# Questions tagged [invariant-theory]

Invariant theory deals with an algebraic, geometric or analytic structure $X$, submitted to the action of an (algebraic) group $G$. It studies $G$-invariant elements of $X$ as well as the set of $G$-orbits.

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### Invariants for the isotropy representation of a Riemannian symmetric space

Statement: Let $M = G/K$ be a Riemannian symmetric space of compact type, and $V = T_o M$ be its isotropy representation (of $K$ acting on the tangent space of $M$). Then the Hilbert–Poincaré series $...

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### Coordinates on $N_+ \backslash \overline{B_+ w B_+} / N_+$

Let $G = \text{GL}_n(\mathbb{C})$ and let $N_+$ be the subgroup of upper triangular matrices with $1$'s on the diagonal. Let $w$ be a permutation, let $B_+ w B_+$ be the Bruhat cell and let $\overline{...

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### Invariants of Lie superalgebras

Let $V=V_0 \oplus V_1$ be a $\mathbb Z_2$-graded vector space over $\mathbb C$. Suppose $V$ has an even non-degenerate bilinear form $(-, -)$
which is symmetric on $V_0$, skew symmetric on $V_1$, and ...

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### Understanding the proof of a theorem by Van Den Bergh

I'm trying to understand the proof of a theorem by Van Den Bergh, which is Proposition 6 in the paper Bessenrodt, Christine and Lieven Le Bruyn. “Stable rationality of certain PGLn-quotients.” ...

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### Is there a permutation invariant for graphs?

Let $V = (v_1,...,v_n)$ be a set of vertices for a directed graph. We denote an edge between the two vertices $v_i$ and $v_j$ by $(i,j)$. The edge set $E$ for a graph $(V,E)$ is then a set of tuples $...

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### Stability of nodal hypersurfaces

We denote by $\Pi_{n,d}$ the space of homogeneous polynomials of degree $d$ in $n+1$ variables $x_0,\ldots,x_n$, i.e. $\Pi_{n,d}=\Gamma(\mathbb{P}^n(\mathbb{C}),\mathcal{O}(d))$. The group $G=SL(n+1)$ ...

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### Number of integer solutions of a certain polynomial system of equations

Let the homogeneous polynomials $f_1,f_2,f_3\in\mathbb{Z}[x_1,x_2,x_3]$ be defined by
\begin{align}f_1&=x_1^2x_2^2+x_1^2x_3^2+x_2^2x_3^2, \\\ f_2&=x_1x_2x_3(x_1+x_2+x_3), \\\ f_3&=(x_1-x_2)...

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### Why is the largest invariant set the following?

Consider this paper:
Hai-Feng Huo and Li-Xiang Feng, "Global stability for an HIV/AIDS epidemic model with different latent stages and treatment", Applied Mathematical Modelling, Volume 37, ...

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### Nef cone of a GIT quotient

I want to know how to calculate nef cone of a GIT quotient. In particular let $X$ be a projective variety and $L$ be an ample line bundle on $X$ and $G$ be a reductive algebraic group and chosen a $G$ ...

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### Invariants of $\mathrm{GL}_n$ representations

$\DeclareMathOperator\GL{GL}$Let $V=\mathbb C^n$ be the natural representation of $\GL_n(\mathbb C)$ and let $W=\operatorname{Sym}^2(V)$ be the symmetric square representation. Let $W^k$ denote the ...

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### Polynomial invariants of infinite reflection groups

It is a famous theorem of Shepard-Todd that the ring of invariant polynomials of a finite complex reflection group $W$ acting on a complex vector space $V$ is actually itself a polynomial ring. In ...

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### Polynomial invariant — from product formula to monomial expansion

Context
This question deals with the polynomial invariant denoted by $ H_{n} $ in Maksym Fedorchuk and Igor Pak's 2004 paper Rigidity and polynomial invariants of convex polytopes (sections 7.6 and 9)....

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### Degrees of generators for polynomials held constant by a group action

Given a group $G$ acting on $\mathbb{R}[X_1,X_2,X_3... X_n]$, let $S$ be the subring of fixed points of $G$. If $S$ has n generators, is it always true that the product of their degrees is equal to ...

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### Ring structure of coinvariant of $W(U(4))$

I want to know the ring structure of the coinvariant of $W(U(4))$, where $W(G)$ is the Weyl group of G.
I know that the ring structure of the coinvariant of $W(U(3))$ is $\mathbb{Z}[x_1,x_2,x_3]$ with ...

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### A question about fundamental invariants in the context of neural networks

I'm reading in depth the first part of the following paper: https://arxiv.org/pdf/1804.10306.pdf, paying specific attention to the following result, that I re-write here for the sake of convenience:
[...

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### A question about finding a system of invariants for a subgroup $H$ of the symmetric group $S_n$

If $H = S_n$ then then the fundamental symmetric polynomials allow to write any $S_n$-invariant polynomial $f$ as a polynomial expression of these elementary symmetric functions. In other words, $\...

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### Finding special form for integral binary cubic form

Let $f(x,y)=px^3+3qx^2y+3rxy^2+sy^3$, $p,q,r,s\in\mathbb{Z}$, be an integral binary cubic form. Under what conditions is $f$ equivalent to a form $g(x,y)=t x^3+3u x^2y+3v xy^2+w y^3$ with $u=v$?
Here ...

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### $2$-dimensional complete local normal domain with rational singularity that has exactly one exceptional curve

Let $(R, \mathfrak m)$ be a complete local normal domain of dimension $2$ with residue field $R/\mathfrak m$ algebraically closed and characteristic $0$. Assume Spec$(R)$ has rational singularity, let ...

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### $S_n$-invariant polynomials on the dual of reflection representation

Let $W=S_n$ (the symmetric group) acting on $V=k^n$ via permutation of the indices, where $k$ is an algebraically closed field. Closely related to this are the reflection (sub-)representation $V_0=\{ (...

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### Character variety of the free group

A classical result of Fricke--Klein--Vogt from the late 1800s implies that the character variety $\chi_\mathbb{C}$ associated to the free group $F_2$ and the algebraic group $\mathrm{SL}_2(\mathbb{C})$...

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### Periodic functions on groups

I'll give you some context: We can say that a (classic) periodic function $f:\mathbb{R}\rightarrow\mathbb{R}$ with period $\omega$ is an invariant function under the cyclic subgroup $G=\langle\omega\...

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### Intersecting a ideal generated in degree $\leq a$ with one generated in degree $\leq b$ in a polynomial ring

Question 1. Let $R$ be a polynomial ring over a field $k$. Assume that $R$ is graded in the usual way (i.e., each variable has degree $1$). Let $I$ and $J$ be two ideals of $R$ such that $I$ is ...

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### When is the semi-invariant ring is a polynomial ring or a hypersurface?

I'm asking this question as a continuation of discussion and answer given by Hugh Thomas at the following post: Why do people study semi-invariant ring (in general)?
I have been studying about semi-...

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### Names of quotients of affine varieties by reducible group actions

Let $X$ be an affine variety over $\mathbb C$ and let $G$ be a reductive group (over $\mathbb C$) acting on $X$. It is well known then that the ring of invariants $\mathbb C[X]^G$ is finitely ...

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### Invariant section of a linearized sheaf

I am struggling to understand what an invariant section with respect to a linearization of a line sheaf is. In Geometric Invariant Theory, given a $k$-scheme $X$ (being $k$ an algebraically closed ...

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### Invariant ring of linear algebraic groups

Let $G$ be a connected linear algebraic group. This question concerns Hilbert's 14th Problem for the adjoint action of $G$ on itself. Let $k[G]^G$ denote the algebra of regular functions on $G$ ...

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### Polynomial invariant relating the circumradius and sides of a cyclic polygon

This question deals with the polynomial invariant which relates the circumradius and the squares of the sides of a cyclic polygon.
This invariant is discussed briefly in the seminal paper On the Areas ...

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### Chern-Weil theory on some noncompact groups, and characteristic classes in differential cohomology

$\newcommand{\Z}{\mathbb Z}\newcommand{\HdR}{H_{\mathrm{dR}}} \newcommand{\Sym}{\mathrm{Sym}}
\newcommand{\g}{\mathfrak g}$I have a specific question about invariant polynomials for some Lie groups,
...

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### Invariant theory over $\mathbb R$

$\DeclareMathOperator\SO{SO}$Suppose we have a (continuous) linear action of $\SO(n,\mathbb R)$ on a vector space $\mathbb R^N$. Consider the ring of invariants $A\subset \mathbb R[x_1,\ldots, x_N]$, ...

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### $O(n)$ Polynomial invariant of symmetric tensors

I apologize in advance if this question is not up to the level of research level questions on Math overflow. I am a complete outsider to invariant theory/representation theory and would like someone ...

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### Simplex invariants?

Let $k=s$ be a positive definite symmetric function and a simililarity over the natural numbers such that $k(a,a) = 1 $ for all natural numbers $a$.
A similarity $s:X\times X \rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ ...

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### subalgebra of invariants for a reductive subgroup

$\DeclareMathOperator\PGL{PGL}\DeclareMathOperator\Spec{Spec}$Trying to understand some tannakian reconstruction, I've stumbled about the following problem in invariant theory. I guess it's something ...

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### Are there any results on an upper bound for the number of secondary invariants needed to generate the invariant ring of a finite group?

If $ G $ is a finite cyclic group, $ \beta: G \to \operatorname{GL}(\mathbf{V}) $ is a linear $ n $ dimensional representation of $ G $, and $ \{x_{1},\dots,x_{n}\} $ is a basis of $ \mathbf{V}^{\ast} ...

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### How to express this hyperbolic extension of the cross-ratio in terms of hyperbolic distances and volumes?

Given $4$ distinct points on the Riemann sphere, thought of as the sphere at infinity of hyperbolic $3$-space $H^3$, one may define the cross-ratio in the usual way. Note that the cross-ratio is the ...

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### Are these maps, associated to finite simple graphs, interesting?

Given a finite simple graph on $n$ vertices, say $G = (V,\, E)$, where
$$ V = \{ v_1, \ldots , \, v_n \} $$
and
$$ E \subseteq \{ (v_a, \, v_b) \, | \, 1 \leq a < b \leq n \},$$
does there exist a ...

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### What goes wrong with this alternate proof of Dirichlet's Theorem?

I had an idea for an alternate proof of Dirichlet's theorem, but something goes wrong. Dirichlet's theorem on primes in arithmetic progression says that for $ m,a \in \mathbb{N} $ which are ...

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### A good stratification of a variety on which an algebraic group acts

Let $X$ be an algebraic variety over an algebraically closed field $k$ of characteristic 0
(a reduced separated scheme of finite type over $k$).
Let $G$ be a connected linear algebraic group over $k$ (...

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### Projective invariants of the plane and cross ratio

I am looking for a reference for the following admittedly imprecise statement:
Any projective invariant of n points in the projective plane may be
expressed as a function of well-chosen cross-ratios.
...

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### Ring of invariants for $n$-tuples of Lie algebras

$\DeclareMathOperator\GL{GL}\DeclareMathOperator\M{M}\DeclareMathOperator\Tr{Tr}$Consider the diagonal action of $\GL(n,\mathbb{C})$ on the variety of $k$-tuples of matrices, $\M_{n\times n}(\mathbb{C}...

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### Calculating the polynomials which are invariant under the action of a simple finite group

Let $G$ be a simple, finite group. In general, $G$ is not abelian.
Let $\rho$ be a representation of this group, where each $\rho(g)$ for $g\in G$ is a unitary, complex, $d$-dimensional matrix, $\rho(...

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### Invariant ideal generated by invariant elements

Let $G$ be a complex reductive group acting linearly on $\mathbb{C}^n$ and let $X$ be a $G$-invariant closed subvariety of $\mathbb{C}^n$. Is $X$ the zero-set of finitely many $G$-invariant functions?
...

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### Basis of invariant tensors of rank n in three dimensions

[This is a question motivated by theoretical physics, so apologies if the language is rough...]
In three dimensions the spaces of invariant (or isotropic) tensors of rank $n$ have dimensions 1, 0, 1, ...

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### Equivalence classes of Hermitian elements in a central simple algebra with an involution of second kind

Let $k_0$ be a field of characteristic 0, $k/k_0$ be a quadratic extension,
and $A/k$ be a central simple algebra over $k$ of dimension $9=3^2$ with an involution of second kind $\sigma$.
Then $^\...

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### Do all orbits have the same dimension?

Well, I've already asked this question at math.SE — but no-one's answered or commented. So now I'm posting it here (it's about the research paper — I think that it isn't an off-topic for this forum) — ...

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### Invariant ring of $\textrm{Sym}^2(\wedge^2\mathbb{R}^4)$ under $\textrm{SO}(4)$

Consider the representation of $\textrm{SO}(4)$ on $\textrm{Sym}^2(\wedge^2\mathbb{R}^4)$ induced by the standard representation of $\textrm{SO}(4)$ on $\mathbb{R}^4$. I am interested in the ring of ...

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### On four non-cocyclic integral points on ellipse

Let $(x_i,y_i)\in\mathbb Z^2$ at $i\in\{1,2,3,4\}$ be four (not five and I assume an unique curve exists because of Diophantine constraints and not geometric constraints) non-cocyclic integral points ...

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### Decomposition of $\bigotimes^{m} \mathbb{C}^{n}$ under the action of $\operatorname{GL}_{n}\times \operatorname{S}_{m}$

$\DeclareMathOperator\GL{GL}\DeclareMathOperator\S{S}$I want to know the proof of the following theorem. It is stated somewhere that, a proof can be found in: "Roger Howe, Perspectives on ...

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### Quotients by algebraic group actions at the level of the Grothendieck ring

$\DeclareMathOperator\SGro{SGro}\DeclareMathOperator\Gro{Gro}\DeclareMathOperator\GL{GL}$For an algebraically closed field $K$, the Grothendieck semiring of $K$ consists of, say, quasi-projective $K$-...

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### Coordinate-free description of an alternating trilinear form on pure octonions

Let $O$ denote the division algebra of octonions over $\Bbb R$, and write $V$ for the 7-dimensional quotient space $O/{\Bbb R}$.
The compact group $G_2:={\rm Aut}(O)$ naturally acts on $V$,
and ...

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### invariant theory for $G\times \text{O}(n)$ [closed]

We know that the invariants of the orthogonal group $\text {O}(n)$ gives us the Brauer algebra. Is there any known results for the invariants of $G\times \text{O}(n)$ acting on the tensor space where $...