# Questions tagged [homology]

Homology is a general way of associating a sequence of algebraic objects such as abelian groups or modules to other mathematical objects such as topological spaces.

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**4**answers

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### Torsion in homology or fundamental group of subsets of Euclidean 3-space

Here's a problem I've found entertaining.
Is it possible to find a subset of 3-dimensional Euclidean space such that its homology groups (integer coefficients) or one of its fundamental groups ...

**46**

votes

**3**answers

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### Spaces with same homotopy and homology groups that are not homotopy equivalent?

A common caution about Whitehead's theorem is that you need the map between the spaces; it's easy to give examples of spaces with isomorphic homotopy groups that are not homotopy equivalent. (See Are ...

**11**

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**2**answers

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### Request: intermediate-level proof: every 2-homology class of a 4-manifold is generated by a surface.

Hi, everyone:
For the sake of context, I am a graduate student, and I have taken classes in
algebraic topology and differential geometry. Still, the 2 proofs I have found
are a little too terse for ...

**64**

votes

**10**answers

20k views

### What is (co)homology, and how does a beginner gain intuition about it?

This question comes along with a lot of associated sub-questions, most of which would probably be answered by a sufficiently good introductory text. So a perfectly acceptable answer to this question ...

**25**

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**4**answers

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### Geometric Interpretation of the Lower Central Series for the Fundamental Group?

For any group G we can form the lower central series of normal subgroups by taking $G_0 = G$, $G_1 = [G,G]$, $G_{i+1} = [G,G_i]$. We can check this gives a normal chain
$G_0 > G_1 > ... > ...

**14**

votes

**8**answers

2k views

### Smooth classifying spaces?

Take G to be a group. I care about discrete groups, but the answer in general would be welcome too. There are the various ways to construct the classifying space of G, bar construction, cellular ...

**10**

votes

**1**answer

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### What are the applications of Dowker's theorem?

Let $R \subset X \times Y$ be any relation between sets $X$ and $Y$. CH Dowker constructed two simplicial complexes $K$ and $L$ associated to $R$:
a simplex in $K$ consists of finitely many elements $...

**61**

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**16**answers

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### Teaching homology via everyday examples

What stories, puzzles, games, paradoxes, toys, etc from everyday life are better understood after learning homology theory?
To be more precise, I am teaching a short course on homology, from ...

**66**

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**15**answers

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### Why torsion is important in (co)homology ?

I've once been told that "torsion in homology and cohomology is regarded by topologists as a very deep and important phenomenon". I presume an analogous statement could be said in the context of ...

**45**

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**5**answers

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### Does homology have a coproduct?

Standard algebraic topology defines the cup product which defines a ring structure on the cohomology of a topological space. This ring structure arises because cohomology is a contravariant functor ...

**12**

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**1**answer

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### Is it true that all real projective space $RP^n$ can not be smoothly embedded in $R^{n+1}$ for n >1

So first for n even, $RP^n$ is not orientable, hence can not be embedded in $\mathbb{R}^{n+1}$.
For odd n, $RP^{n}$ is orientable, hence the normal bundle is trivial. Now using stiefel-Whitney ...

**22**

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**3**answers

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### Homology theory constructed in a homotopy-invariant way

Singular homology sends homotopic morphisms on equal morphisms and weakly equivalent spaces on isomorphic objects. So singular homology is in fact defined on the homotopy category of topological ...

**17**

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**2**answers

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### Are the homology and cohomology Serre spectral sequences dual to each other?

If we use homology and cohomology over a field $k$, if a space has homology and cohomology groups of finite type in each degree, then $H_\ast(X;k)$ is dual to $H^\ast(X;k)$ using the universal ...

**6**

votes

**2**answers

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### Differentials in the Lyndon-Hochschild spectral sequence

The Lyndon-Hochschild(-Serre) spectral sequence applies to group extensions in a manner analogous to the Serre-Leray spectral sequence applied to a fibration.
Does anyone know of a good description (...

**15**

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**1**answer

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### On the wikipedia entry for Borel-Moore homology

The wikipedia page on Borel-Moore homology claims to give several definitions of it,
all of which are supposed to coincide for those spaces $X$ which are homotopy equivalent to a finite CW complex and ...

**17**

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**3**answers

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### A homology theory which satisfies Milnor's additivity axiom but not the direct limit axiom?

Let us agree on the following: a "homology theory" means a functor $h_*$ from the category of pointed CW complexes to the category of graded abelian groups, together with natural isomorphisms $h_{*+1}(...

**10**

votes

**1**answer

304 views

### Smallest volume representatives of homology

Given a Riemannian manifold, I have a notion of volume for each of my chains, so it makes sense to ask for a representative of a homology class with the smallest volume. Are there conditions for when ...

**9**

votes

**3**answers

669 views

### Reference needed: Isomorphism on pi_1 and homology gives weak equivalence

Let $f : X \to Y$ be a map between a connected space $X$ and a space $Y$. If $\pi(f) : \pi_1(X) \to \pi_1(Y)$ is an isomorphism, and $H_n(f) : H_n(X, G) \to H_n(Y, G)$ is an isomorphism for all $n \ge ...

**9**

votes

**0**answers

146 views

### Hochschild homology of a Hopf algebra

Let $A$ be a Hopf algebra over the complex numbers.
Denote by $\mathcal{M}$ the dg-category of dg-$A$-modules.
The Hochschild homology of $\mathcal{M}$ is not going to be the Hochschild homology of $A$...

**8**

votes

**1**answer

513 views

### Is it always possible to compute the Betti numbers of a nice space with a well-chosen Lefschetz zeta function?

Let $X$ be a smooth projective variety. If I've understood correctly, the Weil conjectures imply that it is possible to compute the Betti numbers of $X(\mathbb{C})$ by computing the local zeta ...

**4**

votes

**1**answer

187 views

### 0-homologous surface bounds

Given a map $f : S \to M^4$ from a compact closed not necessarily connected oriented surface to a compact oriented 4-manifold, such that $f_*([S])$ is zero in $H_2(M)$, is there a compact oriented 3-...

**4**

votes

**1**answer

468 views

### Continuous maps $f:S^n \to \mathbb{C}P^m$ with $f(x)\perp f(-x) $

Question 1: What is a complete classification of all positive integers $m,n$ with the following property:
There is a continuous map $f:S^n \to \mathbb{C}P^m$ such that $f$ maps ...

**3**

votes

**1**answer

396 views

### Second betti number of compact analytic spaces

Let $V$ be a proper singular complex algebraic variety, possibly nonprojective ($dim(V)=n>0$). I would like to know:
1) if its second Betti number is non zero,
2) same question but now $V$ is a ...