# Questions tagged [fractional-calculus]

Questions regarding derivatives and integrals of non-integer order.

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### Precise decay of solution fo fractional Schroedinger equations

Let us consider the time-independent fractional Schroedinger equation $$(-\Delta)^s u + u = \vert u \vert^{p-1}u$$ in $\mathbb{R}^N$, where $0<s<1$, $N>2s$ and $1<p<\frac{N+2s}{N-2s}$.
...

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### Fractional partial derivatives and integrals of De Bruijn's $H_t(z)$-function. Does a simpler form exist for the $z$ derivative/integral?

$\newcommand\KummerU{\text{KummerU}}$
$\newcommand\Hypergeom{\text{Hypergeom}}$
During 2018/2019, the polymath 15 project managed to successfully reduce the upper bound of the De Bruijn-Newman ...

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### Existence of a limit of alpha-difference quotient for Hölder functions

Let $f:\mathbb{R}\to \mathbb{R}^d,d\geq 1,$ be an Hölder function with exponent $\alpha\in (0,1)$, meaning that
\begin{equation}
\sup_{x, y \in \mathbb R, \,x\neq y}\frac{|f(x)-f(y)|}{|x-y|^\alpha}<...

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### Gagliardo-Nirenberg type inequality for fractional relativistic Laplacian operator?

In [1], authors note that by the seminal approach of M. Weinstein in [2] and [3], there is a non-trivial solution $Q\in H^s(\mathbb{R})$ which optimizes next Gagliardo-Nirenberg type inequality:
$$\...

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### Evaluating the series $\sum_{n=0}^{\infty} n! x^n$ and inverse variable-fractional-derivatives

So I was interested in formally assigning values to the completely divergent series $G(x) = \sum_{n=0}^{\infty} n!x^n $. I guess the question COULD end here if you already have an idea of how to ...

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### Morse index in PDEs

I have encountered with the term "Morse index" multiple times while reading papers in PDEs (e.g. [1] and [2]). However the definition differs for each context. As far as I know this came ...

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### Convergence of the best constant in the $s$-fractional $L^p$ Sobolev inequality

It is known that the fractional $L^p$ Sobolev inequality
$$
\|f\|_{L^{p^*_s}(\mathbb R^n)}^p \leq \sigma_{n,p,s} (1-s) \int_{\mathbb R^n}\int_{\mathbb R^n} \frac{|f(x)-f(y)|^p}{|x-y|^{n+sp}} dx dy
$$
...

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### prove spectral equivalence bounds for inverse fractional power of matrices

The question is an extention to the answered question prove spectral equivalence bounds for fractional power of matrices.
Let $A, D \in \mathbb{R}^{n \times n}$ be two symmetric,positive definite and ...

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### prove spectral equivalence bounds for fractional power of matrices

Let $A, D \in \mathbb{R}^{n \times n}$ be two symmetric,positive definite and tri-diagonal matrices for that we know that they are spectrally equivalent, thus ist holds
$$ c^- x^\top D x \le x^\top A ...

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### Is integration by parts allowed for the $J^s$ derivative, where $s \in \mathbb R$

I am having the following integral:
$$I = \int u\, J^s(\partial_x \overline{u})- \overline{u}\, J^s(\partial_x u))dxdy$$
where $J^S= (I-\Delta)^\frac{2}{2}$, $\mathbb{R} \ni s \geq 1$ and $u=u(x,y)$,
$...

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### Difference between summation for "$\aleph$" terms and summation for "$\aleph_0$" terms

Addition: Could we say that the dimension of a space is "$\aleph_0$" or"$\aleph$"? I guess that every elementary functions can be uniquely expanded as integer order power series ...

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### Poisson Kernel and solution formula for fractional elliptic problem

$$
k (-\Delta)^s u + u = 0, \qquad x \in U, \\
u(x) = f(x), \qquad x \in \mathbb R^n \setminus U,
$$
with $f \in L^\infty(\mathbb R^n)$, $k>0$, and $(-\Delta)^s$ is the singular integral ...

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### Explicit solution for 1d fractional problems

Consider the fractional problems
$$
\begin{cases}\partial_t u(t,x) + (-\Delta)^s u(t,x)= 0 \quad t >0, \ x \in (-1,1),\\
u(t,x) = 0\quad t \ge 0, \ x \in \mathbb{R} \setminus (-1,1), \\
u(0,x) =...

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### How to validate the exponentiality of fractional calculus?

Is it true
$$ \frac{1}{\Gamma(1-\nu)}\frac{1}{\Gamma(\nu)} \int_{0}^{x}(x-y)^{-\nu}dy\int_0^y (y-t)^{\nu-1}f(t)dt = \int_0^x f(u)du$$
for any continuous function $f(x)$ such that $f(0)=0$ and $0<\...

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### Fourier transform of the fractional Poisson kernel

Recall that the extension of function from $u:\mathbb{R}^n\to \mathbb{R}$ can be defined using the Poisson Kernel as follows:
$$u^{\mathrm{e}}(\mathbf{x}):=\gamma_{n} \int_{\mathbb{R}^{n}} \frac{x_{n+...

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### Nonlocal perimeter of level sets

Let $u \in W^{s,1}(B)$ be given and $k < l$ be two numbers, then I am looking for a way to bound the following term from above. Here $B$ is the euclidean ball.
$$
\int_{B: u < k} \int_{B:u>l} ...

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### Euclidean log Sobolev inequality for fractional Laplacian

I am interested in this work of Cotsilois and Tavoularis, which claims the following Euclidean log Sobolev inequality for the fractional Laplacian, generalizing the classical Gross-Stam log Sobolev ...

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### Fractional Laplacian of smooth cut off functions

Suppose we have a smooth compactly supported function $\phi\in C^{\infty}_c(B_\epsilon(0))$ such that $0\leq \phi \leq 1$, $\phi\equiv 1$ on the unit ball and $\phi$ vanishes outside $B_\epsilon(0).$
...

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### Questions about iterating the Euler-Maclaurin summation formula

Introduction
The Euler–Maclaurin summation formula is as follows for a positive integer $p$ and a continuous function $f(\cdot)$ that is $p$ times continuously differentiable on the interval $[m,n]$ : ...

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### Multivariable fractional calculus

I recently started to learn about nonlocal PDEs. Sorry if I am missing something really standard in this field.
I know Riesz derivative is defined through Fourier transform:
$$\mathcal{F}(\partial^\...

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### How to prove this estimate involving the Stein Derivative?

Recall the Stein Derivative,
$$\mathcal{D}^{s} f(x)=\left(\int \frac{|f(x)-f(y)|^{2}}{|x-y|^{n+2 s}} d y\right)^{1 / 2}.$$
I want to show that,
$$\left\|\mathcal{D}^{s}(f g)\right\|_{2} \leq\left\|f \...

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### Normal vector to a level set and fractional Laplacian

Let $U=\{u\le0\}$ and $\partial U=\{u=0\}$. Suppose $\nabla u$ does not vanish on $\partial U$. Then the (canonical extension of the) normal vector field to $\partial U$ (pointing to the interior of $\...

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### Why should we model infectious diseases with fractional differential equations?

With COVID19 becoming a pandemic I saw some researchers trying to model it with fractional differential equations (FDE) instead of ordinary differential equations (ODE). From a technical standpoint I ...

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### Spectrum of a linear operator depending of the fractional laplacian operator

Let $s \in \mathbb{R}$ such that $0<s<1$. Consider the periodic fractional Laplacian $(-\Delta)^s$ in the real line defined via Fourier series as follows: if $f:[-\pi,\pi] \subset \mathbb{R} \...

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### Lack of conformal invariance for fractional Laplace operators on a closed Riemannian surface

Let $(\Sigma,g)$ be a compact two-dimensional Riemannian manifold with no boundary. Let us denote by $\{(\lambda_k,\phi_k)\}_{k=0}^{\infty}$ the spectral data for the Laplace--Beltrami operator on $(\...

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### Inequality involving the fractional Laplacian

Let $s \in \mathbb{R}$ such that $0<s<1$. Consider the fractional Laplacian $(-\Delta)^s$ in the real line defined via Fourier series as follows: if $f:[-\pi,\pi] \subset \mathbb{R} \...

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### Commutator of pseudodifferential operator and multiplication operator

Cross-post from math.sx.
Let $\eta:\mathbb R^n\to[0,1]$ be a smooth and compactly supported function and assume $f:\mathbb R^n \to\mathbb R$ is measurable. I want to bound the commutator of the ...

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### Explicit expression for $(-\Delta)^s (|x|^2)$ where $x\in \mathbb{R}^n$ ($n>2s$) and $s\in (0,1)$

Do we know an explicit expression for $(-\Delta)^s (|x|^2)$ where $x\in \mathbb{R}^n$ ($n>2s$) and $s\in (0,1)?$

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### Difference between two fractional Schrödinger equations

Let us consider the fractional Schrödinger equation with periodic boundary conditions
$$
\begin{cases}
iu_t\mathbf{+}(-\Delta)^{\alpha}u= \pm |u|^2u,\; x \in \mathbb{T}, t \in \mathbb{R}_+\\
u(x,0)=...

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### Explicit expression for the fractional Laplacian of $1/(1+|x|^2)^s$

For $s\in (0,1)$, is there are an explicit expression for
$$(-\Delta)^s \left(\frac{1}{\left(1+|x|^2\right)^s}\right)?$$
Edit: My goal is to show that for the function $u(x)=\frac{1}{\left(1+|x|^2\...

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### Computing the fractional laplacian of a logarithm function

Are there explicit formulas to compute the fractional laplacian $(-\Delta)^{s/2}\log |x|$ in $\mathbb{R}^n$ for $s\in (0,2)$?

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### Is the spectral fractional Sobolev norm equivalent to other norms (e.g. Gagliardo...)?

Let $s \in (0, 1)$ and $\Omega$ be a bounded subdomain of $\mathbb R^n$ with polygonal/polyhedral boundary. Let $\Delta$ be the Laplace-Dirichlet operator on $\Omega$ (i.e. the Laplace operator with ...

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### Relation between the eigenvalues of the weighted laplacian and fractional laplacian?

Consider the eigenvalue problem $-\Delta u = \lambda u\rho$ for $u\in \dot{H}^{1}(\mathbb{R}^n)$ with $n\geq 3$ and weight $\rho\in L^{n/2}(\mathbb{R}^n).$ Let $(\lambda_k, \psi_k)$ be the increasing ...

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### Are there any known results for the spectrum of $(-\Delta)^s/V^{p-1}$?

I am interested in generalizing some results known for the $\frac{-\Delta}{U^{p-1}}$ where $U$ is a Talenti bubble to the non-local operator $\frac{(-\Delta)^s}{V^{p-1}}$ where $U$ and $V$ are bubbles ...

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### How to check that $f(t,x)\ge 0$ for any $x\ge 0$?

Suppose $f(t,x)$ satisfices $\partial_t f=\Lambda^{-\alpha}f\partial_xf$, for $0<\alpha<1$ and where $\Lambda=(-\partial_{xx})^{1/2}$, $f_0(x)=f(0,x)$ is odd, and $f_0(x)\ge 0$, $\forall x\ge 0$....

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### Fractional derivative notation in wave turbulence

This is my first question in MathOverflow and I will do my best to format it correctly and make it clear.
I am reading a paper on dispersive wave turbulence which introduces the following family of ...

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### Property about the fractional Laplacian

Let $s \in \mathbb{R}$ such that $0<s<1$. Consider the fractional Laplacian $(-\Delta)^s$ in the real line defined via Fourier series as follows: if $f:[-\pi,\pi] \subset \mathbb{R} \...

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### Limit of $e^{-t(-\Delta)^\alpha}$ when $\alpha \to 1$

Let us consider the fractional heat semigroup $\left(e^{-t(-\Delta)^\alpha}\right)_{t\ge 0}$ for $\alpha\in (0,1)$ (the fractional power is taken in whole $\mathbb R^d$). Is there any result about the ...

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### Boundary terms in integration by parts for the fractional Laplacian

Let $u,v \in C^\infty(\Omega)$ and assume that $v$ is compactly supported inside a domain $\Omega$.
Is it true that
$$
\int_\Omega v (-\Delta)^su \, d x = \int_\Omega (-\Delta)^{s/2}v(-\Delta)^{s/2}u \...

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### Fractional power of the operator $\mathcal{L}_t[t f(t)](x)$ and equivalence of divergent integrals

I wonder whether an expression for fractional power of operator $\mathcal{L}_t[t f(t)](x)$ that involves Laplace transform can be derived?
I am asking this because this operator preserves the area ...

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### Spectral fractional Laplacian of power-function $(-\Delta)^s x^{\alpha}$ in $(0,1) \subset \mathbb R$

How can one compute the Neumann spectral fractional Laplacian of power function, $(-\Delta)^s x^{\alpha}$, with $\alpha >0$, in an interval $(0,1)$. I'm only aware of the formula in the whole space....

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### A mysterious expression from a discriminant

I recently investigated $\textrm{Discriminant}_u(\omega P(u) +(z-u)P'(u))$, where $P(u) := u^3 + au + b$ and $\omega$ is a real parameter (with $\omega\in(0,1)\cup(1,3)$) associated with the order of ...

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### Inverse of the Riesz potential of a measure

Let $0<\alpha<d$ and let $I_{\alpha}(f)$ be the Riesz potential of a function $f$ on $\mathbb{R}^{d}$,
$$
I_{\alpha}(f)(x)=\int_{\mathbb{R}^{d}}\frac{f(y)}{|x-y|^{d-\alpha}}dy.
$$
Assuming $f$ ...

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### If $u \in W^{\alpha,p}(0,T;X)$ for $\alpha \in (0,1)$, then $f(u) \in W^{\alpha,q}(0,T;Y)$ for some good $f:X \to Y$

Let $u \in W^{\alpha,p}(0,T;X)$ for some reflexive Banach space $X$ (you can also take a Hilbert space if it helps) for $\alpha \in (0,1)$ and $p \geq 2$. I am fine with both the Sobolev-Slobodeckij ...

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### A question on fractional derivatives

I know practically nothing about fractional calculus so I apologize in advance if the following is a silly question. I already tried on math.stackexchange.
I just wanted to ask if there is a notion of ...

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### Sobolev embedding for fractional Sobolev spaces

Let $\Omega\subset\mathbb{R}^2$ be open and of class $C^1$. The Sobolev embedding theorem implies that if $u\in W^{k,2}(\Omega)$ and if $k\in\mathbb{N}: k\geq 2$, then $u$ is continuous.
Question. ...

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### Fractional Laplacian and chain rule

For the classical Laplacian, we have
$$\Delta (h(u)) = h'\Delta u + h''(u)|\nabla u|^2$$
for smooth functions $h$ and $u$.
Does a similar chain rule hold (up to a reminder term) also for the ...

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### definition of functions that "weakly vanishes as $y\to\infty$" and find a proof of Theorem 9 in the article

I'm reading "Extension problem and fractional operators: semigroups and wave equations" by P.R. Stinga, i have two questions:
in Theorem 7 the author use the state "weakly vanishes as $...

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### Euler-Lagrange equation for a functional

What does it mean that the equation:
$$ \text{div}_{x,y}(y^a\nabla_{x,y}u)=0,\quad \text{in }\mathbb{R}^n\times(0,\infty),$$
is the Euler-Lagrange equation for the functional:
$$ J(u)=\int_{\mathbb{R}^...

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### Fractional laplacian on $H^s(\mathbb{R}^n)$ and symmetry

Let $s\in(0,1)$, $u\in\mathcal{S}(\mathbb{R}^n),$ i define the fractional laplacian of $u$ in the following way:
$$(-\Delta)^su(x)=C(n,s)P.V.\int_{\mathbb{R}^n}\frac{u(x)-u(y)}{|x-y|^{n+2s}}\,dy,\quad\...