# Questions tagged [invariant-theory]

Invariant theory deals with an algebraic, geometric or analytic structure $X$, submitted to the action of an (algebraic) group $G$. It studies $G$-invariant elements of $X$ as well as the set of $G$-orbits.

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### Ideals invariant under ring automorphisms

I am looking for ideals $I\subset \mathbb{F}_2[x,y]$ with the following properties:
$I$ is generated by two homogeneous elements;
$I$ is invariant under the $SL_2(\mathbb{F}_2)$-action on $\mathbb{F}...

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**1**answer

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### On a special type of subring of $\mathbb C[x_0,…,x_{q-1}]$

Let $p,q$ be odd primes. Consider the polynomial ring $\mathbb C[x_0,...,x_{q-1}]$. For $m=0,1,...,p-1$, let
$$\sigma_m=\sum_{0\le j_0\le p;...;0\le j_{q-1}\le p; j_1+...+j_{q-1}=p; 1.j_1+...+(q-1)...

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### Invariants of the group $SO(2)$

Let $V_d$ be the complex vector space of binary forms of degree $d$ endowed with the natural
action of the special orthogonal group $SO(2).$ Consider the corresponding action of the
group $SO(2)$ on ...

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### Ring of invariants of some special type of subgroups of $GL_3(\mathbb C)$

For $\sigma \in \mathrm{GL}_n(\mathbb C)$ and $f(x_1,...,x_n)\in \mathbb C[x_1,...,x_n]$, let $f^ \sigma (x):=f(\sigma^{-1}x)$, for $x=(x_1,...,x_n)$.
For a subgroup $G$ of $\mathrm{GL}_n(\mathbb C)$...

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### Alternatives to the ring of invariants depicting the orbit closures?

Let $G$ be an affine algebraic group over $\mathbb{C}$ and $V=\textrm{Spec}(A)$ an affine $G$-variety. Assume that $G$ is reductive. My understanding is that a central object in studying the action of ...

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### The outer automorphism of the dihedral group $D_4$ and quartic polynomials

Let $L$ be a dihedral quartic field. That is, we have $[L : \mathbb{Q}] = 4$ and the Galois closure $M$ of $L$ is a degree 8 extension of $\mathbb{Q}$ with Galois group isomorphic to the dihedral ...

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### Casimir operator of a given Lie algebra and relation with its matrix representation

I'm following Gilmore's recipe to compute the abstract Casimir operator of a given algebra (in this example, I refer to algebra su(2)). This recipe bring up a matrix representation of the algebra and ...

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### Space of change of basis matrices between two similar matrices - how to reduce it with additional tests?

Assume we have two real symmetric $n\times n$ matrices: $A, B$. We can easily test their similarity: $\textrm{Tr}(A^k)=\textrm{Tr}(B^k)$ for $k=1..n$. In this case both can be rotated to the same ...

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### Which polynomials in the minors of a matrix are invariant under conjugation?

$\newcommand{\Cof}{\operatorname{cof}}$
This is a cross-post.
Let $1<k<n$ be a fixed integer. I am trying to understand "what can be said" about the $k$-degree minors of a linear map $T:V \to ...

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### higher Casimirs for $\mathfrak{sl}$

The Wikipedia universal enveloping algebra suggest a way to obtain higher Casimir operators (e.g. generators of the center of $\mathfrak{U(g)}$ for $\mathfrak{g}$ semisimple) by evaluating certain ...

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### On a paper of Formanek about $PGL_4$

In his paper "The center of the ring of 4 × 4 generic matrices" (Journal of Algebra, 1980) Formanek shows that, if $V$ is the representation of $PGL_4$ given by simultaneous conjugation of pairs of ...

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### What is the Jarlskog invariant, conceptually?

Let $U$ be a $3\times 3$ unitary matrix, and call $(u_{ij})$ its coefficients. For $i,j,k,\ell$ in $\{1,2,3\}$ with $i\neq j$ and $k\neq\ell$, consider the quantity:
$$J_{ij,k\ell} := \operatorname{...

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### Rotation invariant of surface

Let $(x, y, f(x,y))$ be a surface in $\mathbb{R^3}$. It is written in a book without proof that all rotation invariant (rotating around $z$-axis) of $f$ are combinations of the following four ...

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### Does the $G$-norm coincide with the ordinary norm for “quasi-$G$-Galois” extensions

Let $S$ be a commutative ring, let $G$ be a finite group acting on $S$ via automorphisms (not necessarily faithfully), and
let $R$ be a subring of $S$ consisting of elements fixed $G$.
The extension $...

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**1**answer

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### Kernel of restriction for ring of functions on reductive groups

Let $H \subset G$ be an inclusion of reductive groups over an algebraically closed field $k$ of char $0$. For simplicity, let's assume that $G$ is split and $H$ contains a maximal torus for $G$. Then ...

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### A question related to Conways 99 graph problem

I have observed that the number of triangles $\frac{vk}{6}$ of a strongly regular graph with parameters $(v,k,1,2)$ is given by the coefficient $2(k-1)$ in the molien series of the "4-D extraspecial ...

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### Length of fibers of $(\mathbb{A}^n)^d\to\mathrm{Sym}^d(\mathbb{A}^n)$

Let $k$ be a field, consider the canonical morphism $f\colon (\mathbb{A}_k^n)^d\to\mathrm{Sym}^d\mathbb{A}_k^n$.
Is there an explicit bound on the length of fibers of $f$ in terms of $n,d,\mathrm{...

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### $SU(2)\times SU(2)$ invariant $SU(3)$-structure on $\{t\} \times M^6$

I am reading Jason Lotay and Goncalo Oliveira's paper -$SU(2)^2$ invariant $G_2$-instantons, and have few questions from the same.
If we consider the space $M = S^3 \times S^3$. Then the cone metric ...

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### Software for computing equivariants

If $\Gamma$ is a finite group with action on two vector spaces $\mathbb R^n$ and $\mathbb R^m$ denoted by $\gamma_n$ and $\gamma_m$ respectively, the fundamental equivariants are the polynomials $f: \...

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### Semisimple Lie groups admitting a free algebra of invariants

Assume we work over an algebraically closed field of characteristic zero.
I know that for a connected semisimple algebraic group there is an upper bound for the number of isomorphism classes of ...

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### Sufficient conditions for secondary invariants

Let $G$ be a finite group, $k$ be a field whose characteristic divides $|G|$, and $\rho:G\hookrightarrow\operatorname{GL}_n(k)$ be a faithful representation of $G$. Let $V$ be a $k$-space of dimension ...

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### Explicit formulas for invariants of binary quintic forms

I am looking for explicit formulas for the four basic invariants $I_4, I_8, I_{12}, I_{18}$ of a generic binary quintic form, either given in the shape
$$\displaystyle F(x,y) = ax^5 + 5bx^4y + 10cx^...

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### Topological criterion for GIT semistability

Let $X$ be a complex algebraic variety and $G$ a complex reductive group acting on $X$. Let $L$ be a linearization of this action, i.e. a line bundle with a linear action of $G$ covering that of $X$. ...

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### Invariants and subgroups

Let $G$ be an affine algebraic group over some algebraically closed field $K$, and let $H$ be a closed subgroup.
Assume that $G$ acts algebraically on an affine variety $X$.
Assume that $X'\subseteq ...

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**1**answer

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### A duality result for Coxeter groups

Short version: if $G$ is a Coxeter group and $H \subset G$ is a parabolic subgroup, both acting on a space $V$, is it true that the invariant-coinvariant algebra $(S(V)_G)^H$ has a natural bilinear ...

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### Polarization operators and the action of $GL_{\ell}(\mathbb{R})$ on $\mathcal{R}_{n}^{(\ell)}$

(Also in Mathematics stack Exchange: https://math.stackexchange.com/questions/2528216/polarization-operators-identity-and-gl-ell-mathbbr)
Let $X$ be a matrix of variables $x_{ij}$ of size $\ell\...

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### Identification of Invariant Sets for Discrete Dynamical Systems on the Positive Integers

Let $\phi:\mathbb{N}\times \mathbb{N}^+\rightarrow \mathbb{N}^+$ be a dynamical system on the positive integers. Suppose we refer to the orbit of a periodic point of $\phi$ as an invariant set of the ...

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**1**answer

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### Whitney stratification of affine GIT quotients

Let $G$ be a complex reductive group acting linearly on a complex affine variety $X\subseteq\mathbb{C}^n$. Then, there is a stratification by orbit type of the GIT quotient
$$X//G=\operatorname{Spec}{\...

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### Why is the catalecticant invariant under coordinate changes?

Let $\mathbf{k}$ be a commutative $\mathbb{Q}$-algebra. (We could play the
same game over any commutative ring $\mathbf{k}$, but this would be a bit more
technical, so let me avoid it.)
Fix a ...

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### Progress since Luna's theorem on smooth invariants

In 1976, Luna proved the following important theorem of smooth invariant theory:
Let $G$ be a real reductive Lie group and a representation of $G$ on a real finite dimensional vector space $V$. ...

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### Separating closed $SO(p,q)$ orbits by invariant polynomials

Consider the real Lie group $SO(p,q)$ (I believe that it happens to be a linearly reductive algebraic group over $\mathbb{R}$, if that's relevant). Also, if relevant, I'm mostly interested in the (...

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### How to prove that $M^G=\mathbb{F}_p[x_1\cdot v, x_1^{p\cdot(p-1)}+ v^{p-1}]$?

Let $G=Sl_2(\mathbb{F}_p)$ and $M= \mathbb{F}_p[x_1,x_2]$, where $p$ is a prime.
$M$ is a $G$-module with $(A\cdot x_1, A\cdot x_2)=(x_1,x_2)\cdot A, (\forall) A \in Sl_2(\mathbb{F}_p)$.
I have to ...

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### Invariant theory over rings

Apologies if this is a silly question, but I have had cause to briefly introduce myself to invariant theory. I have noticed that authors primarily work over (algebraically closed) fields. I was ...

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### Categorifying the Cauchy kernel as a filtration of $\operatorname*{Sym}\left( F\otimes G\right) $ over any commutative ring

Question 1 (short version). Let $R$ be a commutative ring with unity. Let
$F$ and $G$ be two $R$-modules. Let $n\in\mathbb{N}$. Is it true that the
$n$-th symmetric power $\operatorname*{Sym}\...

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### Is projectivity preserved by invariants?

Let $f:R\rightarrow S$ be a homomorphism of (commutative) rings with unity and suppose that $G$ is a group acting on $R$ and $S$ in such a way that $f\sigma=\sigma f$ for every $\sigma\in G$. Denote ...

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### Clebsch-Gordan coefficients of $SO(5)$

The reduced CG coefficients for $SO(d):SO(d-1)$ are in principle known in full generality for $d\leq 4$: they are trivial for $d=2$, equivalent to $3j$ symbols of $SU(2)$ for $d=3$, and to $9j$ ...

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### Donaldson and DT invariants

Let $X$ be a smooth projective surface. Then, using the compactified moduli space of anti self-dual connections or torsion free sheaves we can construct Donaldson invariants of $X$. Similarly, one can ...

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### Infinite-dimensional Chevalley–Shephard–Todd theorem

The Chevalley–Shephard–Todd theorem states that given a finite-dimensional faithful representation of a finite group $G$ on a vector space $V$ over a field $k$ whose characteristic does not divide the ...

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### Locus classicus for the Chevalley restriction theorem

No textbook treatment I've seen of the Chevalley restriction theorem
$$\mathbb R[\mathfrak g]^G \cong \mathbb R[\mathfrak t]^W$$
cites a specific source for it, and the proofs, where attributed, ...

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### What is the square of the Weyl denominator?

Let $\Phi$ be a (crystallographic) root system with Weyl group $\mathcal{W}$, and $\Phi^+$ a choice of positive roots, and
$$
q := \prod_{\alpha\in\Phi^+} (\exp(\alpha/2) - \exp(-\alpha/2))
= \sum_{w\...

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**1**answer

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### D-finiteness of Hilbert series of non-commutative invariant ring under reductive group

Let $G$ be reductive group over a field of characteristic $0$ ($GL_n$ fine for this question). Let $V$ be a linear representation of $G$. Then $G$ acts on the tensor algebra $T(V) = \bigoplus_{n \ge 0}...

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### If an equivariant map is smooth on diagonal matrices, is it smooth everywhere?

This is a followup from a question I asked on math.SE, which received a helpful answer but unfortunately not a complete one. $\def\Sym{\mathrm{Sym}_{n\times n}}$
$\def\s{\mathrm{Sym}}\def\sp{\s^+}$Let ...

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### The Casimir invariant of an irreducible representation of a compact Lie group

Let $G$ be a compact Lie group (not necessarily connected) and $\rho:G\to \mathrm{End}(V)$ an irreducible (hence finite-dimensional) unitary representation of $G$. Let $\mathfrak{g}$ be the Lie ...

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### Invariant theory and congruence subgroups

Let $S$ be a polynomial ring and $G$ a group acting on it. When $G$ is a finite group, on modular or non-modular cases, there is a systematic method to find generators of the subalgebra $S^{G}$ or to ...

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### Ring of invariants and Borel subgroup

Let $G$ be a connected algebraic group (can assume $G$ to be reductive) acting on a $k$-algebra $A$. Let $B$ be a Borel subgroup of $G$.
Q. Is it generally true that the the ring of invariants $A^...

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### On the equivalence of a pair of binary quadratic forms

Let $f,g, u,v \in \mathbb{Z}[x,y]$ be binary quadratic forms with co-prime coefficients. We say that the pair $(f,g)$ and $(u,v)$ are $\operatorname{GL}_2(\mathbb{Z})$-equivalent if there exists $T = \...

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### Standard Monomial basis for other types

For the algebraic group $SL_n$ (type $A_{n-1}$) and for a dominant weight $\lambda$ the standard monomials are indexed by the semi-standard young tableaux of shape $\lambda$ and they form a basis for ...

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### GIT quotients for linear representations of $SL(2,\mathbb C)$

Let $V$ be the standard two-dimensional representation of $SL(2,\mathbb C)$ and let ${\rm Sym}^2V$ be its symmetric square. Let $n$ be a positive integer and consider the following two representations ...

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### Is the conjugation action linearizable?

Let $G$ be a reductive algebraic group over some algebraically closed field $k$. Recall that, given an algebraic variety $X$ with an action of $G$, it is said that this action is linearizable if there ...

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### Relation between Donaldson invariants and GW invariants

What is known about the relation of Donaldson invariants on a complex surface $\Sigma$ and GW invariants (or equivalent) of local Calabi-Yau 3folds such as the canonical bundle of $\Sigma$? (if any of ...