# Questions tagged [fa.functional-analysis]

Banach spaces, function spaces, real functions, integral transforms, theory of distributions, measure theory.

9,333
questions

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### Takesaki's duality in representation theory of $C^*$-algebras

In M.Takesaki's 1967 article titled A Duality in the Representation Theory of C-Algebras*, admissible operator fields are defined in order to generalize Gelfand transform to a non-abelian setting.
...

0
votes

0
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70
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### Intersection of Sobolev Spaces

Suppose $\Omega$ is a bounded open subset of $\mathbb{R}^n$ with a "nice" boundary. We have the Sobolev spaces $W^{k,2}(\Omega)$, which are all contained within each other: $W^{m,2}(\Omega)\...

1
vote

0
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47
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### Best approximation rates of various classes of functions by truncated Fourier series

Let $f\in C([-1,1]^d)$ have periodic boundary, $N$ be a positive integer, and let $S_N(f)$ be the best approximation of $f$ by its truncated Fourier expansion truncated approximation
$$
S_N(f):=\sum_{...

0
votes

0
answers

55
views

### Existence of a measurable maximizer

Let $F$ be a continuous cdf with full support on $[0,1].$ Let $A$ be a compact subset of $\mathbb{R}$ and $\mathcal{M}$ be the set of measurable functions $\alpha:[0,1]\rightarrow A.$ Let $\bar \alpha ...

3
votes

2
answers

220
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### Question about the Bessel operator

For $\nu>-1$ denote by $\{\lambda_{k,\nu}\}_{k\in\mathbb{N}}$ the succesive positive zeros of the Bessel function of the first kind $J_{\nu}$. The Bessel operator is given by
\begin{equation*}
L_\...

0
votes

1
answer

191
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### Reference request: log Sobolev inequality for uniform measure (uniform distribution over discrete set)

Suppose that $N \in \mathbb N_+$ is fixed and denote by $\mu = (\mu_0,\ldots,\mu_N)$ the uniform distribution on the set $\{0,1,\ldots,N\}$ (i.e., $\mu_n = \frac{1}{N+1}$ for each $0\leq n\leq N$). I ...

0
votes

0
answers

82
views

### A question about associated operator on continuous functions space equiped with L2 norm

$$\text{For M a connected compact manifold, T is in }C^{1+\nu}(M,M) \text{ with } \nu\in(0,1),\\ \text{i.e. DT is some Hölder continuous function with Hölder exponent }\\ \text{, Denote m as the ...

5
votes

0
answers

824
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### Is such a Banach space $X$ isometrically isomorphic to a Hilbert space or not?

Let $X$ be a real or complex Banach space. $X$ satisfies:There exists real or complex series $\{a_k\}_{k=1}^n,\{b_k\}_{k=1}^n$ (which satisfies that:$\begin{cases}
a_k,b_k\in \mathbb{R}\ \forall k=1,\...

0
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0
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135
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### Dependence of functional integral on the function space

In physics, the following functional integral is considered
\begin{gather}
Z[J]= \int Df \exp(-\int d^dx( f\Box f+\lambda f^4 +Jf ))
\end{gather}
It is usually said that the integration is performed ...

0
votes

1
answer

315
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### Necessary conditions for convergence of convolution

In math.SE, I've asked a question about the convergence of convolution of two functions which have bilateral Laplace transform and also have disjoint Region Of Convergence (ROC) but the question didn'...

0
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0
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57
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### Series representation of functions

Let $H$ be a Hilbert space, consisting of functions $f:\mathbb{R} \to \mathbb{R}$. Let
$$
V = \left\{ f_J \in H: f_J= \sum_{j=1}^J c_j^{(J)} g_j, c_j^{(J)}\in\mathbb R, J\in \mathbb N \right\}
$$
...

2
votes

0
answers

76
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### Array-determined operator ideals

For a Banach space $X$, we, of course, know what it means for a sequence to be weakly null (to converge to zero in the weak topology).
An array in the Banach space $X$ is a sequence of sequences, $(...

2
votes

1
answer

142
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### Topology of ${\mathcal D}(\Omega)$ (space of test functions)

I have seen two approaches to the topology of ${\mathcal D}(\Omega)$:
(i) Let $K$ be a compact subset of $\Omega$ and consider the subset ${\mathcal D}_K(\Omega)$ of test functions with support ...

3
votes

1
answer

479
views

### A strange condition of convexity?

During my research, I come across this question.
Let $f \in C^2(\mathbb R, \mathbb R_+^*)$ with $\forall x \in\mathbb R, f'(x) \geq |f''(x)+f(x)|$.
Is it true that $\forall x \in \mathbb R, f''(x) \...

2
votes

2
answers

306
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### Existence of the limit of periodic measures

Let $T: X \to X$ be a continuous map over a compact metric space. We say that a measure $\mu$ is $T$-invariant if $T_{\ast} \mu= \mu$. We denote by $M(X, T)$ the space of all $T$-invariant Borel ...

2
votes

1
answer

142
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### Prove if the fractional Laplacian of a function is bounded

Take $s\in (0, 1)$. I am trying to understand if $(-\Delta)^s (\log(1+x^2))$ is bounded, that is if there exists $R>0$ such that $|(-\Delta)^s (\log(1+x^2))|\le R$.
Here $(-\Delta)^s$ is the ...

2
votes

0
answers

49
views

### Instances of c-concavity outside of optimal transport?

Let $X$ and $Y$ be metric spaces, and let $c:X\times Y\rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ be a nonnegative function which we refer to as a cost. For any $\phi:X\rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ and $\psi:Y\rightarrow \...

2
votes

0
answers

175
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### What are alternative or equivalent definitions of a positive-definite function on a group?

The standard definition of a positive-definite function on a group goes as follows:
Let $\varphi : G \rightarrow L(H)$, where $G$ is a group (with an involution) and $H$ a Hilbert space. $L(H)$ is the ...

2
votes

0
answers

190
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### If the operators $B_i'$ satisfy an inequality, prove that $B_1'+\dotsb+ B_n'$ also satisfies the same inequality

Related: On a deceptively tricky calculus problem.
The way that Leonard Gross proves the log Sobolev inequality is in the following stages:
He proves that for any operator $B$ that satisfies the log ...

6
votes

0
answers

91
views

### Conditions for completely positive maps to act homomorphically across multiple subalgebras

For a completely positive (CP) map $u: A \to A'$ of $C^*$-algebras $A, A'$, the concept of multiplicative domains characterizes the largest subalgebra of $A$ on which $u$ behaves as a $*$-homomorphism....

2
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0
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### Topology of an orbit space constructed from a Fréchet space under the "local" action of some "smooth" group

Let $G$ be a nontrivial connected compact subgroup of the general linear group $\operatorname{GL}(\mathbb{R}^3)$. For example, we may take $G$ to be $\operatorname{SO}(3)$.
Next, let $\mathcal{S}(\...

3
votes

1
answer

149
views

### Equivalent definition for Skorokhod metric

I have a question about the Skorokod distance on the space $\mathcal{D}([0,1],\mathbb{R})$:
$$
d(X,Y):= \inf_{\lambda \in \Lambda}\left( \sup_{t\in [0,1]}|t-\lambda(t)|\vee \sup_{t\in [0,1]}|X(t)-Y(\...

10
votes

0
answers

395
views

### Upper bound Hölder norm of the solution to the non-linear PDE $\partial_t u (t, x) = \Delta_x \{ |\sigma (u (t, x))|^2 u(t, x) \}$

We fix $T>0$ and let $\mathbb T := [0, T]$. Let $\sigma : \mathbb R \to \mathbb R$ belong to the Hölder space $C^{1, \alpha}_b (\mathbb R)$ for some $\alpha \in (0, 1)$. Let $u : \mathbb T \times \...

1
vote

1
answer

109
views

### An integrable estimate of the Hölder constant of the map $x \mapsto \int_{\mathbb R^d} f(y) \partial_1 \partial_1 g_t (x-y) \, \mathrm d y$

Let $(g_t)_{t>0}$ be the Gaussian heat kernel on $\mathbb R^d$, i.e.,
$$
g_t (x) := (4\pi t)^{-\frac{d}{2}} e^{-\frac{|x|^2}{4t}},
\quad t>0, x \in \mathbb R^d.
$$
Let $f : \mathbb R^d \to \...

2
votes

2
answers

232
views

### Preimage of null sets under a monotone increasing function

Let $I\subseteq \mathbb{R}$ be a closed bounded interval and $f:I \to I$ a monotonic increasing function and $S$ the countable set of points $s$ such that $|f^{-1}(s)| > 1$. Is the following ...

1
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0
answers

57
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### The operator $D^{p}\colon \mathcal{S}\subset L^{1}(\gamma)\to L^{1}(\gamma)$ is closable for every integer $p =1,2,\dots$

I am reading Nourdin and Peccati’s textbook (Normal Approximations with Malliavin Calculus From Stein’s Method to Universality). My question is about Lemma 1.1.6. Which says
Lemma 1.1.6:
The operator $...

3
votes

1
answer

160
views

### Equivalent Littlewood-Paley-type decompositions

The theory of Besov and Triebel-Lizorkin spaces usually proceeds by taking a dyadic decomposition of unity, i.e. some non-negative functions $\psi_0,\psi \in C_c^\infty(\mathbb{R})$ such that
\begin{...

0
votes

1
answer

88
views

### Construct next polynomial from predecessor and resulting GCD

I have a sequence of polynomials built from an interpolation derived in a combinatorial problem. For each integer value of a parameter $n$ there is a different polynomial.
After trying to find a way ...

7
votes

2
answers

517
views

### Prove that the following function is positive

Consider the following function:
$$K(x, y; t) = \sum_{n \geq 0} \frac{e^{-(2n+1)t}}{\sqrt{\pi} 2^n n!} H_n(x) H_n(y) \exp\left(-\frac{(x^2 + y^2)}{2}\right)
$$
This is Mehler's kernel, and can be ...

2
votes

1
answer

165
views

### Sobolev regularity via Laplace spectrum

Fix a positive integer $n$ and let $\mu$ be the uniform measure on the sphere $\mathbb{S}^n$, with respect to its usual Riemannian metric $g$. Let $\nabla$ be the Laplacian on $(\mathbb{S}^n,g)$ and ...

5
votes

1
answer

183
views

### In what sense does the Laplacian on compact intervals converge to one on all of $\mathbb{R}$?

I guess this topic may have been addressed somewhere but I cannot really find a reference myself, so I ask here.
For each $N \in \mathbb{N}$, consider the Laplacian $\Delta$ on the interval $[-N,N]$ ...

0
votes

0
answers

152
views

### Generalization of polynomial coefficients

I'm dealing with a hard combinatorial problem where for every positive integer value of a variable $n$ I have to calculate a list of numbers, specifically $n^2$, that depend on $n$ and its list index ...

2
votes

0
answers

66
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### Question about the ''crater'' in mountain-pass theorem while reading a paper of solving mean-field equation by mountain-pass theorem

Actually, I'm reading a paper which finds the saddle point of a functional, of course the unbounded below energy functional will suggest a potential saddle, but the structure of mountain pass is the ...

2
votes

0
answers

38
views

### Functional of fully nonlinear equations

Let $\left(\mathcal{M}, g_0\right)$ be a compact Riemannian manifold of dimension $n>2$ and denote by 'Ric' and $R$ respectively the Ricci tensor and the scalar curvature. The $k$-Yamabe problem is ...

1
vote

0
answers

122
views

### Gelfand's representation on matrices: construct maximal ideal in matrix algebra

I would like to see a constructive proof (some algorithm?) of the following statement:
Let $A_1, A_2, \dotsc ,A_k \in M_n(\mathbb C)$ be some commuting matrices, let $B$ be the commutative algebra (...

2
votes

1
answer

145
views

### Growth rate of elementary sequences

We consider three sequences $(x_n),(y_n),(z_n)$, where $(x_n) \in \ell^1$ is positive and the other two sequences are merely assumed to be positive, i.e. $y_n,z_n \ge 0$ where $0<z_n<z_{n+1}$ is ...

0
votes

0
answers

67
views

### Is a bounded measurable convex function above its interior lower semi-continuous convex envelope?

Let $E$ be a locally convex topological vector space, let $C$ be a convex set which matches the closure of its relative interior $\mathring C=\{ x\in C : \forall y\in C,\exists z\in C,~x\in\mathopen]y,...

0
votes

0
answers

36
views

### Finding an element of Gelfand triple with a designated time derivative

Let $V$ be a real separable Banach space and $H$ be a real separable Hilbert space such that
\begin{equation}
V \subset H \subset V'
\end{equation}
where $V'$ is the dual of $V$ and the inclusions are ...

1
vote

0
answers

59
views

### Parabolic regularity for weak solution with $L^2$ data

I want to study the regularity of weak solutions $u\in C([0,T];L^2(\Omega))\cap H^1((0,T);L^2(\Omega))\cap L^2(0,T;H^1(\Omega))$ of the heat equation with Neumann boundary conditions:
$$\begin{cases}\...

1
vote

0
answers

110
views

### Looking for examples of kernels with scalar Pick property but not the complete Pick property

I am studying Pick Interpolation and Hilbert Function Spaces by Agler and McCarthy.
A kernel $k$ on a set $X$ is said to have $M_{s,t}$ Pick property whenever $x_1,x_2, \ldots , x_n \in X$ and $W_1, ...

9
votes

1
answer

604
views

### Prove J.L. Lions’s Lemma without using Fourier transform

When I read the book Linear and Nonlinear Functional Analysis with Applications, I came across J.L. Lions's Lemma (the book doesn't give a proof), which states
Let $\Omega \subset \mathbb R^n$ be a ...

1
vote

0
answers

67
views

### On calculating the second quantization operator $\Gamma(A)$ of the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck operator $A$

Let $A$ be a self-adjoint operator on a Hilbert space , and let $d\Gamma(A)$ be the generator of the second quantization of $A$. Consider the following theorem from Segal's "Non-Linear Quantum ...

3
votes

0
answers

73
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### Absolute continuity of $t \to \lVert u(t) \rVert^2_{H}$ and Gelfand triple : are they equivalent?

Let $V$ be a separable Banach space and $H$ be a separable Hilbert space such that
\begin{equation}
V \subset H \subset V'
\end{equation}
and the inclusion maps are continuous with dense images. Here $...

-1
votes

1
answer

84
views

### A question in functional analysis about selfadjoint operator [closed]

In Hilbert space $u$, Let $T_1$,$T_2$ is selfadjoint operator, if exit $c>0$ such that $cI\le T_1\le T_2$, prove $T_1$,$T_2$ have a bounded inverse operator and $c^{-1}I\ge T_1^{-1}\ge T_2^{-1}$.
I ...

1
vote

1
answer

181
views

### Sufficient condition such that the set of zeros of an analytic function $f:\mathbb{R}^n \to \mathbb{R}$ contains only isolated points

Consider a real- analytic function $f: \mathbb{R}^n \to \mathbb{R}$. We know that zeros of $f$, roughly speaking, live in the low dimensional manifolds.
My question: Does a 'reasonable' sufficient ...

0
votes

0
answers

83
views

### The asymptotic behaviour of the Fourier transform of a certain class of radially symmetric functions

Fix $\theta\in (-\pi/2,\pi/2)$ and let $a>0$. Suppose that $f:\mathbb{C}\rightarrow \mathbb{C}$ is analytic in $S:=\{z\in \mathbb{C}: |\arg{z}|<\pi/2\}$ and
$$|f(z)|\sim |z|^{-a},\qquad |z|\to \...

0
votes

0
answers

48
views

### Rescaling of cosine families

First of all, the best wishes for 2024. Recently, I got aware of cosine operator families (in the framework of evolution equations). It is well-known, that operator semigroups can be rescaled (see for ...

1
vote

1
answer

94
views

### Convergence of ODE with uniform $L^\infty \cap L^1$ bound on nonlinearity

Consider the IVP
$$
\left\{
\begin{aligned}
\frac{d}{dt} \Phi_n(t,x) &= f_n(\Phi_n(t,x)) && \forall t \in \mathbf{R}_+ \\
\Phi_n(0,x) &= x && \forall x \in \mathbf{R}
\end{...

1
vote

2
answers

253
views

### An integral inequality?

Let $v \in C^\infty(\mathbb R)$ such that $1 \ge v \ge 0$ and $\int_{\mathbb R} v \, dx = 1$.
I want to show that if
$$\int_{\mathbb R} v |v''|^2 \, dx < + \infty. \tag{$\star$}$$
then
$$ \int_{\...

1
vote

0
answers

79
views

### For any $\beta>0$, there is a constant $c>0$ such that $\left\|(1-\Delta)^{\frac{\beta}{2}} f\right\|_{\infty} \leq c\|f\|_{C_b^\beta}$

For any $n \in \mathbb{Z}^{+}$, let $C_b^n\left(\mathbb{R}^d\right)$ be the class of real functions $f$ on $\mathbb{R}^d$ with continuous derivatives $\left\{\nabla^i f\right\}_{0 \leq i \leq n}$ such ...