# Questions tagged [limit-theorems]

For questions about limit theorems of probability theorem: (functional or not) central limit theorem, law of large numbers, law of iterated logarithm, etc...

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### Central limit theorem for resampling

This is a cross-post from stats.stackexchange.com. No answer has appeared there. Since this is a theoretical question, mathoverflow.net seems to be a more appropriate venue for it.
What is the analog ...

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32 views

### About stochastic bipartite matching problem and superconcentration

The stochastic bipartite matching problem belongs to the folklore of unsolved problems in probability. Some remarks that I did not find in the literature are collected below. This yields the following ...

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193 views

### Expected value of square[X/sigmaX] = 1/n^2(1+1/pi)?

Please see the below link for the complete description. I already have an answer shown in the link, based on many Excel simulations ($n=4$ to $100$, $x_i$ generated by RAND() function of Excel). I ...

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59 views

### Dependent random variables converging to a density in mean

Let $X$ be an absolutely continuous r.v. with density $f$ which is continuous on $(0,\infty)$. Fix $x>0$ and consider some a.s. decreasing sequence $Y_n$ bounded by $X$ such that $Y_n\searrow 0$ a....

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154 views

### Functional Weak Convergence of Maximum Likelihood Estimator

Let $\hat{\theta}_n$ be the Maximum Likelihood Estimator of parameter $\theta$, where $n$ is the sample size. It is well-known that under sufficient regularity conditions, we have the asymptotic ...

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141 views

### Local central limit theorem far from the center

Let $X_i$ be a sequence of iid random variables, $E [X] = 0$, $E [X^2] = 1$ and $E [|X|^k] < \infty$ for some $k \ge 3$.
Classical local CLT says that the density function $f_n$ of $\frac1{\sqrt n}...

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553 views

### Large-n limit of the distribution of the normalized sum of Cauchy random variables

What is the large-n limit of a distribution of the following sample statistic:$$x\equiv\displaystyle\frac{\sum^{n}X_{i}}{\,\sqrt{\,\sum^{n}X_{i}^{2}\,}\,}$$ when sampling the Cauchy(0,1) distribution? ...

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198 views

### Variance of sum of $m$ dependent random variables

I originally posted this question in Mathstackexchange, but since I got no answer I'm posting it also here.
Let $X_1,X_2,...$ be a sequence of identically distributed and $m$-dependent random ...

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490 views

### Can we do better than Azuma-Hoeffding when the variance is small?

The Azuma-Hoeffding Inequality says that if $X_1,X_2, \ldots$ is a martingale and the differences are bounded by constants, $\|X_i - X_{i-1}\| \le 1$ say, then we should not expect the difference $\|...

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102 views

### Reference Request: Local Central Limit Type Theorem (CLT) for the Cycle

I am looking for a reference for a local CLT for the usual SRW on the cycle -- in continuous-time, ideally.
I know the statement for a SRW (and a reference, say Lawler and Limic; Random Walk: A Modern ...

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137 views

### Random $\beta$-transformation and its limit theorem

given probability space $ (\Omega, T, \mu), \mu$ is ergodic and $ T $ is invertible ( can regard $T$ as two sides shift)
define random $\beta$-transformations: random variable $\beta:\Omega \to (1,\...

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139 views

### Iterated logarithm and gaussian concentration : a paradox

Let $G_1, \dots, G_n$ be iid random variables, such that $G_1 \sim \mathcal N(0,1)$
Let $$S_n = \sum_{i=1}^n G_i\quad \text{and} \quad\tilde{S}_n = \frac{1}{\sqrt{2n\log\log n}}S_n$$
It is easy to ...

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64 views

### “Optimal” local limit theorems for densities vanishing at zero

Consider a nonnegative stable distribution with a density that vanishes at zero, such as
$$f(t)=\frac{e^{-1/2t}}{\sqrt{2\pi t^3}},\qquad t\geq0.$$
Suppose (for simplicity) that we have i.i.d copies $(...

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350 views

### Calculating Wasserstein's distance between an empirical distribution and a combination of normal distributions

Context of the problem
Let $\xi$ be a random variable (with real value) with support $\Xi=\mathbb{R}$ and $\xi_{1},\ldots,\xi_{N}$ be a sample of $\xi$. We consider the empirical probability
$$\...

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200 views

### Weak convergence in Skorohod space

I am reading a paper where they prove Donsker's invariance principle for a sequence of dependent RV's. They do the following steps which I can't follow so well. I won't write out the precise ...

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89 views

### A $t$-test for ordered pairs

Suppose I have random variables
$$
W_i = \begin{cases} w_1 &\text{with prob. } p_1, \\ w_2 &\text{with prob. } p_2, \\ w &\text{with prob. } 1-p_1-p_2,\end{cases} \qquad i = 1, \dots, 2n+1....

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351 views

### How to obtain the probability distribution of a sum of dependent discrete random variables more efficiently

I hope you are well. Here is my problem.
Let $\{s_0,\,s_1,\ldots,\,s_T\}$ be a sequence of discrete random variables and denote $S_t=s_0+s_1+\cdots+s_t$, with $S_0=0$ and $S_T\leq M$, where $M$ and $T$...

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82 views

### Convergence of function of stochastic processes

Let $X_t$ be a fixed cadlag semi-martingale and $J_n$ be a fixed sequence of functions from $\mathbb{R}^d$ to $\mathbb{R}$ which are twice continuously differentiable. If $J_n$ converge pointwise to ...

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197 views

### Approximating John's ellipsoid from uniform sampling of a centrally symmetric convex polyhedron

A centrally symmetric convex polyhedron in $\Bbb R^n$ shifted from the origin with possibly $e^{\alpha n}$ number of vertices at some $\alpha>0$ has an unique ellipsoid of maximum volume called ...

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379 views

### Monotone convergence theorem for stochastic integrals

I was wondering if there exists an equivalent of a monotone convergence theorem for stochastic integrals. I looked into plenty of books and papers, but I haven't found anything useful. I would expect ...

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97 views

### Concentration Inequality for Score Functions of Exponential Familty

Let $p$ be the density of a continuous one-parameter exponential family distribution on $\mathbb{R}$. We assume that
$$p(x) = c(x)\cdot \exp\bigl [ x \cdot \theta - b(\theta ) \bigr ], $$
where $\...

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254 views

### A question in central limit theorem

Suppose $\{X_n,n\ge1\}$ are independent r.v., $E(X_n)=0$, $\operatorname{Var} \left(X_n\right)=\sigma_n^2<\infty$. Set $S_n=\sum_{i=1}^nX_i$ and $s_n^2=\sum_{i=1}^n\sigma_i^2$, assume
$$\frac{S_n}{...

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710 views

### Skorokhod' representation theorem: What is (are) possible filtration(s) on the common probability space?

I asked this question on math.stackexchange at
https://math.stackexchange.com/questions/1941142/skorokhods-representation-theorem-what-is-the-filtration-on-the-common-probabi
and haven't received ...

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565 views

### Product of two random Gaussian matrices - orthant probability

Let $X \in \mathbb{R}^{m \times n}$ and $Y \in \mathbb{R}^{n \times k} $ be two independent Gaussian random matrices, i.e., with entries independently sampled from $\mathcal{N}(0,1)$ (a normal ...

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127 views

### Limit of stochastic subsequence of stationary ergodic sequence

Let $\{X_k\}_{k\in\mathbb{N}}$ be a stationary ergodic sequence on a probability space $(\Omega,\mathcal{F},P)$ with shift $T$. Also, let $\{v_k\}_{k\in\mathbb{N}}$ be a sequence of random variables ...

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261 views

### Version of Donsker-Invariance-Principle

Assume we have a Levy process $(X_t)_{t\geq 0}$ with a finite second moment for all $t>0$. For simplicity, say $\operatorname{Var}\left[X_1\right]=1$. Let $\tilde{X}_t:=X_t-t\cdot E\left[X_1\right]$...

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485 views

### Is there a rate of convergence for Donsker's theorem?

For the standard CLT, one can easily estimate a rate of convergence if you assume that the random variables have a little more than two moments.
Let $S_n$ be the centered-scaled sum of $n$ iid ...

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114 views

### “Local” functional central limit theorem for the empirical distribution function

This question is a repost from Mathematics Stack Exchange, where it did not receive any answer.
Assume $(X_i)_{i=1}^{\infty}$ is a sequence of i.i.d. real-valued random variables such that $\mathbb E[...

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1k views

### Law of large numbers for martingales

I apologize in advance if this question is too basic, but I've received no response on Math Stack Exchange, so perhaps it is more appropriate here:
Let $X_n$ be a square-integrable martingale with $\...

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532 views

### Applications of the Central Limit Theorem in dynamical systems

There are very many papers in the area of (possibly non-uniformly) hyperbolic dynamical systems whose aim is to prove the Central Limit Theorem. In a dynamical context, this means that one:
has a ...

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69 views

### CLT for sums of an infinite sequence of rv with an asymptotic distribution

Excuse me if the question is ill-posed. I'll do my best to explain the problem.I have a vector $(x^{(n)}_1, x^{(n)}_2, \ldots x^{(n)}_n),$ whose individual components can be shown to be asymptotically ...

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195 views

### Almost independent Bernoulli variables

There is some global parameter $n\to\infty$.
And a function $N=N(n)\to\infty$.
Let $X^n_1,X^n_2,\ldots,X^n_N$ be independent Bernoulli random variables, where $\delta\le P(X^n_i=1)=1-P(X^n_i=0)\le 1-\...

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536 views

### Interplay between CLT and convergence in Total Variation

Given a random variable $X$ with bounded moments such that $E[X] = 0, E[X^2] = 1$, let $F_n$ denote the distribution $\sum\limits_{i=1}^d\frac{X_i}{\sqrt{n}}$ where each $X_i$ is an independent copy ...

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162 views

### Strong law of large number for semimartingale

I just want to know if for semimartingale $X$ we have $\lim_{t \rightarrow \infty} \frac{X_{t}}{\langle X\rangle_{t}}=0$ or when it is possible. I know it is true for Brownian motion.
Thanks

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233 views

### Reference to iterated logarithm law and Smirnov law of empirical CDF

I am reading V. Vapnik's "Statistical Learning Theory". The author layouts following two statistical laws related to empirical CDF. I am looking for reference about proofs on these two laws.
Let $...

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84 views

### Functions whose Laplace transforms have prescribed behavior at minus infinity

Let $f:\mathbb{R}\rightarrow\mathbb{R}$ be a non-negative function with entire Laplace transform $\hat{f}$ (in particular $\lim_{t\to \infty}e^{st}f(t)=0$ for all $s$), and $p_0$ a positive integer. ...

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310 views

### Unusual generalization of the law of large numbers

I have seen in physical literature
an example of application of a very unusual form of the law of large numbers. I would like to understand how legitimate is the use of it, whether there are ...

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### Rate of convergence in the Law of Large Numbers

I'm working on a problem where I need information on the size of $E_n=|S_n-n\mu|$, where $S_n=X_1+\ldots+X_n$ is a sum of i.i.d. random variables and $\mu=\mathbb EX_1$. For this to make sense, the $(...

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204 views

### Berry-Esseen bound in 2 dimensions for linear combinations

Let us say have a sequence of $n$ 2-$D$ random variables $X_i=(\varepsilon_i/\sqrt{n},i\varepsilon_{i}\sqrt{6}/n^{3/2})$, where $\varepsilon_{i}$ are independent random variables such that $\mathbb{P}(...

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237 views

### Approximating by independent Poisson random variables

Using the Chen-Stein method, one can bound the total variation distance between a sum of possibly dependent Bernoulli random variables $W=\sum_{i=1}^n X_i$ and a Poisson distribution using only the ...

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293 views

### Rate of Convergence of Compound Poisson Laws to Infinitely Divisible Laws

It is known that every infinitely divisible random variable is the limit in law of a sequence of compound Poisson random variables (see for instance Theorem 1.2.18 of Lévy Processes and Stochastic ...

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195 views

### On the decay of correlations of an ergodic sequence over the set $X_{0}=0$

The following question arose while I was trying to explore possible further extensions of a CLT by Liverani which I mentioned here already (see this link, I can tell you more details upon request). It ...

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265 views

### Under what conditions do time averages of ergodic transformations satisfy a central limit theorem?

Let $(X, \mu)$ be a probability space and $T:X\rightarrow X $ an ergodic transformation, i.e. $T$ is measure preserving and the only $T$ invariant subspaces have either measure $0$ or measure $1$ (...

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154 views

### Is it possible to improve the order of convergence of averages of random variables if they are not identically distributed?

Let $X_n$ be a sequence of independent random variables (but not necessarily identically distributed)
taking values in $[-1,1]$ that have the following property:
1) The average $A_n := \frac{(X_1+ \...

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577 views

### limit distribution of multinomial distribution with increasing categories

If $\bf{X} \sim \text{multi}(n,p)$ with $k$ categories, we know
$$ \sqrt{n}\left( \frac{\bf{X}}{n} - \bf{p} \right) \rightarrow^D N(0,\Sigma),$$
where $\bf{X}=(X_1,\ldots,X_k)^T$ and $p=(p_1,\ldots,...

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101 views

### Local limit theorem for an infinite dimensional integer lattice

Can someone refer me to a local limit theorem for the sum ${\bf S} = \sum_{i=1}^n{\bf X}_i$ of a sequence of independent and identically distributed $d$-dimensional random variables $\{{\bf X}_i\}_{i=...

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347 views

### Donsker's Theorem for triangular arrays

I should mention that I already posed this question on Math Stack Exchange, but didn't receive much feedback.
Assume we have a sequence of smooth i.i.d. random variables $(X_i)_{i=1}^{\infty}$. Given ...

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**1**answer

577 views

### Expectation of ratio of functions of i.i.d. Bernoullis: a concentration question

Consider the following $n \times n$ symmetric matrix of i.i.d. Bernoulli random variables, $X_{ij}$. For $i=1,...,n$ and $i<j\le n$. Let $X_{ij} \sim \text{Bernoulli}(p)$ when $i \ne j$ ($p$ fixed)...

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878 views

### Sum of a random number of identically distributed but dependent random variables?

Background
Let $X_t$ be the continuous time Markov process on the state space {Working, Broken} with failure rate $\alpha$ and repair rate $\beta$. By elementary calculations [1]
$$
\begin{align*}
...

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268 views

### Central limit theorem and convergence of means [closed]

If $Z_1,Z_2,Z_3,\ldots$ are i.i.d. with $P(Z_i=-1) = P(Z_i=+1) = \frac 12,$ then we have by the Central Limit Theorem that $\frac{\sum_{i=1}^n Z_i}{\sqrt{n}}\stackrel{d}{\to} \mathcal{N}(0,1),$ so ...