# Questions tagged [gn.general-topology]

Continuum theory, point-set topology, spaces with algebraic structure, foundations, dimension theory, local and global properties.

2,950 questions
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### How far is ﻿Lindelöf from compactness?

A while ago I heard of a nice characterization of compactness but I have never seen a written source of it, so I'm starting to doubt it. I'm looking for a reference, or counterexample, for the ...
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### Does “compact iff projections are closed” require some form of choice?

There are many equivalent ways of defining the notion of compact space, but some require some kind of choice principle to prove their equivalence. For example, a classical result is that for $X$ to be ...
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### Continuous bijections vs. Homeomorphisms

This is motivated by an old question of Henno Brandsma. Two topological spaces $X$ and $Y$ are said to be bijectively related, if there exist continuous bijections $f:X \to Y$ and $g:Y \to X$. Let´...
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### A Topology such that the continuous functions are exactly the polynomials

(I originally asked this question on Math.SE, where it received a lot of attention, but no solution.) Which fields $K$ can be equipped with a topology such that a function $f:K \to K$ is continuous ...
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### Does there exist a continuous 2-to-1 function from the sphere to itself?

I am interested in the following question: Does there exist a continuous function $f:S^2\to S^2$ such that, for any $p\in S^2$, $|f^{-1}(\{p\})|=2$? I suspect the answer is no, but I don't know ...
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### What are interesting families of subsets of a given set?

Motivation The usual starting point of both Topology and Measure Theory is the definition of a family of subsets of a set $S$. Indeed, one defines a topology on $S$ to be a family of subsets ...
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### Locales and Topology.

As someone more used to point-set topology, who is unfamiliar with the inner workings of lattice theory, I am looking to learn about the localic interpretation of topology, of which I only have a ...
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### Is $L^2(\mathbb R)$ homeomorphic to $L^1(\mathbb R)$?

Is $L^2(\mathbb R)$ homeomorphic to $L^1(\mathbb R)$? More generally, are there instances of surprising homeomorphisms between non-isomorphic Banach spaces?
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### Homeomorphisms and disjoint unions

Let $X$ and $Y$ be compact subsets of $\mathbb{R}^n$. Assume that $X \sqcup X \cong Y \sqcup Y$ (here $X \sqcup X$ is the disjoint union of two copies of $X$, considered as a topological space, and ...
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### Bidi: A new cardinal characteristic of the continuum?

This question assumes familiarity with combinatorial cardinal characteristics of the continuum. Identify an infinite set $a\subseteq\mathbb{N}$ with its increasing enumeration. Thus, for each natural ...
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### Reference for the Gelfand-Neumark theorem for commutative von Neumann algebras

The Gelfand-Neumark theorem for commutative von Neumann algebras states that the following three categories are equivalent: (1) The opposite category of the category of commutative von Neumann ...
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### How do you show that $S^{\infty}$ is contractible?

Here I mean the version with all but finitely many components zero.
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### Non embedding of $Y\times Y$ into $\mathbb{R}^3$

I know that this is a well known result, but where can I find a proof? I am also interested to see more general non-embedding results of this type. Theorem. Let $Y$ be the union of two segments ...
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### Is $\mathbb{R}\cong\text{Cont}(X,Y)$ for some non-trivial spaces $X,Y$?

For topological spaces $X,Y$ let $\text{Cont}(X,Y)$ be the collection of continuous functions $f:X\to Y.$ We endow $\text{Cont}(X,Y)$ with the topology inherited from the product topology on $Y^X.$ ...
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### Is the universal covering of an open subset of $\mathbb{R}^n$ diffeomorphic to an open subset of $\mathbb{R}^n$ ?

Is the universal covering of a connected open subset $U$ of ℝn diffeomorphic to an open subset of ℝn (standard differentiable structure)? If not true in general, is there any condition ...
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### If $\text{dim}(X \times X) = 2\text{dim}(X)$, does $\text{dim}(X^n) = n\text{dim}(X)$?

I have been learning some (topological) dimension theory and have gotten through most of the basic material, at this point, and am about to start looking at papers. In particular, I want to get ...
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### Are all Hawaiian Earrings homeomorphic?

The Hawaiian Earring is usually constructed as the union of circles of radius 1/n centered at (0,1/n): $\bigcup_1^\infty \left[ (0, \frac{1}{n}) + \frac{1}{n}S^1 \right]$. However, nothing stops us ...
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### Does there exist any non-contractible manifold with fixed point property?

Does there exist any non-trivial space (i.e not deformation retract onto a point) in $\mathbb R^n$ such that any continuous map from the space onto itself has a fixed point. I highly suspect that the ...
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### Is $\mathbb{C}^2$ homeomorphic to $\mathbb{C}^2 - (0,0)$ with the Zariski topology?

A fellow grad student asked me this, I have been playing for a while but have not come up with anything. Note that $\mathbb{C}$ is homeomorphic to $\mathbb{C} - \{0\}$ in the Zariski topology - just ...
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### Running most of the time in a connected set

Let $P$ be a compact connected set in the plane and $x,y\in P$. Is it always possible to connect $x$ to $y$ by a path $\gamma$ such that the length of $\gamma\backslash P$ is arbitrary small? ...
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### Why should have Peter May worked with CGWH instead of CGH in “The Geometry of Iterated Loop Space”?

This is a follow-up to Dan Ramras' answer of this question. The following correction can be found in the errata to The Geometry of Iterated Loop space (Page 484 here). The weak Hausdorff rather ...
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### In what rigorous sense are Sperner's Lemma and the Brouwer Fixed Point Theorem equivalent?

I understand that one can give a proof of each of these propositions assuming the truth of the other. But this seems a bit squishy to me, since there is a trivial sense in which any two true theorems ...
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### Why are the integers with the cofinite topology not path-connected?

An apparently elementary question that bugs me for quite some time: (1) Why are the integers with the cofinite topology not path-connected? Recall that the open sets in the cofinite topology on a ...
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### Is a normed space which is homeomorphic to a Banach space complete?

I have a normed space $(E,||\cdot||)$ which is homeomorphic (as a topological space) to a Banach space $F$. Does this imply that $(E,||\cdot||)$ is also a Banach space? I think I read something ...
Let $(X,d)$ be a compact connected metric space with the property that for any distinct points $a,b$, $X\backslash \lbrace a,b\rbrace$ is disconnected. Clearly the unit circle has this property. Is ...