis-bootstrap-and-probability-of-eigenvalue-collision
but did not really get any answers. ...

**25**

votes

**5**answers

1k views

### Is the matrix $\left({2m\choose 2j-i}\right)_{i,j=1}^{2m-1}$ nonsingular?

Suppose we have a $(2m-1) \times (2m-1)$ matrix defined as follows:
$$\left({2m\choose 2j-i}\right)_{i,j=1}^{2m-1}.$$
For example, if $m=3$, the matrix is
$$\begin{pmatrix}6 & 20 & 6& 0 ...

**25**

votes

**1**answer

2k views

### If $V$ is a vector space with a basis. $W\subseteq V$ has to have a basis too?

Suppose $V$ is a vector space, we say that $\mathcal B$ is a basis for $V$ if:
Every $v\in V$ can be written as a linear combination of elements of $\mathcal B$;
If $\sum\alpha_i b_i = 0$, where $\...

**8**

votes

**1**answer

1k views

### A spectral inequality for positive-definite matrices

Question. Given a positive-definite $n \times n$ matrix $A = (a_{ij})$ with eigenvalues
$$
\lambda_1 \leq \cdots \leq \lambda_n ,
$$
is there a sharp upper bound for the product $\lambda_2 \cdots \...

**20**

votes

**3**answers

1k views

### Simultaneous “orthonormalization” in $\mathbb{C}^4$

Let $A$ be a positive, invertible $4 \times 4$ hermitian complex matrix.
So we have a positive sesquilinear form $\langle Av,w\rangle$. Say that a pair $(v,w)$ of vectors in $\mathbb{C}^4$ is good ...

**13**

votes

**3**answers

13k views

### How to solve this quadratic matrix equation?

I would like to solve for $X$ in the matrix equation
$$
XCX + AX = I
$$
where all the matrices are $n\times n$, have real components, $X$ is positive semidefinite and $C$ is symmetric. My (possibly ...

**20**

votes

**2**answers

2k views

### Sizes of bases of vector spaces without the axiom of choice

Assuming the axiom of choice does not hold we have that there is a vector space without a basis. The situation can be, in some sense, worse. It is consistent that there are vector spaces that have two ...

**14**

votes

**4**answers

1k views

### Eigenvectors of a particular transition matrix

I am considering a Markov chain with $n$ states with a particularly nice structure. The transition matrix is as follows:
\begin{equation}\mathbf{P}=\begin{pmatrix}
0 & 0& \dots&0 & 0 &...

**13**

votes

**2**answers

592 views

### in search of a transformation between determinants

Motivated by this MO question. Consider the two matrices $A_n$ and $B_n$ with entries $\binom{2j}i$ and $\binom{n+1}{2j-i}$, respectively; for $1\leq i, \,j\leq n$.
I can show $\det A_n=\det B_n=2^{\...

**6**

votes

**0**answers

322 views

### concentration for eigenvectors

I am interested in bounding from above the ratio between the maximum and minimum entries of a Perron vector. The only results that I found in the literature are from the classic masters (Ostrowski and ...

**18**

votes

**8**answers

2k views

### Finitely presented sub-groups of GL(n,C)

Here are two questions about finitely generated and finitely presented groups (FP):
1) Is there an example of an FP group that does not admit a homomorphism to $GL(n,C)$ with trivial kernel for any n?...

**10**

votes

**1**answer

570 views

### $2 \times 2$ matrix question

Let $A$, $B$, and $C$ be $2\times 2$ complex matrices, with $A$ and $C$ rank $1$ Hermitian. Can we find a real number $a$ and a $2\times 2$ unitary $U$ such that
$$A + BV + V^*B^* + V^*CV$$
is a ...

**7**

votes

**0**answers

147 views

### Bound on gap between least eigenvalues of $n \times n$ correlation matrix and of its $(n -1) \times (n-1)$ submatrices

The following problem is motivated by one of my research problems.
Let
$\Sigma$ be an $n \times n$ correlation matrix whose least eigenvalue is denoted by $\lambda$.
$\Sigma_i'$ be an ...

**4**

votes

**1**answer

2k views

### Eigenvectors as continuous functions of matrix - diagonal perturbations

The general question has been treated here, and the response was negative. My question is about more particular perturbations. The counterexamples given in the previous question have variations not ...

**14**

votes

**0**answers

347 views

### The rank of a “triangle-free” matrix

This is a version of the question I asked recently, but the assumptions got now strengthened substantially.
Suppose that $A=(a_{ij})_{1\le i,j\le n}$ is a square matrix with all elements in $\{0,\...

**12**

votes

**2**answers

7k views

### Solving a quadratic matrix equation

This might be a well-known problem but I am having trouble to find this. For square matrices $X, A, B,$ how to obtain the general solution for $X$, for the quadratic matrix equation $X A X^{T} = B$ ? ...

**12**

votes

**0**answers

562 views

### Pointwise (Hadamard) matrix product and the rank

$\DeclareMathOperator{\rk}{rk}$
Suppose that $A$ is a square matrix of order $n$. If, for any polynomials $P$ and $Q$ with $\deg P+\deg Q\le 2$, we have
$$ P(A)\circ Q(A^t) = P(1)Q(1)\, I_n \tag{$\...

**11**

votes

**1**answer

278 views

### A variant of Cholesky decomposition involving binary matrices

Studying a problem that is not directly related to linear algebra I came across the following problem.
Let $B$ be $n \times n$ symmetric matrix whose entries are non-negative integers. I would like ...

**6**

votes

**3**answers

232 views

### Spectrum of orthogonality graph (2)

The orthogonality graph, $\Omega(n)$, has vertex set the set of $\pm 1$ vectors of length $n$, with orthogonal vectors being adjacent.
I am only interested when $4|n$, since otherwise $\Omega(n)$ is ...

**5**

votes

**1**answer

461 views

### The height of the Perron-Frobenius eigenvector

Does the height of a real symmetric matrix with non-negative entries control the height of its Perron-Frobenius eigenvector, under some reasonable definition of heights?
Just as an example of what ...

**4**

votes

**2**answers

1k views

### Iterated calculation of determinants

Given a $4 \times 4$ matrix $S$ over a commutative ring $R$. I want to consider it as a $2\times 2$ matrix over $M_2(R)$. Lets say $S=\left(\begin{array}{cc} A&B \\\ C&D\end{array}\right)$ ...

**12**

votes

**1**answer

378 views

### Hankel determinants of binomial coefficients

For $\{h_{n}\}_{n=0}^{\infty}$ a real sequence, detone by $H_{n}$ the $n\times n$ Hankel matrix of the form
$$
H_{n}:=\begin{pmatrix}
h_{0} & h_{1} & \dots & h_{n-1}\\
h_{1} & h_{2} &...

**9**

votes

**6**answers

3k views

### Status of the Hadamard Circulant conjecture

The following feels like a community wiki question, so I do it here:
Recently we have heard of a new proof of the Circulant Hadamard conjecture of Ryser
(a long standing difficult conjecture):
...