# Questions tagged [gn.general-topology]

Continuum theory, point-set topology, spaces with algebraic structure, foundations, dimension theory, local and global properties.

**20**

votes

**1**answer

1k views

### A function composed with itself produces the identity

Let $B$ be the closed unit ball in $\mathbb R^3$ and $f: B\to B$ continuous, such that $f\circ f$ is the identity (i.e., $f\circ f=\mathbb 1_B$) and $f$ restricted on $\partial B$ is also the identity ...

**17**

votes

**1**answer

3k views

### Is every continuous function measurable?

This question has already been asked on Math StackExchange here, but was too old to be migrated, and I think will be more appropriate to MathOverflow.
In non-Hausdorff topology it is standard to ...

**15**

votes

**1**answer

530 views

### Open bilinear maps that are not uniformly open

A map $f\colon X\to Y$ between metric spaces is uniformly open whenever for each $\varepsilon >0$ there is $\delta >0$ such that for any $x\in X$ one has
$$B_Y\big(f(x),\delta\big)\subseteq f\...

**14**

votes

**0**answers

179 views

### Spaces locally modelled on $L^2(\mathbb R)$

In this recent question, I learned that any two separable Banach spaces are homeomorphic. Based on some readings, I'm guessing that $L^2(\mathbb R)$ is homeomorphic to $\prod_{n=1}^{\infty} (0,1)$ (...

**12**

votes

**4**answers

929 views

### Limit of a sequence of polygons.

Begin with a polygon $P_0$.
Place two points on every edge of the polygon such that they divide each side equally into three parts. Create a new polygon $P_1$ by connecting all new points with lines.
...

**11**

votes

**1**answer

643 views

### Any “natural” topology on fractional field of a topological ring?

Let $R$ be a topological integral domain. Let $K=\mathrm{Frac} R$. Is there any "natural" topology on $K$? Actually, since $K$ can be regarded as a quotient of $R\times R$ quotient some equivalence ...

**11**

votes

**1**answer

452 views

### Can dividing out a group action can increase the Lebesgue dimension ?

Given any space $X$ of Lebesgue dimension at most $n$. Suppose a group $G$ acts on $X$ continuously. Can the dimension of the quotient $G\backslash X$ exceed the dimension of $X$?
I know examples, ...

**11**

votes

**1**answer

481 views

### When is $X \rightarrow \text{Spec}(C(X))$ a homeomorphism?

Let $X$ be compact Hausdorff topological space. Consider the ring $C(X)$ of continuous functions $X \rightarrow \mathbb C$ (we do not consider the C* algebra structure, just consider $C(X)$ as a ring) ...

**10**

votes

**3**answers

928 views

### Localic locales? Towards very pointless spaces by iterated internalization.

One can think of locales as (generalizations of) topological spaces which don't necessary have (enough) points. Of course when one studies locales, one "actually" studies frames,
certain sorts of ...

**10**

votes

**1**answer

354 views

### Is a locally finite union of $G_\delta$-sets a $G_\delta$-set?

Problem. Let $\mathcal F$ be a locally finite (or even discrete) family of (closed) $G_\delta$-sets in a topological space $X$. Is the union $\cup\mathcal F$ a $G_\delta$-set in $X$?
Remark. The ...

**10**

votes

**2**answers

646 views

### Baire Category Theorem for complete uniform spaces

The version of the Baire Category Theorem I have in mind is the statement that a countable intersection of dense open subsets of a complete metric space is dense. The question is: is it likewise ...

**9**

votes

**1**answer

1k views

### Making CW-complexes metrizable

It is a basic topological fact that CW-complexes aren't typically metrizable (they must satisfy a certain local finiteness condition) and the quotient topology is to blame.
Suppose $X$ is a finite ...

**9**

votes

**1**answer

283 views

### Is every metric continuum almost path-connected?

The question was motivated by this question of Anton Petrunin.
By a metric continuum we understand a connected compact metric space.
Let $p$ be a positive real number. A metric continuum $X$ is ...

**8**

votes

**3**answers

671 views

### How does the parity of $n$ affect the properties of $\mathbb{R}^n$? [closed]

Does the parity of the dimension of $\mathbb{R}^n$ affect its structure/properties? As in, does it make a difference if $n$ is even or odd?

**6**

votes

**2**answers

314 views

### What is the name for a set endowed with a Lipschitz structure?

I am interested in the standard (or widely accepted) name for a mathematical structure, which is intermediate between the structures of a metric space and a topological space. I have in mind the ...

**6**

votes

**1**answer

731 views

### Beautiful examples of arc-like continua

A continuum is a nonempty compact, connected metric space.
A continuum $X$ is called arc-like if, for every $\varepsilon>0$, there is a continuous and surjective function $f:X\to [0,1]$ such that ...

**6**

votes

**1**answer

260 views

### Fixed points and their continuity

Let $f : I^2 \to I$ be a continuous map, where $I := [0,1]$ is the unit interval. It is a basic fact that for each $y\in I$, the function $x \mapsto f(x,y)$ admits a fixed point. I want to ask whether ...

**5**

votes

**1**answer

556 views

### Showing a filter with a certain property on the power set of $\mathbb{Z}$ is a one point filter

Let $\mathcal{P}_0(X)$ the Power set of $X$ without the empty set and let $\dot{x}:=\{A\subseteq X: x \in A\}$ the one point filter generated by $x$. Furthermore let $$ \mathcal{A} := \{ f \in X^{\...

**5**

votes

**6**answers

2k views

### Spectra of $C^*$ algebras

Gelfand-Naimark structure theorem for $C^* $ algebras gives a canonical isometric * isomorphism between any commutative unital $C^* $ algebra $A$ and the algebra of continuous complex-valued functions ...

**5**

votes

**1**answer

787 views

### Realizing homomorphisms between fundamental groups

Let $X,Y$ be compact connected manifolds and $\varphi\colon\pi_1(X)\to\pi_1(Y)$ be a homomorphism between their fundamental groups. Under what conditions on $X$, $Y$ and $\varphi$ is it true that $\...

**4**

votes

**3**answers

2k views

### Is a connected separable locally euclidean Hausdorff topological space second countable?

This question arose from considering for a connected smooth Hausdorff manifold the (possible) equivalence of the following properties:
(1) paracompact,
(2) metrizable,
(3) second countable,
(4) ...

**2**

votes

**1**answer

197 views

### $T_2$-space $X$ with $X\cong \text{Aut}(X)$

Is there an infinite $T_2$-space $X$ with $X\cong \text{Aut}(X)$? (Here, $\text{Aut}(X)$ is the set of automorphisms $\varphi:X\to X$ and it carries the topology inherited from the product topology on ...

**2**

votes

**2**answers

988 views

### Do Smash Products and Quotients Commute?

Let $X$ be a subcomplex of a CW-complex $Y$. Is $(Y/X)^{\wedge k}$ homotopy equivalent to $Y^{\wedge k}/X^{\wedge k}$, where $\wedge k$ is the $k$-fold smash product? I know it is not true for ...

**17**

votes

**2**answers

2k views

### The letters of the word “ART”

Edit: According to the Gelfand duality between topological spaces and commutative $C^{*}$algebras, I add some new tags. So the question is that what is the structure of $ Ext (A,A)$ where $A$ is $...

**14**

votes

**2**answers

2k views

### Generalizations of the Tietze extension theorem (and Lusin's theorem)

I am reasking a year-old math.stackexchange.com question asked by someone else.
(For my needs every space $X$ and $Y$ will be Polish---that is a completely separably metrizable space.)
The Tietze ...

**12**

votes

**0**answers

276 views

### Is there a continuous map $f:\mathbb R^\omega\to\mathbb R^\omega$ with dense countable preimage $f^{-1}(\mathbb Q^\omega)$?

Let $\mathbb Q^\omega_0:=\{(x_i)_{i\in\omega}\in\mathbb Q^\omega:\exists n\in\omega\;\forall m\ge n\;\;x_m=0\}$ and observe that $\mathbb Q^\omega_0$ is a countable dense set in $\mathbb R^\omega$ (...

**12**

votes

**1**answer

312 views

### A generalization of residual finiteness to topological groups

Consider the following generalization of residual finiteness to
topological groups.
A locally compact Hausdorff group $G$ is called residually compact if
for every compact $K \subseteq G$ there is a ...

**11**

votes

**0**answers

250 views

### What is the smallest density of a metrizable space without countable separation?

A Tychonoff space $X$ is defined to have countable separation if some (equivalently, any) compactification $bX$ of $X$ contains a countable family $\mathcal U$ of open sets such that for any points $x\...

**11**

votes

**1**answer

389 views

### Is the dimension given by Klee trick ever sharp?

The Klee Trick allows one to find an $\mathbb{R}^m$ where two embeddings of same compact metric space have homeomorphic complements. More precisely, given two embeddings of a compact metric space $K$ ...

**10**

votes

**2**answers

1k views

### When is the connected sum of manifolds orientation-independent?

Given $M$ and $N$, two connected orientable manifolds of the same dimension, when is $M$ # $N$ diffeomorphic to $M$ # $\overline{N}$, where $\overline{N}$ is $N$ with the orientation reversed?
If $N$ ...

**10**

votes

**0**answers

796 views

### Does Urysohn's Lemma imply Dependent Choice?

It's widely known$^{1}$ that in the proof of Urysohn's Lemma (UL) one uses the Principle of Dependent Choice (DC). Inspired by the equivalence between DC and Baire's Category Theorem$^{2}$, I'd like ...

**9**

votes

**3**answers

680 views

### Connectifications?

Like many of my questions, this question is actually aimed at $p$-adic analysis.
One of the main obstacles in doing analysis $p$-adically ist that the $\mathbb{Q}_p$ is totally disconnected.
From ...

**9**

votes

**1**answer

187 views

### What is known about topological groups of countable spread in ZFC?

A topological space has countable spread if every discrete subspace is at most countable.
By Theorem 8.10 in Todorcevic's book "Partition Problems in Topology", PFA implies that each regular space $X$...

**9**

votes

**2**answers

420 views

### Mapping space from a quotient space

For $X/{\sim}$ a quotient space,
$$
Map(X/{\sim},Y)\subset Map(X,Y).
$$
But is this inclusion always a homeomorphism on its image? (Assuming compact-open topology on the mapping spaces.) If not what ...

**9**

votes

**3**answers

2k views

### Importance of separability vs. second-countability

For me second-countability always felt like to be the more important and fundamental concept from general topology than separability. I wonder whether there are any points which can be made for the ...

**8**

votes

**3**answers

784 views

### Is the reals the smallest connected ordered topological ring?

The real numbers is a locally compact Tychonoff connected complete ordered topological field. I am looking at minimal collections of adjectives that can characterize the reals. The one often used to ...

**8**

votes

**2**answers

436 views

### Totally disconnected subspaces

This question is motivated by this one, where no simple solution within ZFC seems to exist. Let me ask a weaker question then.
Suppose that $K$ is a compact, Hausdorff, non-metrizable space. Does it ...

**8**

votes

**2**answers

585 views

### On a weaker version of homotopy equivalence between topological spaces

Consider two topological spaces $X$ and $Y$.
The notion of homotopy equivalence between $X$ and $Y$ is defined as a pair of continuous maps $f:X\to Y$ and $g:Y\to X$ such that $f\circ g$ and $g\circ ...

**8**

votes

**2**answers

593 views

### Link between the hairy ball theorem and the fundamental theorem of algebra

I read in the book "Concepts of modern mathematics" by Ian Stewart that it was possible to proof the fundamental theorem of algebra using the hairy ball theorem (complete reference to the page is in ...

**8**

votes

**2**answers

837 views

### Trivial fiber bundle

Suppose $(E,p,B;F)$ is a fiber bundle such that $E$ is homeomorphic to $B\times F$, is it true that the fiber bundle is trivial?
A non connected counter example has been provided, so I'll ask for E,B ...

**7**

votes

**1**answer

318 views

### Are topological fiber bundles on the same base with homeomorphic fibers isomorphic?

First I apologize because this is not a research question, but I can't get any answer on MathStackExchange...
Let $\pi \colon E \to B$ and $\pi' \colon E' \to B$ two topological fiber bundles on the ...

**7**

votes

**4**answers

1k views

### When $X \times Y \cong X \times Z$ implies $Y \cong Z$ (in the category of finite topological spaces)

The title has it all. I'm looking for a reference to the following:
Q. Let $X, Y, Z$ be finite, non-empty (topological) spaces. When does $X \times Y \cong X \times Z$ imply $Y \cong Z$ (in the ...

**7**

votes

**2**answers

2k views

### Bialynicki-Birula decomposition of a non-singular quasi-projective scheme.

Fix an algebraically closed field $k$, an algebraic one-dimensional torus $G_m$ and a non-singular scheme $X$ of finite type over $k.$
Let us define the following:
Condition 1: $X$ can be covered by ...

**7**

votes

**2**answers

801 views

### Category of Uniform spaces

I suspect that the category of uniform spaces and uniformly continuous maps and the full subcategory of complete uniform spaces are both bicomplete and cartesian closed. Can anyone comfirm or deny, ...

**7**

votes

**1**answer

574 views

### Topological fraction rings and fields

Linked to this question
and as a sequel to my answer of it.
Let $R$ be a topological (commutative, unital) ring and set $S$ be a submonoid of $(R,\times,1_R)$.
Let
$$
s_{frac}\ :\ R\times S\to S^{-...

**7**

votes

**0**answers

230 views

### Does geometric realization commute with passing to the compactly generated topology?

My question is in the title, but here is a more detailed formulation:
Let Top be the category of all topological spaces and continuous maps, and let CGTop be the subcategory of compactly generated ...

**6**

votes

**4**answers

852 views

### On locally convex (and compactly generated) topological vector spaces

Part 1:
How big is the category $TVS_{loc.conv.}$ of locally convex topological vector spaces (and continuous maps)?
In other words (and less cheekily), is there a free locally convex TVS having any ...

**6**

votes

**1**answer

119 views

### On continuous perturbations of functions of the first Baire class on the Cantor set

Is it true that for any function of the first Baire class $f:X\to\mathbb R$ on the Cantor cube $X=2^\omega$ there is a continuous function $g:X\to[0,1]$ such that the image $(f+g)(X)$ is disjoint with ...

**5**

votes

**2**answers

176 views

### another question about connected open sets in $R^2$

Before posting this question,I just asked a similar question:a question about connected open sets in $R^2$.
I got several nice answers.Now I want to ask:
Let $U$ be a nonempty connected open set in $...

**5**

votes

**1**answer

332 views

### inverse problem for ergodic measures

It is a basic fact in the weak-* topology, the set of invariant measures for a dynamical system is closed, compact, and convex in the weak-* topology. Furthermore, the set of ergodic measures is equal ...