# Questions tagged [fractional-calculus]

Questions regarding derivatives and integrals of non-integer order.

134
questions

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### Inequality involving the fractional Laplacian

Let $s \in \mathbb{R}$ such that $0<s<1$. Consider the fractional Laplacian $(-\Delta)^s$ in the real line defined via Fourier series as follows: if $f:[-\pi,\pi] \subset \mathbb{R} \...

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100 views

### Commutator of pseudodifferential operator and multiplication operator

Cross-post from math.sx.
Let $\eta:\mathbb R^n\to[0,1]$ be a smooth and compactly supported function and assume $f:\mathbb R^n \to\mathbb R$ is measurable. I want to bound the commutator of the ...

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46 views

### Explicit expression for $(-\Delta)^s (|x|^2)$ where $x\in \mathbb{R}^n$ ($n>2s$) and $s\in (0,1)$

Do we know an explicit expression for $(-\Delta)^s (|x|^2)$ where $x\in \mathbb{R}^n$ ($n>2s$) and $s\in (0,1)?$

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62 views

### Difference between two fractional Schrödinger equations

Let us consider the fractional Schrödinger equation with periodic boundary conditions
$$
\begin{cases}
iu_t\mathbf{+}(-\Delta)^{\alpha}u= \pm |u|^2u,\; x \in \mathbb{T}, t \in \mathbb{R}_+\\
u(x,0)=...

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174 views

### Explicit expression for the fractional Laplacian of $1/(1+|x|^2)^s$

For $s\in (0,1)$, is there are an explicit expression for
$$(-\Delta)^s \left(\frac{1}{\left(1+|x|^2\right)^s}\right)?$$
Edit: My goal is to show that for the function $u(x)=\frac{1}{\left(1+|x|^2\...

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44 views

### Computing the fractional laplacian of a logarithm function

Are there explicit formulas to compute the fractional laplacian $(-\Delta)^{s/2}\log |x|$ in $\mathbb{R}^n$ for $s\in (0,2)$?

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85 views

### Is the spectral fractional Sobolev norm equivalent to other norms (e.g. Gagliardo...)?

Let $s \in (0, 1)$ and $\Omega$ be a bounded subdomain of $\mathbb R^n$ with polygonal/polyhedral boundary. Let $\Delta$ be the Laplace-Dirichlet operator on $\Omega$ (i.e. the Laplace operator with ...

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32 views

### Relation between the eigenvalues of the weighted laplacian and fractional laplacian?

Consider the eigenvalue problem $-\Delta u = \lambda u\rho$ for $u\in \dot{H}^{1}(\mathbb{R}^n)$ with $n\geq 3$ and weight $\rho\in L^{n/2}(\mathbb{R}^n).$ Let $(\lambda_k, \psi_k)$ be the increasing ...

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69 views

### Are there any known results for the spectrum of $(-\Delta)^s/V^{p-1}$?

I am interested in generalizing some results known for the $\frac{-\Delta}{U^{p-1}}$ where $U$ is a Talenti bubble to the non-local operator $\frac{(-\Delta)^s}{V^{p-1}}$ where $U$ and $V$ are bubbles ...

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60 views

### How to check that $f(t,x)\ge 0$ for any $x\ge 0$?

Suppose $f(t,x)$ satisfices $\partial_t f=\Lambda^{-\alpha}f\partial_xf$, for $0<\alpha<1$ and where $\Lambda=(-\partial_{xx})^{1/2}$, $f_0(x)=f(0,x)$ is odd, and $f_0(x)\ge 0$, $\forall x\ge 0$....

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118 views

### Fractional derivative notation in wave turbulence

This is my first question in MathOverflow and I will do my best to format it correctly and make it clear.
I am reading a paper on dispersive wave turbulence which introduces the following family of ...

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64 views

### Property about the fractional Laplacian

Let $s \in \mathbb{R}$ such that $0<s<1$. Consider the fractional Laplacian $(-\Delta)^s$ in the real line defined via Fourier series as follows: if $f:[-\pi,\pi] \subset \mathbb{R} \...

**2**

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**1**answer

172 views

### Limit of $e^{-t(-\Delta)^\alpha}$ when $\alpha \to 1$

Let us consider the fractional heat semigroup $\left(e^{-t(-\Delta)^\alpha}\right)_{t\ge 0}$ for $\alpha\in (0,1)$ (the fractional power is taken in whole $\mathbb R^d$). Is there any result about the ...

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60 views

### Boundary terms in integration by parts for the fractional Laplacian

Let $u,v \in C^\infty(\Omega)$ and assume that $v$ is compactly supported inside a domain $\Omega$.
Is it true that
$$
\int_\Omega v (-\Delta)^su \, d x = \int_\Omega (-\Delta)^{s/2}v(-\Delta)^{s/2}u \...

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49 views

### Fractional power of the operator $\mathcal{L}_t[t f(t)](x)$ and equivalence of divergent integrals

I wonder whether an expression for fractional power of operator $\mathcal{L}_t[t f(t)](x)$ that involves Laplace transform can be derived?
I am asking this because this operator preserves the area ...

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90 views

### Spectral fractional Laplacian of power-function $(-\Delta)^s x^{\alpha}$ in $(0,1) \subset \mathbb R$

How can one compute the Neumann spectral fractional Laplacian of power function, $(-\Delta)^s x^{\alpha}$, with $\alpha >0$, in an interval $(0,1)$. I'm only aware of the formula in the whole space....

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**1**answer

307 views

### A mysterious expression from a discriminant

I recently investigated $\textrm{Discriminant}_u(\omega P(u) +(z-u)P'(u))$, where $P(u) := u^3 + au + b$ and $\omega$ is a real parameter (with $\omega\in(0,1)\cup(1,3)$) associated with the order of ...

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46 views

### Inverse of the Riesz potential of a measure

Let $0<\alpha<d$ and let $I_{\alpha}(f)$ be the Riesz potential of a function $f$ on $\mathbb{R}^{d}$,
$$
I_{\alpha}(f)(x)=\int_{\mathbb{R}^{d}}\frac{f(y)}{|x-y|^{d-\alpha}}dy.
$$
Assuming $f$ ...

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107 views

### If $u \in W^{\alpha,p}(0,T;X)$ for $\alpha \in (0,1)$, then $f(u) \in W^{\alpha,q}(0,T;Y)$ for some good $f:X \to Y$

Let $u \in W^{\alpha,p}(0,T;X)$ for some reflexive Banach space $X$ (you can also take a Hilbert space if it helps) for $\alpha \in (0,1)$ and $p \geq 2$. I am fine with both the Sobolev-Slobodeckij ...

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1k views

### A question on fractional derivatives

I know practically nothing about fractional calculus so I apologize in advance if the following is a silly question. I already tried on math.stackexchange.
I just wanted to ask if there is a notion of ...

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172 views

### Sobolev embedding for fractional Sobolev spaces

Let $\Omega\subset\mathbb{R}^2$ be open and of class $C^1$. The Sobolev embedding theorem implies that if $u\in W^{k,2}(\Omega)$ and if $k\in\mathbb{N}: k\geq 2$, then $u$ is continuous.
Question. ...

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79 views

### Fractional Laplacian and chain rule

For the classical Laplacian, we have
$$\Delta (h(u)) = h'\Delta u + h''(u)|\nabla u|^2$$
for smooth functions $h$ and $u$.
Does a similar chain rule hold (up to a reminder term) also for the ...

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42 views

### The function $u$ is in $H^1_a$?

Let $a\in (-1,1)$, let $H^1_a$ be the completion of $C^\infty_c(\mathbb{R}^n\times(0,\infty))$ under the norm:
$$\|v\|_a=\sqrt{\int_{\mathbb{R}^n\times(0,\infty)}y^a|u(x,y)|^2\,dx\,dy+\int_{\mathbb{R}^...

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40 views

### definition of functions that "weakly vanishes as $y\to\infty$" and find a proof of Theorem 9 in the article

I'm reading "Extension problem and fractional operators: semigroups and wave equations" by P.R. Stinga, i have two questions:
in Theorem 7 the author use the state "weakly vanishes as $...

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291 views

### Euler-Lagrange equation for a functional

What does it mean that the equation:
$$ \text{div}_{x,y}(y^a\nabla_{x,y}u)=0,\quad \text{in }\mathbb{R}^n\times(0,\infty),$$
is the Euler-Lagrange equation for the functional:
$$ J(u)=\int_{\mathbb{R}^...

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38 views

### A pointwise inequality for fractional Laplacian (s-harmonic function)

Let $s\in(0,1)$ and consider the class:
$$ L_s:=\biggl\{
u\in L^1_{\text{loc}}(\mathbb{R}^n):\int_{\mathbb{R}^n}\frac{|u(x)|}{1+|x|^{n+2s}}\,dx<\infty
\biggr\}.$$
At the end of the page 23 of ...

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45 views

### Fractional laplacian on $H^s(\mathbb{R}^n)$ and symmetry

Let $s\in(0,1)$, $u\in\mathcal{S}(\mathbb{R}^n),$ i define the fractional laplacian of $u$ in the following way:
$$(-\Delta)^su(x)=C(n,s)P.V.\int_{\mathbb{R}^n}\frac{u(x)-u(y)}{|x-y|^{n+2s}}\,dy,\quad\...

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100 views

### Symmetry of fractional laplacian

Let $\Omega\subset\mathbb{R}^n$, let $s\in [1/2,1)$, let $u\in C^{1,2s-1+\epsilon}(\Omega)$ such that: $u=0$ on $\mathbb{R}^n\setminus\Omega$, and: $u\in C^{0,s}(\mathbb{R}^n)$, is true that:
$$\int_{\...

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38 views

### Another uniform estimation of an integral involving an Hölder function with derivative that is Hölder

Let $\Omega\subset\mathbb{R}^n$, let $s\in [1/2,1)$, let $u\in C^{1,2s-1+\epsilon}(\Omega)$ such that: $u=0$ on $\mathbb{R}^n\setminus\Omega$, and: $u\in C^{0,s}(\mathbb{R}^n)$, is true that there ...

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72 views

### Uniform estimation of an integral involving a Hölder-continuous function

Let $\Omega\subset\mathbb{R}^n$ be open and bounded, let $s\in(0,1)$, let $u\in C^{0,2s+\epsilon}(\Omega)$ bounded with $u\in C^{0,s}(\mathbb{R}^n)$ and such that: $u=0$, on $\mathbb{R}^n\setminus\...

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87 views

### Uniform estimation of an integral

Let $\Omega\subset\mathbb{R}^n$ be open and bounded, let $s\in(0,1)$, let $u\in C^{0,2s+\epsilon}(\Omega)$ bounded and such that: $u=0$, on $\mathbb{R}^n\setminus\Omega$, is true that there exist a ...

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44 views

### Functions that vanish weakly to $\infty$ and a uniqueness problem

I am reading the article "User’s guide to the fractional Laplacian and the method of semigroups" by P.R. Stinga, there is a link. At page 17, in theorem 7, the author state that, for a given ...

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48 views

### The fractional laplacian $(-\Delta)^s\colon \mathcal{S}(\mathbb{R}^n)\to\mathcal{S}_s(\mathbb{R}^n)$ is continuous

Let $s\in(0,1)$, let:
$$ \mathcal{S}_s(\mathbb{R}^n)=\biggl\{ f\in C^\infty(\mathbb{R}^n): \sup_{x\in\mathbb{R}^n}(1+|x|^{n+2s})|\partial^\alpha(x)|<\infty,\,\forall \alpha\in\mathbb{N}_0^n\biggr\}....

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62 views

### Making sense of a Fourier transform and proving that a function is differentiable and is in $W^{1,1}_\text{loc}(0,\infty)$

I have a function $V\in W^{1,1}_\text{loc}(\mathbb{R}^n\times\mathbb{R}^+)$, such that $V(x,\cdot)\in C^0([0,\infty))$ and $V(x,0)=u(x)$, $\forall x\in\mathbb{R}^n$, where $u\in\mathcal{S}(\mathbb{R}^...

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120 views

### Infinite partial fraction expansions to compute fractional iterations and recurrences

Let say a function $f$ is defined iteratively over the set of positive integers, for instance $f(t+1)=f(f(t))$ or $f(t+1)=f(t)+f(t-1)$. Based on the recurrence relationship and initial conditions, how ...

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52 views

### Convergence of fractional laplacian

Let $s\in(0,1)$, let:
$$ \mathcal{S}_s=\biggl\{ f\in C^\infty(\mathbb{R}^n): \sup_{x\in\mathbb{R}^n}(1+|x|^{n+2s})|\partial^\alpha(x)|<\infty,\,\forall \alpha\in\mathbb{N}_0^n\biggr\}.$$
The linear ...

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31 views

### Extension problem of fractional laplacian and Fourier transform of $L^1_\text{loc}$ function?

I have understand the proof oh the lemma 4.1.9 "SOME NONLOCAL OPERATORS AND EFFECTS DUE TO NONLOCALITY" by C.Bocur, there is a link. In this paper, we define, for $u\in L^1_\text{loc}(\...

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120 views

### Fractional Laplacian extension problem and uniqueness question

I am studying the article "An Extension Problem Related to the Fractional Laplacian" by L. Caffarelli and L. Silvestre. Consider the following problem:
$$ \Delta_xu+\frac{a}{y}u_y+u_{yy}=0, $...

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59 views

### Passing to the limit under integral sign and fractional laplacian

I am studying the article "An Extension Problem Related to the Fractional Laplacian" by L. Caffarelli and L. Silvestre. link. Suppose $f\in\mathcal{S}(\mathbb{R}^n)$, at page 5, the authors ...

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42 views

### A question about extension problem related to fractional laplacian

I am studying the article "An Extension Problem Related to the Fractional Laplacian" by L. Caffarelli and L. Silvestre. link. At page 2, for a function $f\colon\mathbb{R}^n\to\mathbb{R}$, we ...

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87 views

### Eigenfunctions of the fractional Laplacian are smooth?

Let $\Omega\subset\mathbb{R}^n$ open, bounded with smooth boundary, let $s\in(0,1)$. I know that the fractional Laplacian has a sequence of eigenfunctions $\{e_k\}_{k\in\mathbb{N}}\subset H^s(\mathbb{...

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52 views

### Integral equality involving fractional laplacian

Let $s\in(0,1)$, let $u\in H^s(\mathbb{R}^n)$. For all $\psi\in\mathcal{S}(\mathbb{R}^n)$, let:
$$ (-\Delta)^s\psi(x)=c(n,s)\lim_{\epsilon\to0^+}
\int_{\mathbb{R}^n\setminus B_\epsilon(0)}\frac{\psi(...

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**1**answer

126 views

### Solving an equation with fractional laplacian [closed]

Let $s\in (0,1)$, how i can solve the equation:
$$ (-\Delta)^su=1,\quad\text{in}\quad(-1,1)?$$
I have no idea, any help would be appreciated.

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**1**answer

242 views

### The first eigenfunction of fractional laplacian

Let $\Omega$ be bounded and smooth domain in $\mathbb{R}^n$, $s\in(0,1)$, $e_1\in \mathbb{H}^s(\Omega)$ the first eigenfunction of fractional laplacian $(-\Delta)^s$ with eigenvalue $\lambda_1>0$, ...

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81 views

### Stein's extension operator for fractional Sobolev spaces

In his book Singular Integrals and Differentiability Properties of Functions,
Stein constructs an extension operator $\mathcal{E}:W^{m,p}(\Omega)\rightarrow
W^{m,p}(\mathbb{R}^{N})$, $m\in\mathbb{N}$, ...

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**1**answer

105 views

### Integral inequality for Schwartz function

Let $s\in(0,1)$, $u\in\mathcal{S}({\mathbb{R}^n})$, $x\in\mathbb{R^n}$ with: $|x|\geq1$, i have to prove that:
$$ \int_{B_{|x|/2}(0)} \frac{|u(x+y)+u(x-y)-2u(x)|}{|y|^{n+2s}}\,dy\leq c|x|^{-n-2s}, $$
...

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votes

**1**answer

152 views

### An inequality involving fractional Laplacian

I have to prove that for $s\in(0,1)$, $u\in\mathcal{S}(\mathbb{R}^n)$, (i.e. $u$ is a Schwartz function):
$$ |(-\Delta)^su(x)|\leq c_{n,s}|x|^{-n-2s},\quad\forall x\in\mathbb{R}^n\setminus B_1(0), $$
...

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27 views

### Find a fractional integral operator for the Weyl-Marchaud fractional derivative

It is known that the left-side Weyl-Marchaud fractional derivative
$$ D^\mu f(x) = \frac{\mu}{\Gamma(1-\mu)}\int_0^\infty \frac{f(x)-f(x-t)}{t^{\mu+1}}dt $$
for continuous and integrable $f(x)$ on $\...

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**1**answer

47 views

### Laplace transforms of fractional equation

is there a finite expression of the Laplace transforms of the function
\begin{align}
L\left[ {\frac{{{x^n}}}{{{{(1 + x)}^m}}}} \right]\quad n \ge m
\end{align}

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452 views

### Definition of homogeneous Sobolev spaces

As we know the inhomogeneous Sobolev space (we only consider $s>0$)
$${H}^{s}\left(\mathbb{R}^{n}\right)=\left\{f \in L^2(\mathbb{R}^n):\int_{\mathbb{R}^{n}}|\xi|^{2 s}|\hat{f}(\xi)|^{2} \mathrm{d} ...