Stack Exchange Network

Stack Exchange network consists of 174 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow, the largest, most trusted online community for developers to learn, share their knowledge, and build their careers.

Visit Stack Exchange

Questions tagged [graph-theory]

Questions about the branch of combinatorics called graph theory (not to be used for questions concerning the graph of a function). This tag can be further specialized via using it in combination with more specialized tags such as extremal-graph-theory, spectral-graph-theory, algebraic-graph-theory, topological-graph-theory, random-graphs, graph-colorings and several others.

7
votes
1answer
643 views

Difference Sets

Suppose $$ P \subseteq \{1,2,\dots,N\},\quad |P| = K $$ We calculate the differences as: $$d=p_i-p_j\mod N,\quad i\ne j$$ Now let $a_d$ denote the number of occurrence of $d$ (for $d = 1, 2, \dots , N ...
7
votes
1answer
1k views

Cycling through the Zeta Garden: Zeta functions for graphs, cycle index polynomials, and determinants

Zeta functions abound in mathematics. Audrey Terras describes in Zeta Functions and Chaos three zeta functions--the zeta fct. of a projective non-singular algebraic variety; the Artin-Mazur zeta ...
22
votes
8answers
4k views

Representability of finite metric spaces

There have been a couple questions recently regarding metric spaces, which got me thinking a bit about representation theorems for finite metric spaces. Suppose $X$ is a set equipped with a metric $d$...
17
votes
4answers
2k views

Can you determine whether a graph is the 1-skeleton of a polytope?

How do I test whether a given undirected graph is the 1-skeleton of a polytope? How can I tell the dimension of a given 1-skeleton?
58
votes
9answers
6k views

What is a continuous path?

I would like some help, because I am getting mad trying to answer the following Question: Let $X$ be a topological space, what is a continuous path in $X$? Well, maybe you're already getting ...
12
votes
1answer
1k views

Different uses of the word “ergodic”

There appear to be two definitions of the word ergodic. The dynamical systems definition says that a measure space $(X,\mathit B, \mu)$ and measure preserving transformation $T: X \mapsto X$ is ...
12
votes
4answers
6k views

How many $p$-regular graphs with $n$ vertices are there?

Suppose that there are $n$ vertices, we want to construct a regular graph with degree $p$, which, of course, is less than $n$. My question is how many possible such graphs can we get?
16
votes
2answers
970 views

Minimal graphs with a prescribed number of spanning trees

As its long ago since Erdős died and mathoverflow is the second best alternative to him (for discussing personal problems), I'd like to start a fruitful discussion about the following problem ...
9
votes
1answer
351 views

Probability of a graph procedure

We are going to build $K_n$ one edge at a time. Begin with the empty graph on $n$ vertices. Take a random permutation of the edges of $K_n$ and, one at a time, place the edges onto the graph (so, ...
3
votes
1answer
320 views

Counting “connected” edge orderings (shellings) of the complete graph [duplicate]

This question is inspired by "Number of collinear ways to fill a grid" by Sebastien Palcoux and the comments of user44191 on this earlier question of Palcoux's. Let $G=(V,E)$ be a graph. An edge ...
15
votes
2answers
1k views

Graphs with only disjoint perfect matchings

Let $G(V,E)$ be a graph. I am searching for graphs with only disjoint perfect matchings (i.e. every edge only appears in at most one of the perfect matchings). Examples: Cyclic graph $C_n$ with even ...
0
votes
1answer
376 views

Does this graph contain at least two Hamiltonian cycles?

Let $G$ be a simple graph which is a $2n$-cycle together with $n$ chords such that $G$ is $3$-regular. In other words, the set of $n$ chords is a perfect matching of $G$. I conjecture that for every ...
37
votes
17answers
10k views

Linear Algebra Proofs in Combinatorics?

Simple linear algebra methods are a surprisingly powerful tool to prove combinatorial results. Some examples of combinatorial theorems with linear algebra proofs are the (weak) perfect graph theorem, ...
53
votes
4answers
12k views

What is a chess piece mathematically?

Historically, the current "standard" set of chess pieces wasn't the only existing alternative or even the standard one. For instance, the famous Al-Suli's Diamond Problem (which remained open for more ...
39
votes
15answers
7k views

Strengthening the Induction Hypothesis

Suppose you are trying to prove result $X$ by induction and are getting nowhere fast. One nice trick is to try to prove a stronger result $X'$ (that you don't really care about) by induction. This ...
50
votes
17answers
8k views

Generalizations of the Four-Color theorem

The four color theorem asserts that every planar graph can be properly colored by four colors. The purpose of this question is to collect generalizations, variations, and strengthenings of the four ...
34
votes
21answers
4k views

Generalizations of Planar Graphs

This is a follow up to Harrison's question: why planar graphs are so exceptional. I would like to ask about (and collect answers to) various notions, in graph theory and beyond graph theory (topology; ...
32
votes
18answers
14k views

Interesting and Accessible Topics in Graph Theory

This summer, I will be teaching an introductory course in graph theory to talented high school seniors. The intent of the course is not to establish proficiency in graph theory, per se. Rather, I hope ...
52
votes
4answers
7k views

Connectivity of the Erdős–Rényi random graph

It is well-known that if $\omega=\omega(n)$ is any function such that $\omega \to \infty$ as $n \to \infty$, and if $p \ge (\log{n}+\omega) / n$ then the Erdős–Rényi random graph $G(n,p)$ is ...
30
votes
9answers
3k views

How many groups of size at most n are there? What is the asymptotic growth rate? And what of rings, fields, graphs, partial orders, etc.?

Question. How many (isomorphism types of) finite groups of size at most n are there? What is the asymptotic growth rate? And the same question for rings, fields, graphs, partial orders, etc. ...
22
votes
5answers
3k views

Complete graph invariants?

Obviously, graph invariants are wonderful things, but the usual ones (the Tutte polynomial, the spectrum, whatever) can't always distinguish between nonisomorphic graphs. Actually, I think that even a ...
28
votes
4answers
3k views

Adjacency matrices of graphs

Motivated by the apparent lack of possible classification of integer matrices up to conjugation (see here) and by a question about possible complete graph invariants (see here), let me ask the ...
12
votes
8answers
2k views

Where on the internet I can find database of graphs?

I am studying graph algorithms. I need database of graphs on which I can test my algorithms. Where can I find reliable database of graphs of all kinds? Thanks!
39
votes
6answers
4k views

Is it easy to produce hard-to-color graphs?

This question arises from my recent visit to my daughter's second-grade class, where I led some discussion and activities on graph coloring (see Math for seven-year-olds). In one such activity, each ...
27
votes
9answers
3k views

Is the empty graph a tree?

This is a boring, technical question that I stumbled upon while making a contribution to Sage. I would still like to hear a constructive answer so hopefully the question does not get closed. The ...
11
votes
2answers
1k views

Is the Steiner ratio Gilbert–Pollak conjecture still open?

Gilbert-Pollak conjecture on the Steiner ratio: Consider a set $P$ of $n$ points on the euclidean plane. A shortest network interconnecting $P$ must be a tree, which is called a Steiner minimum ...
23
votes
2answers
7k views

Determinants in Graph Theory

In graph theory, we work with adjacency matrices which define the connections between the vertices. These matrices have various linear-algebraic properties. For example, their trace can be calculated (...
3
votes
1answer
3k views

Can the first non-zero eigenvalue of a Laplacian matrix with more than 1 zero valued eigenvalue be used to reorder an adjacency matrix?

I have a graph with multiple connected components, and its adjacency matrix. I form the Laplacian matrix (wiki Laplacian matrix), and from the 1K nodes there around ...
28
votes
3answers
2k views

Has there been a computer search for a 5-chromatic unit distance graph?

The existence of a 4-chromatic unit distance graph (e.g., the Moser spindle) establishes a lower bound of 4 for the chromatic number of the plane (see the Nelson-Hadwiger problem). Obviously, it ...
8
votes
2answers
2k views

Algorithm for embedding a graph with metric constraints

Suppose I have a graph $G$ with vertex set $V$, edge set $E \subseteq {V \choose 2}$, and a weight function $w:E \to \mathbb{R}^{+}$. Is there a nice algorithmic way to decide if there is an ...
6
votes
3answers
232 views

Spectrum of orthogonality graph (2)

The orthogonality graph, $\Omega(n)$, has vertex set the set of $\pm 1$ vectors of length $n$, with orthogonal vectors being adjacent. I am only interested when $4|n$, since otherwise $\Omega(n)$ is ...
5
votes
4answers
2k views

Delaunay triangulations and convex hulls

This is a reference request. I have the impression that those who work in computational geometry are accustomed to the following. You have some locally finite set of sites in $\mathbb{R}^n$ and you ...
23
votes
3answers
1k views

Is every positive integer the permanent of some 0-1 matrix?

In the course of discussing another MO question we realized that we did not know the answer to a more basic question, namely: Is it true that for every positive integer $k$ there exists a balanced ...
9
votes
2answers
552 views

Graphs with many edges avoided by Hamiltonian cycles

Let $G$ be a $3$-connected Hamiltonian graph with at least one edge that belongs to each H-cycle of $G$. Some authors (e.g. in the link given here) call such an edge an a-edge and an edge that belongs ...
8
votes
2answers
886 views

Spanning trees of plane graphs containing an edge of every face

I feel sure this must be known, but can I find it?? Which connected plane graphs (graphs drawn in the plane without crossings) have a spanning tree such that at least one edge of each face is in the ...
4
votes
1answer
157 views

genus of a finite simple undirected graph

Let $G$ be a finite simple undirected graph. Suppose there exist subgraphs $G_1,G_2,\dots,G_n$ of $G$, such that $G_i$ and $G_j$, have no common edges and have at most two common vertices, for each $...
19
votes
3answers
807 views

Does the hypergraph of subgroups determine a group?

A hypergraph is a pair $H=(V,E)$ where $V\neq \emptyset$ is a set and $E\subseteq{\cal P}(V)$ is a collection of subsets of $V$. We say two hypergraphs $H_i=(V_i, E_i)$ for $i=1,2$ are isomorphic if ...
11
votes
1answer
654 views

Uniquely hamiltonian graphs with minimum degree 4

A graph is uniquely hamiltonian if it has exactly one Hamilton cycle. As every edge in a cubic graph lies in an even number of Hamilton cycles, a cubic graph cannot be uniquely hamiltonian, and a ...
9
votes
2answers
375 views

Cubic graphs whose 2-factors all have the same cycle type

Let $G$ be a bridgeless cubic graph. I am interested in such graphs where all 2-factors are isomorphic (as graphs), i.e. have the same partition as cycle type. We'll say that this partition is ...
6
votes
2answers
332 views

Heyting algebras originating from directed graphs

The category RefGph of reflexive directed graphs is the functor category $\hat{∆}_1=\mbox{Fun}(∆^◦_1,$Set), where $∆_1$ is the simplex category truncated at level 1. Hence the poset Sub(X) of ...
4
votes
1answer
226 views

Graphs with constant edge imbalance

The imbalance of an edge $(u,v) \in E(G)$ of a graph $G$ is defined as $|d(u)-d(v)|$ ($d$ being, as usual the degree). (This concept was introduced by Albertson in 1997) I'm interested in the set of ...
3
votes
1answer
317 views

Min Bend Orthogonal Knots

I am seeking literature on 3D orthogonal drawings of knots, especially minimum bend drawings. An orthogonal drawing employs segments parallel to the axes of a Cartesian coordinate system. A bend is a ...
2
votes
1answer
177 views

Proof and interpretation of the following percolation theory result for $n\times n$ square grid

While I was discussing this question with @JamesMartin, he mentioned a result here that: In a $n\times n$ finite square grid, if $p\geq p_c+\epsilon$, such that $\epsilon>0$ and $p_c$ is the ...
8
votes
2answers
572 views

Densest Graphs with Unique Perfect Matching

Given a graph $G$ with $n$ vertices, that has a perfect matching $M$, what is the maximal number of edges that $G$ can have without contradicting the uniqueness of $M$? Are examples of such extremal ...
4
votes
2answers
8k views

Reporting all faces in a planar graph

Hi, I was looking to traverse a planar graph and report all the faces in the graph (vertices in either clockwise or counterclockwise order). I have build a random planar graph generator that creates a ...
4
votes
1answer
348 views

Rigid Strongly Regular Graphs

I need a few examples of graphs that are strongly regular as well as rigid, i.e., have only the trivial automorphism. Any references to relevant literature would be appreciated. Thanks.
2
votes
2answers
198 views

Matching with probabilistic edges

Let $p<1$ be a constant. Consider two sets $A,B$, each with $n$ vertices. For each pair $(a,b)\in A\times B$, the edge between $a$ and $b$ appears with probability $p$, independently of the ...
2
votes
1answer
172 views

Perfect matchings in infinite graphs

Let $G=(V,E)$ be an infinite graph such that $|V| = \kappa$ for some infinite cardinal $\kappa$, and every $v\in V$ has degree $\kappa$. Does $G$ have a perfect matching?
1
vote
0answers
403 views

Possibility of Disconnected Subgraphs of a $k$ Connected $r$ regular Graph under a given condition

Context: Given a adjacency matrix A of a $r$-regular graph $G$ (not complete graph $K_{r+1}$) . $G$ is $k$ connected. The matrix A can be divided into 4 sub-matrices based on adjacency of vertex $x ...
1
vote
2answers
166 views

Is the Erdős–Rényi giant component result applicable here?

Consider a matrix whose elements are independently assigned a value $1$ with probability $p$ and a value $0$ with probability $1-p$. Define a cluster of cells as a maximal connected component in the ...