# Questions tagged [fractional-calculus]

Questions regarding derivatives and integrals of non-integer order.

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### Generator of an analytic semigroup

Perhaps I have a naive question. My question is as follows:
When we consider a Cauchy proposition of the following form:
$$
\begin{cases}
x'(t)= -Ax(t)+ F(t,x(t)) &\text{for}\ t> 0 \\
x(0)=...

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### Extension operator maps which fractional Sobolev space to $W^{p,s}(R)$

Let us assume we have the following extension operator:
$$
\operatorname{ext}_R^\sigma u=
\begin{cases}
u(x) & \text{if }x \in (0,T)\\
u(0) & \text{if }x \in(0,T)^c.
\end{cases}
$$ We ...

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### Fractional powers of Dirichlet-to-Neumann map to derive estimate for PDE

Assume $\Omega$ is an open, bounded subset of $\mathbb R^3$ with smooth boundary $\partial \Omega= \Gamma$. For $u \in
H^{1/2}(\Gamma)$, let $U \in H^1(\Omega)$ denote the weak solution of
the ...

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### Interpretation of the singular integral for the definition of fractional Laplacian in classical case $s=1$

Fractional Laplacian is often defined via next principal value integral (assume dimension one for the simplicity)
$$(-\Delta)^su(x):=c_sP.V.\int_\mathbb{R} \frac{u(x)-u(y)}{|x-y|^{1+2s}}\, dy.$$
This ...

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### Prove if the fractional Laplacian of a function is bounded

Take $s\in (0, 1)$. I am trying to understand if $(-\Delta)^s (\log(1+x^2))$ is bounded, that is if there exists $R>0$ such that $|(-\Delta)^s (\log(1+x^2))|\le R$.
Here $(-\Delta)^s$ is the ...

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### Matrix-order derivatives (differentiating a function a matrix number of times)

I have been exploring methods of generalizing the order of derivatives to a broader range of inputs (such as real numbers, complex, and now matrices). We are very well familiar with integer-order ...

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### Given a radial symmetric function $f$, the estimate of |$\Delta ^ {m/2}f$| in $R^{2m}$ by induction

This question might be a little strange; my order of Laplacian is related to the dimension of the space.
Actually, I’m reading a result which is obtained by induction; it is the absolute value of ...

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### $C^{k,\alpha}$ dependence of ODE solutions on initial data

I faced such a question. Consider the Cauchy problem for an ODE:
$$
\begin{cases}
y'=F(t,y)\\ y(0)=y_0.
\end{cases}
$$ Assume $F$ has the regularity $C^{k,\alpha}$ (i.e. it has partial derivatives of ...

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### A possible upper bound for a function that satisfies a singular integral inequality

I am currently working on an analysis problem in fractional calculus and after some work I have encountered the following inequality:
$$
|v(s)|~\leq \epsilon+\beta \int_{0}^{1}|s-x|^{\alpha-1}\left(
|...

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### Characterization of locality in Fourier multiplier

Obviously Laplacian $-\Delta$ is a local operator, and it can be written as a Fourier multiplier $|\xi|^2$. Similarly fractional Laplacian $(-\Delta)^s$ is with Fourier multiplier $|\xi|^{2s}$ and is ...

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### What is the relationship between Hölder spaces and differentiability?

I'm porting this question over from MSE as it did not get any responses other than one comment on there.
Let $C^{k,\alpha}$ be a Hölder space where $0 \leq \alpha \leq 1$. I have seen various sources ...

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### Could the patterns in the roots of the Riemann-Liouville differintegral of $(s-1)\,L(s, \chi_{q,j})$ be explained?

This question aims to extend this question to (automorphic) Dirichlet L-functions.
Take: $$f(s,q,j) = (s-1)\,L(s, \chi_{q,j})$$
with $q$ the modulus and $j$ the index of a character $\chi$. A fast way ...

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### A Riemann-Liouville differintegral for all entire Dirichlet L-series. Could it be simplified further?

It appears that the well-known relation between entire Dirichlet L-series and the Hurwitz zeta function $\zeta(s,a)$, with $k$ = modulus, $j$ = index of the Dirichlet character $\chi$:
$$(s-1)\,L\left(...

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### Is there a fractional derivative that preserves the composition of the one-parameter Mittag-Leffler function with $x\mapsto x^{\alpha}$?

Let $\alpha\in (0,1)$. The Riemann-Liouville fractional derivative of order $\alpha$ is defined by
$$ \sideset{_0^R}{}{D^{\alpha}f(t)}
=\frac{1}{\Gamma{(1-\alpha)}}
\frac{d}{dt}\left(\int_{0}^{t}
\...

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### Could the patterns in the roots of the Riemann-Liouville differintegral for $(s-1)\,\zeta(s)$ be explained?

The well-known integral expression for the entire function:
$$(s-1)\,\zeta(s) = \frac{-i\,\pi}{2}\int_{1/2-i\infty}^{1/2+i\infty} \frac{\csc(\pi\,u)^2}{u^{s-1}} \, du \qquad s \in \mathbb{C} \tag{0}$$
...

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### How to obtain the Lagrangian of the fractional classical mechanics

The Lagrangian of fractional classical mechanics $L_\alpha(\dot{q},q)$ is defined as
$$
L_\alpha(\dot{q}, q)=p\dot{q}-H_\alpha(p,q)
$$
where
$$
\begin{split}
p & =\frac{\partial L_\alpha(\dot{q}, ...

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### Fractional Laplacian in higher order case

Let $n\geq 2$ and $\sigma \in (0,\frac{n}{2})$. Denote the critical Sobolev exponent $2_{\sigma}^*:=\frac{2n}{n-2\sigma}$, consider Sobolev space $E$ which is the space of real-valued functions $u\...

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### Variation of the fractional derivatives

$\DeclareMathOperator\AC{AC}\DeclareMathOperator\Lip{Lip}$Suppose we have $f\in L^1(\mathbb{R})\cap \AC(\mathbb{R})\cap \Lip(\mathbb{R})$ and $f$ piecewise linear function, bounded and $|f|\leqslant \...

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### Can we interpret fractional Sobolev spaces in terms of fractional derivatives?

Let $1 \leq p < \infty$, $0<s<1$, and $\Omega \subseteq R^n$ be a domain. The Banach space $W^{s,p}(\Omega)$ is defined as
$$W^{s,p}(\Omega) := \left\{ f \in L^p(\Omega) \colon \int_{\Omega \...

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### If the Riemann-Liouville fractional integral of $f$ is zero then $f=0$ a.e

I have to prove this:
Let $\alpha\in(0,1)$ and $f\in L^q(a,b)$, $1\leq q<\frac 1\alpha$, and $\mathcal{I}_{a+}^\alpha f=0$. Then $f(x)=0$ for almost all $x\in (a,b)$.
Where $(\mathcal{I}_{a+}^\...

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### Domain where the fractional Laplacian operator is a closed operator

Consider the fractional Laplacian defined by
$$(-\Delta)^s u(x) = P.V. \int_{\mathbb{R}^N} \frac{u(x) - u(y)}{|x - y|^{N + 2s}}dy, \ s \in (0,1).$$
Also consider that
$$D((-\Delta)^s) = \{u \in H^s(\...

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### A mapping property for fractional Laplace--Beltrami operator

Suppose that $g$ is a smooth Riemannian metric on $\mathbb R^3$ that is equal to the Euclidean metric outside the unit ball. Let us define the fractional Laplace--Beltarmi operator on $\mathbb R^3$ of ...

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### On the Fractional Laplace-Beltrami operator

I would appreciate it if a reference could be given for the following claim.
Let $g$ be a Riemannian metric on $\mathbb R^n$, $n\geq 2$ that is equal to the Euclidean metric outside some compact set. ...

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### Fractional integrals and $\sum f(n) n^x$

Preamble
The following is a rather unrigorous way to obtain the Euler-Maclaurin formula. Consider some $\sum_{n=1}^\infty f(n)$. We may rewrite this as
$$\sum_{n=1}^\infty f(n)=\sum_{n=1}^\infty \sum_{...

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### Question on possibility of uniquely defining the FRFT via certain properties

I was working around with the fractional Fourier transform (FRFT) when the mathematics undergrad found out, by brute-force computations, that the derivative of the FRFT with respect to the parameter ...

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### Given $a>0$, find $b>0$ for which $\|\langle x\rangle^{-b}|\partial_x|^{1/2}f\|_{L^2}\lesssim\|\partial_x f\|_{L^2}+\|\langle x\rangle^{-a}f\|_{L^2}$

I have asked the same question on MathSE. I was thinking about the following problem.
Problem. Given $\alpha>0$, find all values of $\beta\geq 0$ such that the following estimate is true for all $\...

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### A question of interpolation space on homogeneous Carnot group

Let $\mathbb{G}$ be the homogeneous Carnot group on $\mathbb{R}^{n}$ defined as follows:
A homogeneous Lie group $\mathbb{G}=(\mathbb{R}^{n},\circ)$ is called a homogeneous Carnot group (or a ...

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### Endpoint Calderon-Zygmund inequality of nonlocal fractional laplacian

For $s\in(0,1],$ consider the following non-local fractional laplacian:
$$(-\Delta)^sv= f ~~\text{on } \mathbb{R}^n.$$
Then how to use "the standard elliptic estimate" to obtain:
for $p\in[...

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### Functional inequality for fractional Laplacian

Let $f$ be a nonnegative function on the $d$-dimensional torus $\mathbb{T}^d$, which you can take to be smooth. Let $\bar{f}:=\int_{\mathbb{T}^d}fdx$. I am interested in whether the following ...

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### Precise decay of solution fo fractional Schroedinger equations

Let us consider the time-independent fractional Schroedinger equation $$(-\Delta)^s u + u = \vert u \vert^{p-1}u$$ in $\mathbb{R}^N$, where $0<s<1$, $N>2s$ and $1<p<\frac{N+2s}{N-2s}$.
...

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### Existence of a limit of alpha-difference quotient for Hölder functions

Let $f:\mathbb{R}\to \mathbb{R}^d,d\geq 1,$ be an Hölder function with exponent $\alpha\in (0,1)$, meaning that
\begin{equation}
\sup_{x, y \in \mathbb R, \,x\neq y}\frac{|f(x)-f(y)|}{|x-y|^\alpha}<...

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### Gagliardo-Nirenberg type inequality for fractional relativistic Laplacian operator?

In [1], authors note that by the seminal approach of M. Weinstein in [2] and [3], there is a non-trivial solution $Q\in H^s(\mathbb{R})$ which optimizes next Gagliardo-Nirenberg type inequality:
$$\...

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### Evaluating the series $\sum_{n=0}^{\infty} n! x^n$ and inverse variable-fractional-derivatives

So I was interested in formally assigning values to the completely divergent series $G(x) = \sum_{n=0}^{\infty} n!x^n $. I guess the question COULD end here if you already have an idea of how to ...

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### Morse index in PDEs

I have encountered with the term "Morse index" multiple times while reading papers in PDEs (e.g. [1] and [2]). However the definition differs for each context. As far as I know this came ...

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### Convergence of the best constant in the $s$-fractional $L^p$ Sobolev inequality

It is known that the fractional $L^p$ Sobolev inequality
$$
\|f\|_{L^{p^*_s}(\mathbb R^n)}^p \leq \sigma_{n,p,s} (1-s) \int_{\mathbb R^n}\int_{\mathbb R^n} \frac{|f(x)-f(y)|^p}{|x-y|^{n+sp}} dx dy
$$
...

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### prove spectral equivalence bounds for inverse fractional power of matrices

The question is an extention to the answered question prove spectral equivalence bounds for fractional power of matrices.
Let $A, D \in \mathbb{R}^{n \times n}$ be two symmetric,positive definite and ...

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### prove spectral equivalence bounds for fractional power of matrices

Let $A, D \in \mathbb{R}^{n \times n}$ be two symmetric,positive definite and tri-diagonal matrices for that we know that they are spectrally equivalent, thus ist holds
$$ c^- x^\top D x \le x^\top A ...

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### Is integration by parts allowed for the $J^s$ derivative, where $s \in \mathbb R$

I am having the following integral:
$$I = \int u\, J^s(\partial_x \overline{u})- \overline{u}\, J^s(\partial_x u))dxdy$$
where $J^S= (I-\Delta)^\frac{2}{2}$, $\mathbb{R} \ni s \geq 1$ and $u=u(x,y)$,
$...

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### Difference between summation for "$\aleph$" terms and summation for "$\aleph_0$" terms

Addition: Could we say that the dimension of a space is "$\aleph_0$" or"$\aleph$"? I guess that every elementary functions can be uniquely expanded as integer order power series ...

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### Poisson Kernel and solution formula for fractional elliptic problem

$$
k (-\Delta)^s u + u = 0, \qquad x \in U, \\
u(x) = f(x), \qquad x \in \mathbb R^n \setminus U,
$$
with $f \in L^\infty(\mathbb R^n)$, $k>0$, and $(-\Delta)^s$ is the singular integral ...

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### How to validate the exponentiality of fractional calculus?

Is it true
$$ \frac{1}{\Gamma(1-\nu)}\frac{1}{\Gamma(\nu)} \int_{0}^{x}(x-y)^{-\nu}dy\int_0^y (y-t)^{\nu-1}f(t)dt = \int_0^x f(u)du$$
for any continuous function $f(x)$ such that $f(0)=0$ and $0<\...

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### Fourier transform of the fractional Poisson kernel

Recall that the extension of function from $u:\mathbb{R}^n\to \mathbb{R}$ can be defined using the Poisson Kernel as follows:
$$u^{\mathrm{e}}(\mathbf{x}):=\gamma_{n} \int_{\mathbb{R}^{n}} \frac{x_{n+...

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### Nonlocal perimeter of level sets

Let $u \in W^{s,1}(B)$ be given and $k < l$ be two numbers, then I am looking for a way to bound the following term from above. Here $B$ is the euclidean ball.
$$
\int_{B: u < k} \int_{B:u>l} ...

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### Fractional Laplacian of smooth cut off functions

Suppose we have a smooth compactly supported function $\phi\in C^{\infty}_c(B_\epsilon(0))$ such that $0\leq \phi \leq 1$, $\phi\equiv 1$ on the unit ball and $\phi$ vanishes outside $B_\epsilon(0).$
...

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### Questions about iterating the Euler-Maclaurin summation formula

Introduction
The Euler–Maclaurin summation formula is as follows for a positive integer $p$ and a continuous function $f(\cdot)$ that is $p$ times continuously differentiable on the interval $[m,n]$ : ...

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### Multivariable fractional calculus

I recently started to learn about nonlocal PDEs. Sorry if I am missing something really standard in this field.
I know Riesz derivative is defined through Fourier transform:
$$\mathcal{F}(\partial^\...

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### How to prove this estimate involving the Stein Derivative?

Recall the Stein Derivative,
$$\mathcal{D}^{s} f(x)=\left(\int \frac{|f(x)-f(y)|^{2}}{|x-y|^{n+2 s}} d y\right)^{1 / 2}.$$
I want to show that,
$$\left\|\mathcal{D}^{s}(f g)\right\|_{2} \leq\left\|f \...

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### Normal vector to a level set and fractional Laplacian

Let $U=\{u\le0\}$ and $\partial U=\{u=0\}$. Suppose $\nabla u$ does not vanish on $\partial U$. Then the (canonical extension of the) normal vector field to $\partial U$ (pointing to the interior of $\...

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1
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### Why should we model infectious diseases with fractional differential equations?

With COVID19 becoming a pandemic I saw some researchers trying to model it with fractional differential equations (FDE) instead of ordinary differential equations (ODE). From a technical standpoint I ...

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### Inequality involving the fractional Laplacian

Let $s \in \mathbb{R}$ such that $0<s<1$. Consider the fractional Laplacian $(-\Delta)^s$ in the real line defined via Fourier series as follows: if $f:[-\pi,\pi] \subset \mathbb{R} \...