# Questions tagged [laplacian]

The Laplacian matrix is the representation of a graph in matrix form.

The Laplacian matrix is the representation of a graph in matrix form.

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Let $W$ be the adjacency matrix of a directed graph. Let us denote by $D$ the associated in-degree matrix, whose diagonal entries are given by $D_{ii} = \sum_j W_{ij}$. The associated Laplacian
$$ L =...

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Given a graph $G(V,E)$ with edge weights $w_e>0$ and edge-vertex incidence matrix $U$, consider the laplacian $L=U^TWU$, and its Moore-Penrose psuedoinverse $L^{+}$. Here, $W$ is a diagonal matrix ...

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Let $L_n$ be the Laplacian matrix of the undirected graph $G_n = (V_n, E_n)$ (which is defined here: Why is this bipartite graph a partial cube, if it is? ) with sorted spectrum:
$$\lambda_1 (G_n) \ge ...

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This problem is motivated by the edge states that sometimes appear (and sometimes not) at the level of Huckel hamiltonians for $\pi$-conjugated benzenoid hydrocarbons. If this sentence is cryptic, ...

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solve Laplace equation $ U_{xx} + U_{yy} = 0 $ with given boundary
condition : $ (x,y) \in (0,a) \times (0,b) $ $\begin{cases} U_x(0,y)
= U(x,0) = U_x(a,y) = 0 \\ U(x,b)= c= constant \hspace{3mm} ,...

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Let $A\in\mathbb R^{n\times n}$ be a symmetric positive-definite matrix and $A^{-1}$ is already known. Now I want to compute the matrix $(A+\sum_{i=1}^n B_i)^{-1}$ where each $B_i$ is a sparse ...

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How to derive that after stereo-graphical projection, $\Delta u$ in $\mathbb{R}^n$ is transformed to
$$
\Delta_{\mathbb{S}^n}u - \frac{n(n-2)}{4}u\ \text{in}\ \mathbb{S}^n.
$$
To be more precise, in ...

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The condition for a connected $(q+1)$-regular graph to be Ramanujan is that every nonzero eigenvalue $\lambda$ of the graph Laplacian satisfy
$$q+1-2\sqrt{q}\le \lambda\le q+1+2\sqrt{q}.$$
With a ...

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Consider $X=L^{2}(0,\pi, \mathbb{R})$.
Let $X_{\frac{1}{2}}$ be the domain of $(\Delta)^\frac{1}{2}$ where $\Delta$ is the laplacien operator.
We define the operator $K:C([0,a],X_{\frac{1}{2}})\...

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I have some doubts about on a passage found on this article (https://arxiv.org/pdf/1510.08136.pdf).
Let
$(M,g)$ be a Riemannian manifold with boundary;
$E\to M$ be an hermitian fiber bundle;
$\Delta$ ...

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As an operator on functions, one intuitive way to think about the Laplacian seems to be as an operator that returns the average difference between a function's value at a point and the values of its ...

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The diffusion equation with constant diffusion $D$ can be represented as:
\begin{equation}
\frac{\partial \phi(r, t)}{\partial t}=D \Delta \phi(r, t)
\end{equation}
where
$\Delta$ is the Laplace ...

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Suppose we have a smooth compactly supported function $\phi\in C^{\infty}_c(B_\epsilon(0))$ such that $0\leq \phi \leq 1$, $\phi\equiv 1$ on the unit ball and $\phi$ vanishes outside $B_\epsilon(0).$
...

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I am trying to understand the existence of positive solutions for the following equations,
$-\Delta_{\mathbb{S}^n} u + \lambda u = f(u)$
where $f$ is some non-linearity, say $f(t)=t^3.$
By considering ...

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According to the answers in the the following questions: How to prove the spectrum of the Laplace operator? and What is spectrum for Laplacian in $\mathbb{R}^n$ , the spectrum of the Laplace operator $...

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Let $X$ be a Riemannian manifold with the Laplace-Beltrami operator denoted by $\mathscr L$ and we look at its geodesic balls say $B$. Let $u$ be a continuous function on the geodesic sphere which is ...

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Let $(S^3/\Gamma, g)$ be a spherical space form with constant sectional curvature $1$, where $\Gamma$ is a finite subgroup of $SO(4)$ acting freely on $S^3$.
Consider the first nonzero eigenvalue ...

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Let $S^3/\Gamma$ be a spherical space form where $\Gamma$ is a finite subgroup of $O(4)$ acting freely on $S^3$.
If $\Gamma$ is trivial, it is well-known that the spectra of the Laplacian operator on $...

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If $M$ is a complete Riemannian manifold and $L$ is the Friedrichs extension of the Laplacian $-\Delta$, then it is known (first proven by Gaffney in the '50) that $C_0 ^\infty (M)$ is a core for $L$. ...

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For $\Delta f_g = g$, can we prove that $f_g \in L^\infty_{\text{per}}(\Omega)$ and
\begin{align*}
\|f_g\|_{L^\infty_{\rm per}} \le c \|g\|_{L^\infty_{\rm per}}
\end{align*}
where $c$ does not ...

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Consider a 4-regular graph with $N^2$ vertices, which can be interpreted as a $N\times N$ lattice with periodic boundary conditions so that every vertex has degree 4.
For an unweighted and undirected ...

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Suppose $(M^n,g)$ is an $n$-dimensional Einstein manifold with $Ric=(n-1)g$. Let $\lambda$ be the minimal eigenvalue of the Lichnerowicz Laplacian $\Delta_L$ defined on all transverse-traceless ...

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Let $s \in \mathbb{R}$ such that $0<s<1$. Consider the fractional Laplacian $(-\Delta)^s$ in the real line defined via Fourier series as follows: if $f:[-\pi,\pi] \subset \mathbb{R} \...

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I was wondering what we can say about the eigenvectors of a matrix $A$ fullfilling $Ax =0$ where $A$ is symmetric with a diagonal equal to one and every row sums up to 0. Obviously this is a ...

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I'm interested in Laplace Beltrami operators $$-\Delta_g:\ \ D(-\Delta_g) \longrightarrow L^2\left(M,\sqrt{|g|}dx\right)$$
on a smooth compact Riemannian Manifold (M,g). Let us fix a unique metric $...

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Let $L$ being the Laplacian for a given Lie group $G$. I would like to know what is the difference between the two notions in relation to the operator $L$:
The fundamental solution $\Gamma(x)$ of $L$;...

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In "Hodge theory on metric spaces, Smale et al." the $d$-th harmonic forms of the Hodge Laplacian $\Delta_d=\delta^* \delta+\delta \delta^*$ satisfying $\Delta_d(f)=0$ are claimed to be ...

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Let $M$ be a compact Riemann surface with genus $g\geq 2$, endowed with the Riemannian metric with constant sectional curvature $-1$. Let $f_1, f_2$ be two (global) eigenfunctions for the Laplace-...

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I am reading a preprint and trying to understand the proof of Lemma 3.5. On Pg. 19 above eqn (3.49) the authors claim that $\Delta W \leq −2(n − 4)V$ where the functions $W$ and $V$ are defined below,
...

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Let $M$ be a paracompact Riemannian manifold, and $E \to M$ a Hermitian vector bundle endowed with a Hermitian connection $\nabla$. Write $M$ as an exhaustion $\bigcup _{j \ge 0} U_j$ with relatively ...

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Consider the eigenvalue problem $-\Delta u = \lambda u\rho$ for $u\in \dot{H}^{1}(\mathbb{R}^n)$ with $n\geq 3$ and weight $\rho\in L^{n/2}(\mathbb{R}^n).$ Let $(\lambda_k, \psi_k)$ be the increasing ...

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I am interested in generalizing some results known for the $\frac{-\Delta}{U^{p-1}}$ where $U$ is a Talenti bubble to the non-local operator $\frac{(-\Delta)^s}{V^{p-1}}$ where $U$ and $V$ are bubbles ...

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Assume that we have node indices $\{1,...,p\}$ and weights between the indices $w_{ji} = w_{ij}\geq 0$ for $i,j \in \{1,...,p\}$ with $w_{ii} = 0$. Then the Laplacian matrix is defined as $L:= \...

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Let $s \in \mathbb{R}$ such that $0<s<1$. Consider the fractional Laplacian $(-\Delta)^s$ in the real line defined via Fourier series as follows: if $f:[-\pi,\pi] \subset \mathbb{R} \...

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Let us consider the fractional heat semigroup $\left(e^{-t(-\Delta)^\alpha}\right)_{t\ge 0}$ for $\alpha\in (0,1)$ (the fractional power is taken in whole $\mathbb R^d$). Is there any result about the ...

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In short: There are various ways to define differentiation over a graph. I am trying to get the big picture, like a more complete and structured bestiary.
Definitions.
Let $G=(V,E)$ be a directed ...

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Let $f:\mathbb{R}\to \mathbb{R}$ be a smooth function which is flat at $0\in \mathbb{R}$. That is $f^{(k)}(0)=0,\; k=0,1,2,\ldots $.
Assume that $|f''(x)|\leq M|f(x)|\quad \forall x\in \mathbb{R}$ ...

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Let $(M^n,g)$ be a compact Riemannian manifold (without boundary). The symmetries of the curvature $R$ of (the Levi-Civita connection associated to) $g$ allow one to realise $R$ as a self-adjoint (...

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Short version: in several papers, line graphs (and closely related graphs) are called graph derivatives or derived graphs; is there any intuition for such terminologies, in connection with the ...

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Let $G$ be some outdegree-regular directed graph with $n$ vertices and let $H$ be the Laplacian of $G$, so that the rows of $H$ correspond to chip-firing moves. I’m interested in linear functions $f$ ...

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It is well known that if $\Delta u = f$ and $u\in H_0^1(U),f \in L^2(U)$ for some domain $U,$ then we have $\|u\|_{H^2(U)} \leq C\|f\|_{L^2(U)}$ for some constant $C.$ One way to prove this is to ...

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Let $\Delta_R:D(\Delta_R)\to L^2(\Omega)$ the Robin Laplacian defined on:
$$D(\Delta_R)=\left\{u\in H^1(\Omega)\ \big |\ \Delta u\in L^2(\Omega),\ \dfrac{\partial u}{\partial\nu}+bu=0 \ \text{on}\ \...

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Let $\Omega_i\subseteq\mathbb R^d$ be bounded and open, $A_i$ denote the weak Laplacian with domain $\mathcal D(A):=\{u\in H_0^1(\Omega_i):\Delta u\in L^2(\Omega_i)\}$ on $L^2(\Omega_i)$ and $$T_i(t)f:...

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Consider a function $u\in L^2(\mathbb R^N)$, and another function $\varphi$ which is the unique solution to the Poisson equation $\Delta \varphi = u$ vanishing at $\infty.$ We know that the radial ...

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Let $M$ be a Riemannian manifold. By functional calculus, it is immediate to show that the heat semigroup is a contraction in $L^2(M)$. I can also show that it is a contraction in any $L^p(M)$ with $p ...

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In Axler's Harmonic Function Theory, he and his coauthors develop the theory of harmonic functions on spheres and discs by considering the restrictions of arbitrary polynomials on the sphere $S^{n-1} =...

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Is there an (invariant under isometries) notion of a random eigenfunction on the hyperbolic plane, for a given eigenvalue?
It is a reference request because the answer is probably positive and I even ...

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By the Laplace-Beltrami with piecewise constant coefficients I means the operator $-div (f\, \nabla .)$ in the 2-sphere. Where $f$ is a piecewise constant function that takes two values $1$ and $a>...

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The question that follows has to do with the effects of a turbulent atmosphere on wave propagation. The structure function, $D(\vec{r})$, which is defined as,
\begin{equation}
D(\vec{r}) = \left\...

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Below I have given what I am calling as the ${\rm Witten{-}Laplacian}_{s,p}$ on a Riemannian manifold $(M,g)$ for any constant $s >0$ and $p \in C^2(M,g)$
How generally is it true that this ${\rm ...