# Questions tagged [gn.general-topology]

Continuum theory, point-set topology, spaces with algebraic structure, foundations, dimension theory, local and global properties.

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### Is it still an open problem whether $\mathbb{R}^\omega$ is normal in the box topology?

On page 205 of his Topology book, James Munkres makes an interesting remark:
It is not known whether $\mathbb{R}^\omega$ is normal in the box topology. Mary-Ellen Rudin has shown that the answer ...

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773 views

### The topologies for which a presheaf is a sheaf?

Given a set $S$, let $Top(S)$ denote the partially ordered set (poset) of topologies on $S$, ordered by fineness, so the discrete topology, $Disc(S)$, is maximal.
Suppose that $Q$ is a presheaf on $...

**21**

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**13**answers

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### What should be taught in a 1st course on smooth manifolds?

I am teaching a introductory course on differentiable manifolds next term. The course is aimed at fourth year US undergraduate students and first year US graduate students who have done basic ...

**21**

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**7**answers

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### A topological concept dual to compactness

We say that a subset A in a topological space X is anti-compact if every covering of A by closed sets has a finite subcover. Clearly if X is Hausdorff then all anti-compact subsets of X are finite. ...

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### A book in topology

I will have to teach a topology course:
it starts in point set topology and ends at fundamental group of $S^1$.
In the past I have used two different books:
Elementary Topology. Textbook in Problems,...

**21**

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**4**answers

889 views

### Is $\beta \mathbb{N}$ homeomorphic to its own square?

Let $\mathbb{N}$ be the set of natural numbers and $\beta \mathbb N$ denotes the Stone-Cech compactification of $\mathbb N$.
Is it then true that $\beta \mathbb N\cong \beta \mathbb N \times \beta \...

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**8**answers

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### Cryptomorphisms

I am curious to collect examples of equivalent axiomatizations of mathematical structures. The two examples that I have in mind are
Topological Spaces. These can be defined in terms of open sets, ...

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**2**answers

3k views

### complement of a totally disconnected closed set in the plane

While preparing a course in complex analysis, I stumbled over a remark in Dudziak's book on removable sets, namely that any totally disconnected $K \subset\subset {\mathbb C}$ must have a connected ...

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### Countable connected Hausdorff space

Let me start by reminding two constructions of topological spaces with such exotic combination of properties:
1) The elements are non-zero integers; base of topology are (infinite) arithmetic ...

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### On the global structure of the Gromov-Hausdorff metric space

This is a purely idle question, which emerged during a conversation with a friend about what is (not) known about the space of compact metric spaces. I originally asked this question at math....

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### The Closure-Complement-Intersection Problem

Background
Let $A$ be a subset of a topological space $X$. An old problem asks, by applying various combinations of closure and complement operations, how many distinct subsets of $X$ can you ...

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### An order type $\tau$ equal to its power $\tau^n, n>2$

(This is a re-post of my old unanswered question from Math.SE)
For purposes of this question, let's concern ourselves only with linear (but not necessarily well-founded) order types.
Recall that:
$...

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**8**answers

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### Self-containing structures

(This question is partly inspired by What is inter-universal geometry?.)
I have absolutely no background in Teichmuller theory or any related subject, but what I can follow of Mochizuki's description ...

**21**

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**1**answer

762 views

### Is the normal bundle of a torus trivial?

Question:
Let $T^k \subseteq \mathbb{R}^n$, $ n > k$, be a smoothly embedded $k$-torus. Is its normal bundle trivial?
What about the normal bundle of $S^k \subseteq \mathbb{R}^n$, $n > k$, the $...

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**3**answers

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### An ultrafilter is a set of subsets containing exactly one element of each finite partition: reference request

There are probably dozens of ways of defining "ultrafilter". The definition I've seen most often involves first defining "filter", then declaring an ultrafilter to be a maximal filter.
But there's ...

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596 views

### Are there “chain complexes” and “homology groups” taking values in pairs of topological spaces?

Throughout this question, notation of the form $(X,A)$ denotes a sufficiently nice pair of topological spaces. I think for most of what I'm saying here, it is enough to assume that the inclusion $A \...

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### Subfields of $\mathbb{C}$ isomorphic to $\mathbb{R}$ that have Baire property, without Choice

While sitting through my complex analysis class, beginning with a very low level introduction, the teacher mentioned the obvious subfield of $\mathbb{C}$ isomorphic to $\mathbb{R}$, and I then ...

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**15**answers

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### Applications of connectedness

In an «advanced calculus» course, I am talking tomorrow about connectedness (in the context of metric spaces, including notably the real line).
What are nice examples of applications of the idea of ...

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**10**answers

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### Pair of curves joining opposite corners of a square must intersect---proof?

Reposting something I posted a while back to Google Groups.
In his 'Ordinary Differential Equations' (sec. 1.2) V.I. Arnold says
"... every pair of curves in the square joining different pairs of
...

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**2**answers

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### Which sets occur as boundaries of other sets in topological spaces?

This question was originally asked on MathStackExchange and is migrated here with opinion from MO meta. I am integrating the inputs from users Daniel Fischer and Emil Jerabek there into this post.
...

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### Regular borel measures on metric spaces

When teaching Measure Theory last year, I convinced myself that a finite measure defined on the Borel subsets of a (compact; separable complete?) metric space was automatically regular. I used the ...

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**4**answers

1k views

### Which is the correct ring of functions for a topological space?

There is a fact that I should have learned a long time ago, but never did; I was reminded that I did not know the answer by Qiaochu's excellent series of posts, the most recent of which is this one.
...

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**1**answer

1k views

### A function composed with itself produces the identity

Let $B$ be the closed unit ball in $\mathbb R^3$ and $f: B\to B$ continuous, such that $f\circ f$ is the identity (i.e., $f\circ f=\mathbb 1_B$) and $f$ restricted on $\partial B$ is also the identity ...

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520 views

### Which partitions of $[0,1]$ are collection of level sets of a real continuous function?

Let $f:[0,1]\to[0,1]$ be given. The level sets of $f$ (ie the collection of all sets of the form $\{x\in[0,1]:f(x)=y\}$, for each fixed $y\in[0,1]$) partition the domain of $f$. I am curious for set ...

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**1**answer

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### Example of fiber bundle that is not a fibration

It is well-known that a fiber bundle under some mild hypothesis is a fibration, but I don't know any examples of fiber bundles which aren't (Hurewicz) fibrations (they should be weird examples, I ...

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583 views

### A “dimension” for Tychonoff spaces

It's well-known that any Tychonoff space $X$ can be embedded in $[0,1]^k$ for some cardinal $k$. It's natural to ask what the smallest such $k$ is (let's call it $k(X)$). However, this probably ...

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665 views

### The Gelfand duality for pro-$C^*$-algebras

The Gelfand duality says that
$$X\to C(X)$$
is a contravariant equivalence between the category of compact Hausdorff spaces and continuous maps and the category of commutative unital $C^*$-algebras ...

**20**

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**1**answer

828 views

### Which spaces are characterized by functions with compact support ?

It's well known that two locally compact Hausdorff spaces $X, Y$ are homeomorphic iff the rings $C_0(X), C_0(Y)$ (continuous functions vanishing at infinity) are isomorphic.
Is there a class $\...

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**1**answer

718 views

### Is there a category of topological spaces such that open surjections admit local sections?

The class of open surjections $Q \to X$ is a Grothendieck pretopology on the category $Top$ of spaces, and includes the class of maps $\amalg U_\alpha \to X$ where $\{U_\alpha\}$ is an open cover of $...

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648 views

### Are amenable groups topologizable?

I've learned about the notion of topologizability from "On topologizable and non-topologizable groups" by Klyachko, Olshanskii and Osin (http://arxiv.org/abs/1210.7895) - a discrete group $G$ is ...

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3k views

### Is there a classification of open subsets of euclidean space up to homeomorphism?

I hope this question is reasonable enough to have a well known answer. i.e either there is a simple invariant (like the homotopy groups) that characterizes the homeomorphism type of such set among ...

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### Colimits in the category of smooth manifolds

In the category of smooth real manifolds, do all small colimits exist? In other words, is this category small-cocomplete? I can see that computing push-outs in the category of topological spaces of ...

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**3**answers

2k views

### What is a TMF in topology?

What is a topological modular form? How are they related to 'normal' (number-theoretic) modular forms?

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**4**answers

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### Is every locally connected subset of Euclidean space R^n locally path connected ?

This is not actually a question asked by me. But since I do not know the answer, I would love to know if someone here could answer it.

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**1**answer

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### connectivity of the group of orientation-preserving homeomorphisms of the sphere

In the paper "Local Contractions and a Theorem of Poincare" Sternberg has mentioned the following question which was open when the paper was written:
Is the group of orientation-preserving ...

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### Explanation for E_8's torsion

To study the topology of Lie groups, you can decompose them into the simple compact ones, plus some additional steps, such as taking the cover if necessary. After that, the structure of $SO(n)$'s is ...

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### Weak and Strong Integration of vector-valued functions

This is probably an elementary question, but outside my area of expertise, and I was unable to find any suitable reference:
Suppose $f:X\to E$ is a continuous function from a compact spaces (endowed ...

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**4**answers

696 views

### Problems for developing mathematical visualization expertise

Einstein stated that he often explored and reasoned visually and spatially, and only after achieving understanding cast his insights into algebraic form. He could just "see" the answer. There are ...

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**1**answer

654 views

### Is Grothendieck classification of tensor norms and Kuratowski's 14 sets theorem somehow related?

It is known that there are only 14 reasonable tensor norms in $Ban$. On the other hand it is well known fact for topologists that one can obtain only 14 different sets from a given set applying ...

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**1**answer

988 views

### Which complete Boolean algebras arise as the algebras of projections of commutative von Neumann algebras?

Projections in an arbitrary commutative von Neumann algebra form a complete Boolean algebra.
Moreover, a morphism of commutative von Neumann algebras induces
a continuous morphism of the corresponding ...

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**0**answers

386 views

### Disc bounded by a plane curve

Let $\Sigma$ be a sphere topologically embedded into $\mathbb{R}^3$.
Is it always possible to find a disc $\Delta\subset\Sigma$ which is bounded by a plane curve?
It is easy to find an open disc ...

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**15**answers

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### Learning Topology

EDIT (Harry): Since this question in its original form was poorly stated (asked about topology rather than graph theory), but we have a list of Topology books in the answers, I guess you should go ...

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**6**answers

8k views

### Is a topology determined by its convergent sequences?

Just a basic point-set topology question: clearly we can detect differences in topologies using convergent sequences, but is there an example of two distinct topologies on the same set which have the ...

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**13**answers

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### Examples of non-metrizable spaces

I want to know some examples of topological spaces which are not metrizable. Of course one can construct a lot of such spaces but what I am looking for really is spaces which are important in other ...

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### Can you explicitly write $\mathbb{R}^2$ as a disjoint union of two totally path disconnected sets?

An anonymous question from the 20-questions seminar:
Can you explicitly write $\mathbb{R}^2$ as a disjoint union of two totally path disconnected sets?

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### sets with positive Lebesgue measure boundary

Consider a compact subset $K$ of $R^n$ which is the closure of its interior. Does its boundary $\partial K$ have zero Lebesgue measure ?
I guess it's wrong, because the topological assumption is ...

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### Non-homeomorphic spaces such that taking away a point makes them homeomorphic

Are there topological spaces $X,Y$, each having more than $2$ points, satisfying the following two properties?
$X\not\cong Y$, and
there is a bijection $\varphi: X\to Y$ such that for all $x\in X$ ...

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**4**answers

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### Why are topological ideas so important in arithmetic?

For example, Wikipedia states that etale cohomology was "introduced by Grothendieck in order to prove the Weil conjectures". Why are cohomologies and other topological ideas so helpful in ...

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### Compact open topology on $\mathrm{Homeo}(X)$

Let $X$ and $Y$ be topological spaces. Define the compact open topology on the set $\mathrm{M}(X,Y)$ of continuous maps from $X$ to $Y$ via the subbase $[K,O]$ of all maps $f:X\rightarrow Y$ s.t. $f(K)...

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### How bogus is the glitzy proof of Borsuk-Ulam?

Suppose $f: S^2 \rightarrow {\bf R}^2$ is continuous; let $A$ be the set of points $u \in S^2$ such that $f(u)-f(-u) \in {\bf R} \times \{0\}$ (where $-u$ denotes the antipode of $u$). Given $u,-u \in ...