Questions tagged [fractional-calculus]

Questions regarding derivatives and integrals of non-integer order.

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47 views

Inequality involving the fractional Laplacian

Let $s \in \mathbb{R}$ such that $0<s<1$. Consider the fractional Laplacian $(-\Delta)^s$ in the real line defined via Fourier series as follows: if $f:[-\pi,\pi] \subset \mathbb{R} \...
5
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0answers
100 views

Commutator of pseudodifferential operator and multiplication operator

Cross-post from math.sx. Let $\eta:\mathbb R^n\to[0,1]$ be a smooth and compactly supported function and assume $f:\mathbb R^n \to\mathbb R$ is measurable. I want to bound the commutator of the ...
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1answer
46 views

Explicit expression for $(-\Delta)^s (|x|^2)$ where $x\in \mathbb{R}^n$ ($n>2s$) and $s\in (0,1)$

Do we know an explicit expression for $(-\Delta)^s (|x|^2)$ where $x\in \mathbb{R}^n$ ($n>2s$) and $s\in (0,1)?$
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62 views

Difference between two fractional Schrödinger equations

Let us consider the fractional Schrödinger equation with periodic boundary conditions $$ \begin{cases} iu_t\mathbf{+}(-\Delta)^{\alpha}u= \pm |u|^2u,\; x \in \mathbb{T}, t \in \mathbb{R}_+\\ u(x,0)=...
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1answer
174 views

Explicit expression for the fractional Laplacian of $1/(1+|x|^2)^s$

For $s\in (0,1)$, is there are an explicit expression for $$(-\Delta)^s \left(\frac{1}{\left(1+|x|^2\right)^s}\right)?$$ Edit: My goal is to show that for the function $u(x)=\frac{1}{\left(1+|x|^2\...
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0answers
44 views

Computing the fractional laplacian of a logarithm function

Are there explicit formulas to compute the fractional laplacian $(-\Delta)^{s/2}\log |x|$ in $\mathbb{R}^n$ for $s\in (0,2)$?
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85 views

Is the spectral fractional Sobolev norm equivalent to other norms (e.g. Gagliardo...)?

Let $s \in (0, 1)$ and $\Omega$ be a bounded subdomain of $\mathbb R^n$ with polygonal/polyhedral boundary. Let $\Delta$ be the Laplace-Dirichlet operator on $\Omega$ (i.e. the Laplace operator with ...
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32 views

Relation between the eigenvalues of the weighted laplacian and fractional laplacian?

Consider the eigenvalue problem $-\Delta u = \lambda u\rho$ for $u\in \dot{H}^{1}(\mathbb{R}^n)$ with $n\geq 3$ and weight $\rho\in L^{n/2}(\mathbb{R}^n).$ Let $(\lambda_k, \psi_k)$ be the increasing ...
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69 views

Are there any known results for the spectrum of $(-\Delta)^s/V^{p-1}$?

I am interested in generalizing some results known for the $\frac{-\Delta}{U^{p-1}}$ where $U$ is a Talenti bubble to the non-local operator $\frac{(-\Delta)^s}{V^{p-1}}$ where $U$ and $V$ are bubbles ...
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60 views

How to check that $f(t,x)\ge 0$ for any $x\ge 0$?

Suppose $f(t,x)$ satisfices $\partial_t f=\Lambda^{-\alpha}f\partial_xf$, for $0<\alpha<1$ and where $\Lambda=(-\partial_{xx})^{1/2}$, $f_0(x)=f(0,x)$ is odd, and $f_0(x)\ge 0$, $\forall x\ge 0$....
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1answer
118 views

Fractional derivative notation in wave turbulence

This is my first question in MathOverflow and I will do my best to format it correctly and make it clear. I am reading a paper on dispersive wave turbulence which introduces the following family of ...
1
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1answer
64 views

Property about the fractional Laplacian

Let $s \in \mathbb{R}$ such that $0<s<1$. Consider the fractional Laplacian $(-\Delta)^s$ in the real line defined via Fourier series as follows: if $f:[-\pi,\pi] \subset \mathbb{R} \...
2
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1answer
172 views

Limit of $e^{-t(-\Delta)^\alpha}$ when $\alpha \to 1$

Let us consider the fractional heat semigroup $\left(e^{-t(-\Delta)^\alpha}\right)_{t\ge 0}$ for $\alpha\in (0,1)$ (the fractional power is taken in whole $\mathbb R^d$). Is there any result about the ...
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0answers
60 views

Boundary terms in integration by parts for the fractional Laplacian

Let $u,v \in C^\infty(\Omega)$ and assume that $v$ is compactly supported inside a domain $\Omega$. Is it true that $$ \int_\Omega v (-\Delta)^su \, d x = \int_\Omega (-\Delta)^{s/2}v(-\Delta)^{s/2}u \...
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49 views

Fractional power of the operator $\mathcal{L}_t[t f(t)](x)$ and equivalence of divergent integrals

I wonder whether an expression for fractional power of operator $\mathcal{L}_t[t f(t)](x)$ that involves Laplace transform can be derived? I am asking this because this operator preserves the area ...
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90 views

Spectral fractional Laplacian of power-function $(-\Delta)^s x^{\alpha}$ in $(0,1) \subset \mathbb R$

How can one compute the Neumann spectral fractional Laplacian of power function, $(-\Delta)^s x^{\alpha}$, with $\alpha >0$, in an interval $(0,1)$. I'm only aware of the formula in the whole space....
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1answer
307 views

A mysterious expression from a discriminant

I recently investigated $\textrm{Discriminant}_u(\omega P(u) +(z-u)P'(u))$, where $P(u) := u^3 + au + b$ and $\omega$ is a real parameter (with $\omega\in(0,1)\cup(1,3)$) associated with the order of ...
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46 views

Inverse of the Riesz potential of a measure

Let $0<\alpha<d$ and let $I_{\alpha}(f)$ be the Riesz potential of a function $f$ on $\mathbb{R}^{d}$, $$ I_{\alpha}(f)(x)=\int_{\mathbb{R}^{d}}\frac{f(y)}{|x-y|^{d-\alpha}}dy. $$ Assuming $f$ ...
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0answers
107 views

If $u \in W^{\alpha,p}(0,T;X)$ for $\alpha \in (0,1)$, then $f(u) \in W^{\alpha,q}(0,T;Y)$ for some good $f:X \to Y$

Let $u \in W^{\alpha,p}(0,T;X)$ for some reflexive Banach space $X$ (you can also take a Hilbert space if it helps) for $\alpha \in (0,1)$ and $p \geq 2$. I am fine with both the Sobolev-Slobodeckij ...
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3answers
1k views

A question on fractional derivatives

I know practically nothing about fractional calculus so I apologize in advance if the following is a silly question. I already tried on math.stackexchange. I just wanted to ask if there is a notion of ...
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1answer
172 views

Sobolev embedding for fractional Sobolev spaces

Let $\Omega\subset\mathbb{R}^2$ be open and of class $C^1$. The Sobolev embedding theorem implies that if $u\in W^{k,2}(\Omega)$ and if $k\in\mathbb{N}: k\geq 2$, then $u$ is continuous. Question. ...
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79 views

Fractional Laplacian and chain rule

For the classical Laplacian, we have $$\Delta (h(u)) = h'\Delta u + h''(u)|\nabla u|^2$$ for smooth functions $h$ and $u$. Does a similar chain rule hold (up to a reminder term) also for the ...
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42 views

The function $u$ is in $H^1_a$?

Let $a\in (-1,1)$, let $H^1_a$ be the completion of $C^\infty_c(\mathbb{R}^n\times(0,\infty))$ under the norm: $$\|v\|_a=\sqrt{\int_{\mathbb{R}^n\times(0,\infty)}y^a|u(x,y)|^2\,dx\,dy+\int_{\mathbb{R}^...
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0answers
40 views

definition of functions that "weakly vanishes as $y\to\infty$" and find a proof of Theorem 9 in the article

I'm reading "Extension problem and fractional operators: semigroups and wave equations" by P.R. Stinga, i have two questions: in Theorem 7 the author use the state "weakly vanishes as $...
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1answer
291 views

Euler-Lagrange equation for a functional

What does it mean that the equation: $$ \text{div}_{x,y}(y^a\nabla_{x,y}u)=0,\quad \text{in }\mathbb{R}^n\times(0,\infty),$$ is the Euler-Lagrange equation for the functional: $$ J(u)=\int_{\mathbb{R}^...
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38 views

A pointwise inequality for fractional Laplacian (s-harmonic function)

Let $s\in(0,1)$ and consider the class: $$ L_s:=\biggl\{ u\in L^1_{\text{loc}}(\mathbb{R}^n):\int_{\mathbb{R}^n}\frac{|u(x)|}{1+|x|^{n+2s}}\,dx<\infty \biggr\}.$$ At the end of the page 23 of ...
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0answers
45 views

Fractional laplacian on $H^s(\mathbb{R}^n)$ and symmetry

Let $s\in(0,1)$, $u\in\mathcal{S}(\mathbb{R}^n),$ i define the fractional laplacian of $u$ in the following way: $$(-\Delta)^su(x)=C(n,s)P.V.\int_{\mathbb{R}^n}\frac{u(x)-u(y)}{|x-y|^{n+2s}}\,dy,\quad\...
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1answer
100 views

Symmetry of fractional laplacian

Let $\Omega\subset\mathbb{R}^n$, let $s\in [1/2,1)$, let $u\in C^{1,2s-1+\epsilon}(\Omega)$ such that: $u=0$ on $\mathbb{R}^n\setminus\Omega$, and: $u\in C^{0,s}(\mathbb{R}^n)$, is true that: $$\int_{\...
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0answers
38 views

Another uniform estimation of an integral involving an Hölder function with derivative that is Hölder

Let $\Omega\subset\mathbb{R}^n$, let $s\in [1/2,1)$, let $u\in C^{1,2s-1+\epsilon}(\Omega)$ such that: $u=0$ on $\mathbb{R}^n\setminus\Omega$, and: $u\in C^{0,s}(\mathbb{R}^n)$, is true that there ...
2
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1answer
72 views

Uniform estimation of an integral involving a Hölder-continuous function

Let $\Omega\subset\mathbb{R}^n$ be open and bounded, let $s\in(0,1)$, let $u\in C^{0,2s+\epsilon}(\Omega)$ bounded with $u\in C^{0,s}(\mathbb{R}^n)$ and such that: $u=0$, on $\mathbb{R}^n\setminus\...
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1answer
87 views

Uniform estimation of an integral

Let $\Omega\subset\mathbb{R}^n$ be open and bounded, let $s\in(0,1)$, let $u\in C^{0,2s+\epsilon}(\Omega)$ bounded and such that: $u=0$, on $\mathbb{R}^n\setminus\Omega$, is true that there exist a ...
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0answers
44 views

Functions that vanish weakly to $\infty$ and a uniqueness problem

I am reading the article "User’s guide to the fractional Laplacian and the method of semigroups" by P.R. Stinga, there is a link. At page 17, in theorem 7, the author state that, for a given ...
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0answers
48 views

The fractional laplacian $(-\Delta)^s\colon \mathcal{S}(\mathbb{R}^n)\to\mathcal{S}_s(\mathbb{R}^n)$ is continuous

Let $s\in(0,1)$, let: $$ \mathcal{S}_s(\mathbb{R}^n)=\biggl\{ f\in C^\infty(\mathbb{R}^n): \sup_{x\in\mathbb{R}^n}(1+|x|^{n+2s})|\partial^\alpha(x)|<\infty,\,\forall \alpha\in\mathbb{N}_0^n\biggr\}....
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0answers
62 views

Making sense of a Fourier transform and proving that a function is differentiable and is in $W^{1,1}_\text{loc}(0,\infty)$

I have a function $V\in W^{1,1}_\text{loc}(\mathbb{R}^n\times\mathbb{R}^+)$, such that $V(x,\cdot)\in C^0([0,\infty))$ and $V(x,0)=u(x)$, $\forall x\in\mathbb{R}^n$, where $u\in\mathcal{S}(\mathbb{R}^...
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0answers
120 views

Infinite partial fraction expansions to compute fractional iterations and recurrences

Let say a function $f$ is defined iteratively over the set of positive integers, for instance $f(t+1)=f(f(t))$ or $f(t+1)=f(t)+f(t-1)$. Based on the recurrence relationship and initial conditions, how ...
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0answers
52 views

Convergence of fractional laplacian

Let $s\in(0,1)$, let: $$ \mathcal{S}_s=\biggl\{ f\in C^\infty(\mathbb{R}^n): \sup_{x\in\mathbb{R}^n}(1+|x|^{n+2s})|\partial^\alpha(x)|<\infty,\,\forall \alpha\in\mathbb{N}_0^n\biggr\}.$$ The linear ...
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0answers
31 views

Extension problem of fractional laplacian and Fourier transform of $L^1_\text{loc}$ function?

I have understand the proof oh the lemma 4.1.9 "SOME NONLOCAL OPERATORS AND EFFECTS DUE TO NONLOCALITY" by C.Bocur, there is a link. In this paper, we define, for $u\in L^1_\text{loc}(\...
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0answers
120 views

Fractional Laplacian extension problem and uniqueness question

I am studying the article "An Extension Problem Related to the Fractional Laplacian" by L. Caffarelli and L. Silvestre. Consider the following problem: $$ \Delta_xu+\frac{a}{y}u_y+u_{yy}=0, $...
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0answers
59 views

Passing to the limit under integral sign and fractional laplacian

I am studying the article "An Extension Problem Related to the Fractional Laplacian" by L. Caffarelli and L. Silvestre. link. Suppose $f\in\mathcal{S}(\mathbb{R}^n)$, at page 5, the authors ...
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0answers
42 views

A question about extension problem related to fractional laplacian

I am studying the article "An Extension Problem Related to the Fractional Laplacian" by L. Caffarelli and L. Silvestre. link. At page 2, for a function $f\colon\mathbb{R}^n\to\mathbb{R}$, we ...
2
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1answer
87 views

Eigenfunctions of the fractional Laplacian are smooth?

Let $\Omega\subset\mathbb{R}^n$ open, bounded with smooth boundary, let $s\in(0,1)$. I know that the fractional Laplacian has a sequence of eigenfunctions $\{e_k\}_{k\in\mathbb{N}}\subset H^s(\mathbb{...
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0answers
52 views

Integral equality involving fractional laplacian

Let $s\in(0,1)$, let $u\in H^s(\mathbb{R}^n)$. For all $\psi\in\mathcal{S}(\mathbb{R}^n)$, let: $$ (-\Delta)^s\psi(x)=c(n,s)\lim_{\epsilon\to0^+} \int_{\mathbb{R}^n\setminus B_\epsilon(0)}\frac{\psi(...
1
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1answer
126 views

Solving an equation with fractional laplacian [closed]

Let $s\in (0,1)$, how i can solve the equation: $$ (-\Delta)^su=1,\quad\text{in}\quad(-1,1)?$$ I have no idea, any help would be appreciated.
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1answer
242 views

The first eigenfunction of fractional laplacian

Let $\Omega$ be bounded and smooth domain in $\mathbb{R}^n$, $s\in(0,1)$, $e_1\in \mathbb{H}^s(\Omega)$ the first eigenfunction of fractional laplacian $(-\Delta)^s$ with eigenvalue $\lambda_1>0$, ...
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0answers
81 views

Stein's extension operator for fractional Sobolev spaces

In his book Singular Integrals and Differentiability Properties of Functions, Stein constructs an extension operator $\mathcal{E}:W^{m,p}(\Omega)\rightarrow W^{m,p}(\mathbb{R}^{N})$, $m\in\mathbb{N}$, ...
2
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1answer
105 views

Integral inequality for Schwartz function

Let $s\in(0,1)$, $u\in\mathcal{S}({\mathbb{R}^n})$, $x\in\mathbb{R^n}$ with: $|x|\geq1$, i have to prove that: $$ \int_{B_{|x|/2}(0)} \frac{|u(x+y)+u(x-y)-2u(x)|}{|y|^{n+2s}}\,dy\leq c|x|^{-n-2s}, $$ ...
2
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1answer
152 views

An inequality involving fractional Laplacian

I have to prove that for $s\in(0,1)$, $u\in\mathcal{S}(\mathbb{R}^n)$, (i.e. $u$ is a Schwartz function): $$ |(-\Delta)^su(x)|\leq c_{n,s}|x|^{-n-2s},\quad\forall x\in\mathbb{R}^n\setminus B_1(0), $$ ...
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0answers
27 views

Find a fractional integral operator for the Weyl-Marchaud fractional derivative

It is known that the left-side Weyl-Marchaud fractional derivative $$ D^\mu f(x) = \frac{\mu}{\Gamma(1-\mu)}\int_0^\infty \frac{f(x)-f(x-t)}{t^{\mu+1}}dt $$ for continuous and integrable $f(x)$ on $\...
0
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1answer
47 views

Laplace transforms of fractional equation

is there a finite expression of the Laplace transforms of the function \begin{align} L\left[ {\frac{{{x^n}}}{{{{(1 + x)}^m}}}} \right]\quad n \ge m \end{align}
3
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0answers
452 views

Definition of homogeneous Sobolev spaces

As we know the inhomogeneous Sobolev space (we only consider $s>0$) $${H}^{s}\left(\mathbb{R}^{n}\right)=\left\{f \in L^2(\mathbb{R}^n):\int_{\mathbb{R}^{n}}|\xi|^{2 s}|\hat{f}(\xi)|^{2} \mathrm{d} ...