# Questions tagged [inner-product]

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75
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Let $V$ be an infinite dimensional vector space and suppose we have a smooth family $\{g_t\}_{t\ge 0}$ of symmetric bi-linear forms such that:
$g_0$ is positive-definite
$g_t$ is non-degenerate for ...

0
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0
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42
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I was reading chapter 5 of the book HDP(Roman Vershynin). There I find theorem 5.1.4 extremely fascinating.
I am curious to discover does this theorem hold to the inner product of two Lipschitz ...

8
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1
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391
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Does the parallelogram law for vectors of equal length imply the full parallelogram law? That is,
if for all norm one vectors $x$ and $y$ in a Banach space $X$ it holds that $\lVert x-y\rVert^2+\lVert ...

2
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Let $A,H \in \mathbb{C}^{n \times n}$ be such that $H$ is Hermitian and invertible and $A = H^{-1} A^* H$. In this case, $A$ is said to be $H$-self-adjoint. This is due to the fact that if $\langle \...

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156
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I have a curious question I stumbled upon that may be interesting to some.
Consider real-valued continuous functions on the circle $f_1(x),f_2(x),f_3(x)$ (so they are periodic in $x \mapsto x+2\pi$).
...

2
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93
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Assume $\{x_{i}\}_{i=1}^{m}$, $\{w_{i}\}_{i=1}^{m}$ are two sets of vectors in $\mathbb{R}^{n}$. And we have that $ x_{i}\cdot w_{j} < 0$ for $i \neq j$ and $x_{i}\cdot w_{i} > 0$ for all $i$. I ...

2
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73
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I have posted a question in MSE
https://math.stackexchange.com/questions/4468138/question-about-finite-dimensional-representations-of-a-semi-simple-lie-group but didn't receive any comment or answer.
...

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54
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We know that every distribution or $L^1$ function $f$ over space $\mathcal{X}$ (e.g., $R^d$) can be embedded to an RKHS $\mathcal{H}$ with a $1$-bounded kernel $\mathcal{K}$ (e.g., the RBF kernel) ...

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284
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In Pressley and Segal's book Loop Groups, they define a "basic inner product" $\langle-,-\rangle$ on a simple Lie algebra to be (minus) the Killing form scaled so that $\langle h_\alpha,h_\...

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43
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Have there been any study of general bivariate functions $f:X \times X \to \mathbb{R}$ that satisfy $f(x,y)^2 \leq f(x,x)f(y,y)$. This comes up as a function I'm working with satisfies the asymmetric ...

3
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Let $\mathbb{C}^n$ be the $n$-dimensional complex vector space endowed with the standard Hermitian inner product, let $X \subseteq \mathbb{C}^n$ be an algebraic set that forms a cone, and let $1>\...

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184
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Let $V=V^0\oplus V^1$ be a super vector space (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Super_vector_space)
Is there a special definition of an inner product on $V$ other than just an inner product on the ...

2
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0
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69
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Suppose $x,y \in \mathbb{R}^n$ for some given fixed n.
Consider a kernel $K(x,y) = f(\langle x, y \rangle)$, I'd like to know which functions $f$ admit a finite dimensional feature map. In other words,...

0
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611
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One of the famous problem in SDP is the matrix norm minimization (see S. Boyd, Convex Optimization, p. 170).
Consider:
\begin{equation}\label{eq:Lasse}
\begin{aligned}
&\min_{\mathbf{x}}
& &...

1
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1
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81
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Let us consider Minkowski inner product on $\mathbb R^{1+n}$, defined by
$$ \langle v,w \rangle = -v_0w_0+\sum_{j=1}^n v_j w_j\quad \,\forall\, v,w \in \mathbb R^{1+n}.$$
We say that a vector $v$ is ...

2
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0
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186
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$\newcommand{\proj}{\mathbb{P}}\newcommand{\complex}{\mathbb{C}}\newcommand{\ip}[2]{\langle #1 , #2\rangle}\newcommand{\abs}[1]{\lvert #1 \rvert}$There is a natural bijection $\phi: \proj(\complex^n)\...

11
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860
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Is there a generalization of the Cauchy-Schwarz inequality along the following lines? Let $V$ be an inner product space (for simplicity of notation, let us work over the real numbers). Let $v_1, \...

106
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In a lot of computational math, operations research, such as algorithm design for optimization problems and the like, authors like to use $$\langle \cdot, \cdot \rangle$$ as opposed to $$(\cdot)^T (\...

4
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107
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This problem cropped up in a paper that I am writing and I have thought about it for too long to no avail: let $\mathbb{D}$ be the open unit disk in the complex plane and suppose $\varphi:\mathbb{D}\...

1
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0
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33
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Suppose we have n vectors {a1,a2,a3,...,an} such that the sum of them is zero vector
a1+a2+a3+...+an=0
Now, we compute the inner product of each two vectors of them, i.e. we compute the Gramian matrix ...

3
votes

1
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460
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Any Clifford algebra $\operatorname{Cl}(k, p)$ carries an induced inner product, which is the "trace" on its 0-blade: $\langle AB\rangle_0$ for given elements $A, B$ of the algebra.
This inner ...

2
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1
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212
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Regarding the matrix inner product based on singular values, Lewis (1995) "The convex analysis of unitarily invariant matrix functions" states the result by von Neumann that $\langle X,Y \rangle \leq \...

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142
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Let $v_1,v_2\in\mathbb{R}^d$ be two fixed vectors, and $\langle \cdot,\cdot\rangle_{\mathbb{R}^d}$ be the usual Euclidean inner product in $\mathbb{R}^d$.
My question is as follows. Is there an (...

2
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1
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257
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Given a nonempty finite subset $S$ of the unit sphere of $d$-dimensional complex Hilbert space, let $\lambda(S) = \frac{1}{\lvert S \rvert^2} \sum_{x,y \in S} \lvert \langle x,y \rangle \rvert^2$ be ...

2
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327
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In a $d$ dimensional vector space defined over $\mathbb{C}$, how do I calculate the largest number $N(\epsilon, d)$ of vectors $\{V_i\}$ which satisfies the following properties. Here $\epsilon$ is ...

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580
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For two inner product spaces $(\mathcal{V}, (\cdot,\cdot)_V)$ and $(\mathcal{W}, (\cdot,\cdot)_W)$, we can put an inner product on their tensor product in the obvious way:
$$
(1) ~~~~ \langle v \...

4
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1
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573
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Suppose we have a symmetric PD or PSD matrix M which induces an inner product $\langle \cdot, \cdot \rangle_M$. If we have that $\langle x, y \rangle > 0$ for two unit vectors $x$, $y$, are there ...

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1k
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For some numerical analysis of a fluid, I am wondering if there is any inequality that provides a lower bound (in the $L^2$ norm), for the $L^2$ inner product of a quantity with its derivative. In ...

17
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475
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Let $(V,\|.\|)$ be a normed linear space such that for every group $(G,*)$, every function $f:G \to V$ satisfying
$$
\|f(x*y)\|\ge \|f(x)+f(y)\|,\qquad\forall x,y\in G,\tag{Z}
$$ is a group ...

2
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1
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164
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This is a technical question coming out of my research.
Let $\angle(\cdot, \cdot)$ be the angle ($\in [0, \pi]$) between vectors. Consider two vectors $u, v$ in $\mathbb R^3$. Is it true that
$$
\...

2
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2
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218
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For any given integers $m,n\geq1$, let $\mathbb{R}[x_1,\cdots,x_n]_m$ be the vector space of homogeneous polynomials of degree $m$ in $x_1,\cdots,x_n$ over the field of real numbers $\mathbb{R}$. ...

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I have come across a linear bounded operator $B:K\to \mathcal{L}(U,Z)$ where $K$, $U$, and $Z$ are separable Hilbert spaces. I need a reference (any source) to find out about:
The adjoint of such an ...

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$\newcommand{\id}{\text{id}}$
$\newcommand{\Hom}{\text{Hom}}$
This is a cross-post.
Let $V$ be a $d$-dimensional real vector space, and let $2 \le k \le d-1$. Every inner product on $V$ induces an ...

4
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1
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Let $G(z)$ be an $n\times m$ rational matrix-valued function of full column rank on the unit circle. Further, let $P(z)$ be an $m\times m$ rational matrix-valued function positive definite on the unit ...

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Given constants $n$ and $\ell$, where $\ell < n$, suppose we have the following set of equations in column vectors $a_1, a_2, \dots, a_n \in {\mathbb{C}^{\ell}}$
$$\begin{array}{rl}
\langle ...

3
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Given two Hilbert Spaces $H$ and $K$, a natural inner product on $H\otimes K$(= vector space tensor product of $H$ and $K$) is given by
$\hspace{.5in}\langle h_1\otimes k_1,h_2\otimes k_2\rangle=\...

2
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Let $V$ be a vector space of dimension $2n\geq 4$ over a field $F$ of characteristic distinct from $2$. Assume that $V$ is equipped with a nondegenerate alternating form $b$. Let $Sp(V)$ denote the ...

13
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Let $v_1,\dotsc,v_k \in \mathbb{R}^d$ be unit-length vectors such that
$$\sum_{1\leq i,j\leq k} |\langle v_i,v_j\rangle|^2 \leq \epsilon k^2.$$
What sort of lower bound can we give on $d$ in terms of $...

3
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Denote $\mathcal I_m=\{-m,-m+1,\dots,0,\dots,m-1,m\}$ where $m\geq0$ is an integer.
Pick a uniformly random vectors $$\hat a=(a_n,a_{n-1},\dots,a_1)\in(\mathcal I_{m_1}+\sqrt{-1}\cdot\mathcal I_{m_2}...

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256
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Where can I find a discussion about inner products on something more general than vector spaces, and to which extent should one attempt such a generalization?
My particular interest is in abelian ...

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Our current work requires us to bound triple products of the form
$$\langle \Im(*)^{\frac{3}{2}}|\theta^3|^2,\mu_j \rangle,$$
where $\langle \cdot, \cdot \rangle$
is the Petersson inner product, ...

1
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0
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I want to estimate the minimum element of A*A^T using only the information of A.
For example, maximum element can be estimated using the norm values of all rows without calculating all elements of ...

9
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1
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572
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Let $F$ be a finite field,
For every $c \in F$, let $X_1, X_2,..., X_9, Y_1,..., Y_9$ be independent non-zero random variables over $F$.
Denote $X=(X_1,...,X_9)$, $Y=(Y_1,...,Y_9)$, also let $\...

2
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1
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$\newcommand{\Cof}{\operatorname{Cof}}$
$\newcommand{\Det}{\operatorname{Det}}$
$\newcommand{\Lam}{\operatorname{\Lambda}}$
Motivation (and the "classic" case):
I am trying to find a coordinate-free ...

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1
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147
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Let $A \in \mathbb{R}^{n \times n}$ be a normalized non-strict column diagonally dominant matrix, that is:
$$a_{j,j} = \sum_{i \ne j} \left|a_{i,j}\right|$$
where $0 \le a_{j,j} \le 1$ and $-1 \le ...

2
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Let's assume $v,w, x_i \in R^n$ are unknown.
Can one compute dot product $\langle v,w\rangle$ if one has just the numbers: $\langle v,x_i\rangle$ and $\langle w,x_i\rangle$ for $n$ random vectors $...

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Definition: Let V be complex finite dimensional inner product space
Complex Conjugate: $J$ is called complex conjugate on V iff $(i) J$ is antilinear $(ii) J^2 =I$
Definition: Anti-unitary Complex ...

0
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2
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The inner product that appears in most books on probability is the covariance $\langle X,Y \rangle = E[XY]$ (considering that $X$ and $Y$ are zero mean real random variables).
Are there other inner ...

4
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1
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336
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$\newcommand{\al}{\alpha}$
Let $M_n$ be the space of $n \times n$ real matrices.
Question:
For which $n$, is there an inner product on $M_n$ which satisfies:
$$(*) \, \, \langle Q^TXQ,Q^TYQ \...

2
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0
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Consider a set of vectors $M$ from an inner product space $V$. The ordered set of inner products of all pairs of elements in $M$ uniquely characterizes $M$ up to isomorphism.
Suppose now that $V$ is ...