# Questions tagged [gn.general-topology]

Continuum theory, point-set topology, spaces with algebraic structure, foundations, dimension theory, local and global properties.

**27**

votes

**1**answer

808 views

### Are the Sierpiński cardinal $\acute{\mathfrak n}$ and its measure modification $\acute{\mathfrak m}$ equal to some known small uncountable cardinals?

This question was motivated by an answer to this question of Dominic van der Zypen.
It relates to the following classical theorem of Sierpiński.
Theorem (Sierpiński, 1921). For any countable ...

**244**

votes

**35**answers

59k views

### Why is a topology made up of 'open' sets? [closed]

I'm ashamed to admit it, but I don't think I've ever been able to genuinely motivate the definition of a topological space in an undergraduate course. Clearly, the definition distills the essence of ...

**12**

votes

**1**answer

525 views

### Strongly rigid Hausdorff spaces

A space $(X,\tau)$ is called rigid if $\textrm{Aut}(X)=\{\textrm{id}_X\}$. We say $(X,\tau)$ is strongly rigid if for every continuous map $f:X\to X$ we have that $f = \textrm{id}_X$ or $f$ is ...

**17**

votes

**3**answers

2k views

### How many tacks fit in the plane?

Call a tack the one point union of three open intervals. Can you fit an uncountable number of them on the plane? Or is only a countable number?

**27**

votes

**4**answers

5k views

### Why are the integers with the cofinite topology not path-connected?

An apparently elementary question that bugs me for quite some time:
(1) Why are the integers with the cofinite topology not path-connected?
Recall that the open sets in the cofinite topology on a ...

**32**

votes

**5**answers

3k views

### When factors may be cancelled in homeomorphic products?

It is easy to see that if $A\times B$ is homeomorphic to $A\times C$ for topological spaces $A$, $B$, $C$, then one may not conclude that $B$ and $C$ are homeomorphic (for example, take $C=B^2$, $A=B^{...

**14**

votes

**5**answers

5k views

### totally disconnected and zero-dimensional spaces

When do the notions of totally disconnected space and zero-dimensional space coincide? From what I gather, there are at least three common notions of topological dimension: covering dimension, small ...

**32**

votes

**4**answers

3k views

### Reference for the Gelfand-Neumark theorem for commutative von Neumann algebras

The Gelfand-Neumark theorem for commutative von Neumann algebras states that the following three categories are equivalent:
(1) The opposite category of the category of commutative von Neumann ...

**21**

votes

**2**answers

3k views

### Countable connected Hausdorff space

Let me start by reminding two constructions of topological spaces with such exotic combination of properties:
1) The elements are non-zero integers; base of topology are (infinite) arithmetic ...

**13**

votes

**6**answers

2k views

### Giving $Top(X,Y)$ an appropriate topology

I am not sure if its OK to ask this question here.
Let $Top$ be the category of topological spaces. Let $X,Y$ be objects in $Top$.
Let $F:\mathbb{I}\rightarrow Top(X,Y)$ be a function (I will ...

**23**

votes

**1**answer

736 views

### Is the Golomb countable connected space topologically rigid?

The Golomb space $\mathbb G$ is the set of positive integers endowed with the topology generated by the base consisting of the arithmetic progressions $a+b\mathbb N_0$ with relatively prime $a,b$ and $...

**87**

votes

**9**answers

27k views

### solving $f(f(x))=g(x)$

This question is of course inspired by the question How to solve f(f(x))=cosx
and Joel David Hamkins' answer, which somehow gives a formal trick for solving equations of the form $f(f(x))=g(x)$ on a ...

**50**

votes

**10**answers

7k views

### Non-homeomorphic spaces that have continuous bijections between them

What are nice examples of topological spaces $X$ and $Y$ such that $X$ and $Y$ are not homeomorphic but there do exist continuous bijections $f: X \to Y$ and $g: Y \to X$?

**33**

votes

**4**answers

11k views

### When is $L^2(X)$ separable?

I have never studied any measure theory, so apologise in advance, if my question is easy:
Let $X$ be a measure space. How can I decide whether $L^2(X)$ is separable?
In reality, I am interested in ...

**63**

votes

**4**answers

3k views

### Can the Lawvere fixed point theorem be used to prove the Brouwer fixed point theorem?

The Lawvere fixed point theorem asserts that if $X, Y$ are objects in a category with finite products such that the exponential $Y^X$ exists, and if $f : X \to Y^X$ is a morphism which is surjective ...

**48**

votes

**4**answers

4k views

### Torsion in homology or fundamental group of subsets of Euclidean 3-space

Here's a problem I've found entertaining.
Is it possible to find a subset of 3-dimensional Euclidean space such that its homology groups (integer coefficients) or one of its fundamental groups ...

**41**

votes

**8**answers

5k views

### When are there enough projective sheaves on a space X?

This question is being asked on behalf of a colleague of mine.
Let $X$ be a topological space. It is well known that the abelian category of sheaves on $X$ has enough injectives: that is, every ...

**31**

votes

**6**answers

11k views

### How do you show that $S^{\infty}$ is contractible?

Here I mean the version with all but finitely many components zero.

**58**

votes

**3**answers

5k views

### Independent evidence for the classification of topological 4-manifolds?

Is there any evidence for the classification of topological 4-manifolds, aside from Freedman's 1982 paper "The topology of four-dimensional manifolds", Journal of Differential Geometry 17(3) 357–453? ...

**38**

votes

**6**answers

3k views

### Does $\mathbb C\mathbb P^\infty$ have a group structure?

Does $\mathbb C\mathbb P^\infty$ have a (commutative) group structure? More specifically, is it homeomorphic to $FS^2$, (the connected component of) the free commutative group on $S^2$?
$\mathbb C\...

**39**

votes

**4**answers

4k views

### Are the rationals homeomorphic to any power of the rationals?

I asked myself, which spaces have the property that $X^2$ is homeomorphic to $X$. I started to look at some examples like $\mathbb{N}^2 \cong \mathbb{N}$, $\mathbb{R}^2\ncong \mathbb{R}, C^2\cong C$ (...

**6**

votes

**4**answers

912 views

### Non-trivial convergent sequence in Stone-Čech compactification of $\mathbb{N}$

Why are there only trivial convergent sequences in the Stone-Čech compactification of $\mathbb{N}$?

**13**

votes

**1**answer

429 views

### $T_2$-spaces where all non-empty open sets are homeomorphic

We say that a $T_2$-space $(X,\tau)$ has homeomorphic open sets if every non-empty open set $U\subseteq X$ endowed with the subspace topology is homeomorphic to $(X,\tau)$.
The rationals with the ...

**83**

votes

**5**answers

8k views

### Is there a sheaf theoretical characterization of a differentiable manifold?

I'm going through the crisis of being unhappy with the textbook definition of a differentiable manifold. I'm wondering whether there is a sheaf-theoretic approach which will make me happier. In a ...

**59**

votes

**9**answers

8k views

### understanding Steenrod squares

There is a function on $\mathbb{Z}/2\mathbb{Z}$-cohomology called Steenrod squaring: $Sq^i:H^k(X,\mathbb{Z}/2\mathbb{Z}) \to H^{k+i}(X,\mathbb{Z}/2\mathbb{Z})$. (Coefficient group suppressed from ...

**71**

votes

**2**answers

8k views

### Is every sigma-algebra the Borel algebra of a topology?

This question arises from the excellent question posed on math.SE
by Salvo Tringali, namely, Correspondence
between Borel algebras and topology.
Since the question was not answered there after some ...

**67**

votes

**5**answers

4k views

### How do the compact Hausdorff topologies sit in the lattice of all topologies on a set?

This question is about the space of all topologies on a
fixed set X. We may order the topologies by refinement, so
that τ ≤ σ just in case every τ open set is open in σ.
...

**58**

votes

**9**answers

6k views

### What is a continuous path?

I would like some help, because I am getting mad trying to answer the following
Question: Let $X$ be a topological space, what is a continuous path in $X$?
Well, maybe you're already getting ...

**63**

votes

**2**answers

1k views

### Continuous maps which send intervals of $\mathbb{R}$ to convex subsets of $\mathbb{R}^2$

Let $f : \mathbb{R} \longrightarrow \mathbb{R}^2$ be a continuous map which sends any interval $I \subseteq \mathbb{R}$ to a convex subset $f(I)$ of $\mathbb{R}^2$. Is it true that there must be a ...

**33**

votes

**4**answers

3k views

### Topological Characterisation of the real line.

What is a purely topological characterisation of the real line( standard topology)?

**38**

votes

**5**answers

2k views

### Why the “W” in CGWH (compactly generated weakly Hausdorff spaces)?

In his 1967 paper A convenient category of topological spaces,
Norman Steenrod introduced the category CGH of compactly generated Hausdorff spaces
as a good replacement of the category Top topological ...

**29**

votes

**4**answers

2k views

### is f a polynomial provided that it is “partially” smooth?

Let $f$ be a $C^\infty$ function on $(c,d)$ ,and
let $O=\cup_{n\in \mathbb{Z}^+} (a_n,b_n)$ where $(a_n,b_n)$ are disjoint open interval in $(c,d)$ and $O$ is dense in $(c,d)$.
Suppose for each $n\in ...

**35**

votes

**2**answers

2k views

### Continuous bijections vs. Homeomorphisms

This is motivated by an old question of Henno Brandsma.
Two topological spaces $X$ and $Y$ are said to be bijectively related, if there exist continuous bijections $f:X \to Y$ and $g:Y \to X$. Let´...

**25**

votes

**3**answers

7k views

### The deep significance of the question of the Mandelbrot set's local connectedness?

I am given to understand that the celebrated open problem (MLC) of the Mandelbrot set's local connectness has broader and deeper significance deeper than some mere curiosity of point-set topology.
...

**17**

votes

**6**answers

3k views

### Topological characterization of the closed interval $[0,1]$

This question is related to question 92206 "What properties make $[0, 1]$ a good candidate for defining fundamental groups?" but is not exactly equivalent in my opinion. It is even suggested in one ...

**7**

votes

**2**answers

1k views

### von neumann algebras and measurable spaces

I've read some pages on links between von neumann (VN) algebras and measurable spaces (Spectra of $C^*$ algebras and Non-commutative geometry from von Neumann algebras?), but I can't get the following:...

**11**

votes

**2**answers

1k views

### Compactification of a manifold

This is just a curiosity and the question is really foggy. I'm wondering if there can exist a notion of "minimal smooth compactification" (when I say minimal I think something like adding a finite ...

**15**

votes

**3**answers

614 views

### Does every set $X$ have a topology for which the only continuous self-surjection is the identity map?

This question is a special case of Dominic van der Zypen's question Reconstructing relations with the image relation of a topology, as discussed in the comments, particularly the comment of Eric ...

**10**

votes

**3**answers

1k views

### Minimal Hausdorff

A Hausdorff space $(X,\tau)$ is said to be minimal Hausdorff if for each topology $\tau' \subseteq \tau$ with $\tau' \neq \tau$ the space $(X,\tau')$ is not Hausdorff.
Every compact Hausdorff space ...

**6**

votes

**2**answers

285 views

### Coarsest admissible topology on $\text{Cont}(X,Y)$

Let $X, Y$ be topological spaces and let $\text{Cont}(X,Y)$ be the collection of continuous functions $f:X\to Y$. We say that a topology $\tau$ on $\text{Cont}(X,Y)$ is admissible if the evaluation ...

**2**

votes

**2**answers

230 views

### Admissible and proper topologies on $C(X,Y)$

Given non-empty sets $A, B, C$, set $B^A$ to be the set of all functions $f:A\to B$ there is a natural bijection $\Lambda: C^{A\times B} \to (C^A)^B$ defined in the following way: for $f:A\times B \to ...

**5**

votes

**2**answers

697 views

### Is the space of signed finite measures on a compact set $M([0,1])$ a sequential space?

Let $M([0,1])$ be the set of finite signed measures on $[0,1]$
(with the topology generated by the sets $\left\{ \mu \in M([0,1]) : \left| \int f(x) \mu(dx)- a\right| \leq \delta\right\}$ for all $\...

**3**

votes

**1**answer

259 views

### Properties of the interval topology of the lattice of functions

Let $(P,\leq)$ be a poset. The interval topology $\tau_i(P)$ on $P$ is generated by
$$\{P\setminus\downarrow x : x\in P\} \cup \{P\setminus\uparrow x : x\in P\},$$
where $\downarrow x = \{y\in P: y\...

**2**

votes

**1**answer

138 views

### Continuous self-maps in the Golomb space that are neither increasing nor decreasing

Let $\mathbb{N}$ denote the set of the positive integers. The Golomb space is a space ${\bf G} =(\mathbb{N},\tau)$ where a basis of $\tau$ is generated by
$$\big\{\{a+bn: n\in \mathbb{N}\cup\{0\}\}: a,...

**175**

votes

**8**answers

10k views

### Two commuting mappings in the disk

Suppose that $f$ and $g$ are two commuting continuous mappings from the closed unit disk (or, if you prefer, the closed unit ball in $R^n$) to itself. Does there always exist a point $x$ such that $f(...

**90**

votes

**7**answers

18k views

### Is the boundary $\partial S$ analogous to a derivative?

Without prethought, I mentioned in class once that the reason the symbol $\partial$
is used to represent the boundary operator in topology is
that its behavior is akin to a derivative.
But after ...

**49**

votes

**9**answers

15k views

### Galois Groups vs. Fundamental Groups

In a recent blog post Terry Tao mentions in passing that:
"Class groups...are arithmetic analogues of the (abelianised) fundamental groups in topology, with Galois groups serving as the analogue of ...

**93**

votes

**4**answers

16k views

### Does the inverse function theorem hold for everywhere differentiable maps?

(This question was posed to me by a colleague; I was unable to answer it, so am posing it here instead.)
Let $f: {\bf R}^n \to {\bf R}^n$ be an everywhere differentiable map, and suppose that at each ...

**60**

votes

**11**answers

8k views

### How should one think about non-Hausdorff topologies?

In most basic courses on general topology, one studies mainly Hausdorff spaces and finds that they fit quite well with our geometric intuition and generally, things work "as they should" (sequences/...

**58**

votes

**2**answers

6k views

### Cohomology and fundamental classes

Let X be a real orientable compact differentiable manifold. Is the (co)homology of X generated by the fundamental classes of oriented subvarieties? And if not, what is known about the subgroup ...