# Questions tagged [jordan-algebras]

A Jordan algebra is an algebra with multiplication satisfying two axioms (J1) xy=yx (J2) (xxy)x=xx(yx). They were defined in 1934 by Jordan, von Neumann, and Wigner seeking a better formalism for quantum mechanics. In 1966 McCrimmon proposed to analyze instead the operator Ux(y)=xyx, which lead to a notion of quadratic Jordan algebras. Three axioms (Q1, Q2, Q3) of these objects can be found below.

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### Can the Banach algebra structure on $B(E)$ be (almost) retrieved from its Banach space structure?

This is basically just out of curiosity. Also, since my research area is in von Neumann algebras and my knowledge of general Banach algebras as well as general Banach spaces is somewhat limited, I ...

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### The theory of Groebner bases in Jordan case

There are many papers regarding spreading the theory of Groebner-Shirshov bases from Lie algebras to other nonassociative algebras. Also, it has been studied for associative algebras with operators ...

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### Proving that Euclidean Jordan algebra automorphisms are orthogonal symmetric cone automorphisms

Recall the setting of,
Jacques Faraut and Adam Korányi. Analysis on Symmetric Cones. Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1994. ISBN 9780198534778.
Namely, suppose that,
$\left(V,\circ,\left<\cdot,\cdot\...

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### Symmetric cones and symmetric spaces

I start by stating what I think I understood on symmetric cones (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Symmetric_cone). Let $\mathcal{C}$ be a symmetric cone in a vector space $V$. There are Riemannian ...

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### Degree 8 multilinear operations on Jordan algebras

I am interested in the dimension, or, even better, in the $S_8$-module structure of the space of degree 8 multilinear operations on Jordan algebras.
Recall that a Jordan algebra is a commutative but ...

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### Is it true that any semisimple Jordan algebra has the unit element?

I found this theorem in Minnesota notes of Koecher [Thm. 9 p.70]:
Thm. Any semisimple Jordan algebra has a unit element.
During the text Koecher do not state that the Jordan algebra has to be finite ...

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### Do the Tits-Kantor-Koecher construction extend to non unital Jordan algebras?

I have an infinite dimensional Jordan algebra which is not-unital. I would like to study a Lie algebra related to it (if it exists). Natural choice would be to look at the KKT construction, but ...

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### Are the automorphism groups of simple symmetric cones algebraic groups?

This question arises when I tried to understand Chapter 2 of the celebrated book "Smooth compactification of locally symmetric varieties" by Ash–Mumford–Rapoport–Tai.
The setting is as ...

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### Semisimple Lie algebra and convexity

There is any relation between semisimple lie algebras and symmetric cones? I'm saying this because the classification of the euclidean Jordan algebras, dual by Koecher-Vinberg theorem to homogeneous ...

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### Diagonalization of octonionic Hermitian matrices of size $2\times 2$

The group $Spin(9)$ is a subgroup of $SO(16)$ and acts transitively on the unit sphere $S^{15}$. $Spin(9)$ acts naturally on the space of octonionic Hermitian $2\times 2$-matrices (I do not define ...

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### Irreducible $G$-representations with unital algebra structure

Let us work over $\mathbb C$. Suppose that $G$ is a semisimple algebraic group and let $H \subset G$ be a maximal torus. Consider a dominant weight $\omega$, then one can associate a unique ...

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### Lie Groups and Lie algebras related to Jordan algebras

Let $J$ be a Jordan algebra. I knew three relative Lie groups/Lie algebras to $J$.
In the paper "The Capelli Identity, Tube Domains, and the Generalized Laplace Transform"
Jacobson [J] has ...

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### Nonassociative algebras closed under $\sqrt{\ }$?

Consider a non-associative commutative unital algebra of finite dimension where the product is defined by a Cayley table such that elements are generated with real number coefficients
$(a_0, \dotsc, ...

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### Explicit isomorphism between two Jordan algebras

I have seen written that the space of $m\times m$-complex matrices $M_m(\mathbb C)$ endowed with the usual Jordan product is isomorphic, as a Jordan algebra to the complexification of the space $Herm(...

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### Left- (right-) multiplications of an algebra that are derivations

Let us say that $A$ is a (finite-dimensional) algebra over a field of characteristic zero. We can assume commutativity
but not associativity, if that makes it easier. Indeed, I am mostly interested in ...

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### Relating classic spectral decomposition with Euclidean Jordan algebras

I'm currently getting into studying optimization problems over symmetric cones (NSCP) and I'm having some trouble to understand something.
Let me first give some context, sorry if it is repetitive to ...

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### Good source for Jordan Fréchet algebras

Is there any good source for Jordan Fréchet (or more generally, Jordan locally convex) algebras?
I'm looking for something on the level similar to the level of the book "Banach and Locally Convex ...

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### Alfsen Shultz theorem-the space of states of $C^*$-algebra depends only on Jordan structure

According to the article on nLab the Alfsen Shultz theorem states that the space of states of a given $C^*$-algebra depends on somehow weaker structure namely on the so called Jordan algebra structure....

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### Formally real non-Jordan algebras

Jordan, von Neumann and Wigner [1] showed that for any finite-dimensional real vector space $A$ with a bilinear commutative power-associative operation $\circ : A \times A \to A$, the formal reality ...

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### Jordan algebra identities

A Jordan algebra is a vector space with a commutative bilinear operation $\circ$ obeying an identity that's often written as
$$ (x \circ y) \circ (x \circ x) = x \circ (y \circ (x \circ x)) . $$
...

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### Jordan isomorphisms of type I von Neumann algebras

Let $\mathcal M$ and $\mathcal N$ be two von Neumann algebras. A linear map $J:\mathcal M\to\mathcal N$ is said to be a Jordan isomorphism if $J$ is bijective, $*$-preserving and $J(xy+yx)=J(x)J(y)+J(...

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### Is there a unique way to define an Euclidean Jordan Algebra as the product of two simple Euclidean Jordan Algebras?

Let $A$ and $B$ be two simple Euclidean Jordan Algebras. It is well known that $A\times B$ can be made into a Jordan Algebra in a unique way by defining the operation component-wise. Is it true that ...

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### Automorphism group of formally real Jordan algebras of hermitian matrices

It is well known that the automorphism group of exceptional Jordan algebra $\mathcal{h}_{3}(\mathbb{O})$ is the exceptional Lie group $F_{4}$. I am trying to understand the automorphism group of the ...

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### Determinants in Jordan algebras of Euclidean type

As far as I heard (I am not sure about the precise statement) there is a classification of simple Jordan algebras of Euclidean type. Each (some?) of such algebras admits a cone of positive definite ...

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### Are there nice isomorphisms $\operatorname{S}^2(k^n)\cong\Lambda^2(k^{n+1})$?

This might be forced to migrate to math.SE but let me still risk it.
The spaces $\operatorname{S}^2(k^n)$ and $\Lambda^2(k^{n+1})$ from the title have equal dimensions. Is there a natural isomorphism ...

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### A characterisation of certain $C^*$-algebras

I was wondering if there is a characterisation for $C^*$-algebras (unital) for which the bidual does not have any central atoms. It is not sufficient for example to demand that the $C^*$-algebra does ...

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### Is -1 a sum of Hermitian squares in associative *-envelopes of formally real Jordan algebras?

Let $J$ be an unital Jordan algebra (over $\mathbb{R}$) - recall that this means that $J$ is an unital $\mathbb{R}$-algebra (whose product we denote by $\bullet$) satisfying $x\bullet y=y\bullet x$ ...

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### Notion of trace in a Jordan algebra

Let A be a Jordan algebra (with identity). If x is in A let A[x] be the subalgebra generated by x and the identity. An element x is regular if the dimension of A[x] is maximal.
For x regular, denote ...

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### Looking for Severi varieties

Let $K$ be an algebraically closed field of characteristic $0$, and let $\mathbb{O}$ be the Cayley algebra over $K$. Let
$$
\mathfrak{J}_{3}=\{A\in\mathcal{M}_{3}(\mathbb{O}):A\text{ is Hermitian}\},
...

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### Is the generated subalgebra of a subset of pairwise operator-commuting element in a JB-algebra associative?

In a Jordan algebra elements $a$ and $b$ are said to operator-commute, whenever $a \circ (b \circ x) = b \circ (a \circ x)$ for every other element $x$. (That is: $T_aT_b = T_bT_a$, writing $T_x(y) = ...

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### how to write down comatrix of the exceptional Jordan algebra

Suppose we have exceptional Jordan algebra, which is a $3\times3$ matrix $X=\left(\begin{matrix}x_1&\phi_1&\phi_2\\\bar{\phi_1}&x_2&\phi_3\\\bar{\phi_2}&\bar{\phi_3}&x_3\\\end{...

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### Automorphism groups of symmetric cones

Indecomposable symmetric cones fall into five classes. The automorphism group of any symmetric cone $C$ is a real Lie group $Aut(C)$. What is the associated class of Lie groups $Aut(C)$ for each of ...

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### Square of Pierce 1/2 elements

Let $p$ be a nontrivial idempotent in a JB-algebra $A$ with Pierce decomposition $A = A_1 \oplus A_{1/2} \oplus A_0$. Then the projection onto $A_1$ (resp. $A_0$) is given by $U_p$ (resp. $U_{p'}$). ...

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### Reference request: The relationship between norm and trace forms on an Albert algebra

I am interested in either a nice reference, or some clarification.
Overview: I am considering $J_3(\mathbb{O})$, the Jordan algebra of $3\times 3$ self adjoint octonionic matrices. This algebra is a ...

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### What is about nonassociative geometry?

At the end of a conference given by Alain Connes in 2000 (here is a video in French), a member of the audience asked a question. I transcribed and translated it for you below:
Audience: You showed ...

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### polarization/linearization as in jordan forms

I am new to this branch of math, so bear with me.
This question started when reading Kevin McCrimmon's "A Taste of Jordan Algebras"
It talks about polarization and gives a general ...

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### Algebraic axiomatization for AB+BA^T operation on matrices

Let us consider a matrix algebra $\operatorname{Mat}_{n\times n}(K)$, where $K$ is a field, $\operatorname{char} K \neq 2$.
It is well-known that the axiomatization of commutator operation $[A,B]=AB-...

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### ABA-product of matrices and length of chains of principal inner ideals

Let $k$ be a field, $p,q$ positive integers, and let $R$ be the space of $(p \times q)$-matrices over $k$, and $S$ be the space of $(q \times p)$-matrices over $k$. For every matrix $A \in R$, we ...

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### How do Jordan algebras help one understand representations of exceptional Lie algebras?

For this question I'm happy to take the complex numbers as the base field.
I've been trying to learn a little bit about the exceptional Lie algebras and for a while they seemed inaccessible. I looked ...