# Questions tagged [gn.general-topology]

Continuum theory, point-set topology, spaces with algebraic structure, foundations, dimension theory, local and global properties.

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### How far is Lindelöf from compactness?

A while ago I heard of a nice characterization of compactness but I have never seen a written source of it, so I'm starting to doubt it. I'm looking for a reference, or counterexample, for the ...

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### Does “compact iff projections are closed” require some form of choice?

There are many equivalent ways of defining the notion of compact space, but some require some kind of choice principle to prove their equivalence. For example, a classical result is that for $X$ to be ...

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### Continuous bijections vs. Homeomorphisms

This is motivated by an old question of Henno Brandsma.
Two topological spaces $X$ and $Y$ are said to be bijectively related, if there exist continuous bijections $f:X \to Y$ and $g:Y \to X$. Let´...

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### A Topology such that the continuous functions are exactly the polynomials

(I originally asked this question on Math.SE, where it received a lot of attention, but no solution.)
Which fields $K$ can be equipped with a topology such that a function $f:K \to K$ is continuous ...

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### Why do finite homotopy groups imply finite homology groups?

Why does a space with finite homotopy groups [for every n] have finite homology groups? How can I proof this [not only for connected spaces with trivial fundamental group]? The converse is false. $\...

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### If $X$ and $Y$ are homotopy equivalent, then are $X \times \mathbb{R}^{\infty}$ and $Y \times \mathbb{R}^{\infty}$ homeomorphic?

Let $X$ and $Y$ be reasonable spaces. Since $\mathbb{R}^{\infty}$ is contractible,
$$
X \times \mathbb{R}^{\infty} \cong Y \times \mathbb{R}^{\infty} \;\;\; \implies \;\;\; X \simeq Y.
$$
Is the ...

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### Chromatic number of a topological space

Here is a question I asked myself years ago. Since it is not really in my field, I hope to find some (partial) answers here... Since it was unclear, I precise that I am looking for an answer in ZFC, ...

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### Computing Self-Intersections with Complex Analysis

It is possible to find the winding number of a path $C \subset \mathbb{C}$ using complex analysis:
$$n = \oint_C\frac{dz}{z}.$$
You can also count the number of roots of $f(z) = 0$ inside a close ...

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### Topological Characterisation of the real line.

What is a purely topological characterisation of the real line( standard topology)?

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### When is $L^2(X)$ separable?

I have never studied any measure theory, so apologise in advance, if my question is easy:
Let $X$ be a measure space. How can I decide whether $L^2(X)$ is separable?
In reality, I am interested in ...

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### “Transitivity” of the Stone-Cech compactification

Let $\beta \mathbb{N}$ be the Stone-Cech compactification of the natural numbers $\mathbb{N}$, and let $x, y \in \beta \mathbb{N} \setminus \mathbb{N}$ be two non-principal elements of this ...

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### Is there a “universal” connected compact metric space?

Fact 1. The Cantor set $K$ is "universal" among nonempty compact metric spaces in the following sense: given any nonempty compact metric space $X$, there exists a continuous surjection $f\colon K \to ...

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### Does there exist a continuous 2-to-1 function from the sphere to itself?

I am interested in the following question:
Does there exist a continuous function $f:S^2\to S^2$ such that, for any $p\in S^2$, $|f^{-1}(\{p\})|=2$?
I suspect the answer is no, but I don't know ...

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### What are interesting families of subsets of a given set?

Motivation
The usual starting point of both Topology and Measure Theory is the definition of a family of subsets of a set $S$.
Indeed, one defines a topology on $S$ to be a family of subsets ...

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### When factors may be cancelled in homeomorphic products?

It is easy to see that if $A\times B$ is homeomorphic to $A\times C$ for topological spaces $A$, $B$, $C$, then one may not conclude that $B$ and $C$ are homeomorphic (for example, take $C=B^2$, $A=B^{...

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### Is there a Whitney Embedding Theorem for non-smooth manifolds?

For smooth $n$-manifolds, we know that they can always be embedded in $\mathbb R^{2n}$ via a differentiable map. However, is there any corresponding theorem for the topological category? (i.e. Can ...

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### Continuous relations?

What might it mean for a relation $R\subset X\times Y$ to be continuous, where $X$ and $Y$ are topological spaces? In topology, category theory or in analysis? Is it possible, canonical, useful?
I ...

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### can another topology be given to $\mathbb R$ so it has the same continuous maps $\mathbb R\rightarrow \mathbb R$?

We say two topologies $\tau$ and $\rho$ on $X$ are similar if the set of continuous functions $f:(X,\tau) \rightarrow (X,\tau)$ is the same as the set of continuous functions $f:(X,\rho)\rightarrow (X,...

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### Locales and Topology.

As someone more used to point-set topology, who is unfamiliar with the inner workings of lattice theory, I am looking to learn about the localic interpretation of topology, of which I only have a ...

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### Is $L^2(\mathbb R)$ homeomorphic to $L^1(\mathbb R)$?

Is $L^2(\mathbb R)$ homeomorphic to $L^1(\mathbb R)$?
More generally, are there instances of surprising homeomorphisms between non-isomorphic Banach spaces?

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### Homeomorphisms and disjoint unions

Let $X$ and $Y$ be compact subsets of $\mathbb{R}^n$. Assume that $X \sqcup X \cong Y \sqcup Y$ (here $X \sqcup X$ is the disjoint union of two copies of $X$, considered as a topological space, and ...

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### Bidi: A new cardinal characteristic of the continuum?

This question assumes familiarity with combinatorial cardinal
characteristics of the continuum.
Identify an infinite set $a\subseteq\mathbb{N}$ with its increasing
enumeration. Thus, for each natural ...

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### Reference for the Gelfand-Neumark theorem for commutative von Neumann algebras

The Gelfand-Neumark theorem for commutative von Neumann algebras states that the following three categories are equivalent:
(1) The opposite category of the category of commutative von Neumann ...

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### How do you show that $S^{\infty}$ is contractible?

Here I mean the version with all but finitely many components zero.

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### Non embedding of $Y\times Y$ into $\mathbb{R}^3$

I know that this is a well known result, but where can I find a proof? I am also interested to see more general non-embedding results of this type.
Theorem. Let $Y$ be the union of two segments ...

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### Topology of function spaces?

Let $X,Y$ be finite-dimensional differentiable manifolds, and let's assume that they are connected. In fact, in applications I would like both $X$ and $Y$ to be riemannian manifolds.
Let $C^\infty(X,...

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### Is there a subset of the plane that meets every line in two open intervals?

Using the Axiom of Choice, it is possible to construct a subset of the plane that meets every line in two points (these are called "$2$-point sets"). What if, instead of points, we ask for two open ...

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### Why are profinite topologies important?

I hope this is not too vague of a question. Stone duality implies that the category Pro(FinSet) is equivalent to the category of Stone spaces (compact, Hausdorff, totally disconnected, topological ...

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### Square roots of $\mathbb R^{2n}$

Recently, Richard Dore asked us if $\mathbb R^3$ is the cartesian square of some space, and Tyler Lawson answered beautifully in the negative.
The even powers of $\mathbb R$ were left out in that ...

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### What is your favorite proof of Tychonoff's Theorem?

Here is mine. It's taken from page 11 of "An Introduction To Abstract Harmonic Analysis", 1953, by Loomis:
http://www.archive.org/details/introductiontoab031610mbp
http://ia331316.us.archive.org/3/...

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### Connectedness in the language of path-connectedness

Is there a topological space $(C,\tau_C)$ and two points $c_0\neq c_1\in C$ such that the following holds?
A space $(X,\tau)$ is connected if and only if for all $x,y\in X$ there is a ...

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### Can non-homeomorphic spaces have homeomorphic squares?

I an wondering if there are non-homeomorphic spaces $X$ and $Y$ such that $X^2$ is homeomorphic to $Y^2$.

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### Can a connected planar compactum minus a point be totally disconnected?

What the title said. In a slightly more leisurely fashion:-
Let $X$ be a compact, connected subset of $\mathbb{R}^2$ with more than one point, and let $x\in X$. Can $X\smallsetminus\{x\}$ be ...

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### What is the meaning of this analogy between lattices and topological spaces?

Let me add one more edit to help explain why this is a serious question. Theorem 5 below is a sort of lattice version of Urysohn's lemma, and it has essentially the same proof. Theorem 6, the famous ...

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### Why is it useful to classify the vector bundles of a space?

It seems to me that vector bundles are useful because they allow us to bring to bear all of the linear algebra we know to aid in the study of topological spaces. Now, I've read somewhere that it is ...

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### is f a polynomial provided that it is “partially” smooth?

Let $f$ be a $C^\infty$ function on $(c,d)$ ,and
let $O=\cup_{n\in \mathbb{Z}^+} (a_n,b_n)$ where $(a_n,b_n)$ are disjoint open interval in $(c,d)$ and $O$ is dense in $(c,d)$.
Suppose for each $n\in ...

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### Is $\mathbb{R}\cong\text{Cont}(X,Y)$ for some non-trivial spaces $X,Y$?

For topological spaces $X,Y$ let $\text{Cont}(X,Y)$ be the collection of continuous functions $f:X\to Y.$ We endow $\text{Cont}(X,Y)$ with the topology inherited from the product topology on $Y^X.$
...

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### Is the universal covering of an open subset of $\mathbb{R}^n$ diffeomorphic to an open subset of $\mathbb{R}^n$ ?

Is the universal covering of a connected open subset $U$ of ℝn diffeomorphic to an open subset of ℝn (standard differentiable structure)?
If not true in general, is there any condition ...

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### If $\text{dim}(X \times X) = 2\text{dim}(X)$, does $\text{dim}(X^n) = n\text{dim}(X)$?

I have been learning some (topological) dimension theory and have gotten through most of the basic material, at this point, and am about to start looking at papers. In particular, I want to get ...

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### Are all Hawaiian Earrings homeomorphic?

The Hawaiian Earring is usually constructed as the union of circles of radius 1/n centered at (0,1/n): $\bigcup_1^\infty \left[ (0, \frac{1}{n}) + \frac{1}{n}S^1 \right]$. However, nothing stops us ...

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### Does there exist any non-contractible manifold with fixed point property?

Does there exist any non-trivial space (i.e not deformation retract onto a point) in $\mathbb R^n$ such that any continuous map from the space onto itself has a fixed point. I highly suspect that the ...

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### Is $\mathbb{C}^2$ homeomorphic to $\mathbb{C}^2 - (0,0)$ with the Zariski topology?

A fellow grad student asked me this, I have been playing for a while but have not come up with anything. Note that $\mathbb{C}$ is homeomorphic to $\mathbb{C} - \{0\}$ in the Zariski topology - just ...

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### Running most of the time in a connected set

Let $P$ be a compact connected set in the plane and $x,y\in P$.
Is it always possible to connect $x$ to $y$ by a path $\gamma$ such that the length of $\gamma\backslash P$ is arbitrary small?
...

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### Why should have Peter May worked with CGWH instead of CGH in “The Geometry of Iterated Loop Space”?

This is a follow-up to Dan Ramras' answer of this question.
The following correction can be found in the errata to The Geometry of Iterated Loop space (Page 484 here).
The weak Hausdorff rather ...

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### In what rigorous sense are Sperner's Lemma and the Brouwer Fixed Point Theorem equivalent?

I understand that one can give a proof of each of these propositions assuming the truth of the other. But this seems a bit squishy to me, since there is a trivial sense in which any two true theorems ...

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### Why are the integers with the cofinite topology not path-connected?

An apparently elementary question that bugs me for quite some time:
(1) Why are the integers with the cofinite topology not path-connected?
Recall that the open sets in the cofinite topology on a ...

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### Is a normed space which is homeomorphic to a Banach space complete?

I have a normed space $(E,||\cdot||)$ which is homeomorphic (as a topological space) to a Banach space $F$.
Does this imply that $(E,||\cdot||)$ is also a Banach space?
I think I read something ...

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### A property of the unit circle

Let $(X,d)$ be a compact connected metric space with the property that for any distinct points $a,b$, $X\backslash \lbrace a,b\rbrace$ is disconnected. Clearly the unit circle has this property. Is ...

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### Example of sequences with different limits for two norms

I was explaining to my students that if there is an inequality between two norms, then there is an inclusion between their spaces of convergent sequences, with matching limits. I then proceeded to ...