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Questions tagged [fa.functional-analysis]

Banach spaces, function spaces, real functions, integral transforms, theory of distributions, measure theory.

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2, 3, and 4 (a possible fixed point result ?)

The question below is related to the classical Browder-Goehde-Kirk fixed point theorem. Let $K$ be the closed unit ball of $\ell^{2}$, and let $T:K\rightarrow K$ be a mapping such that $$\Vert Tx-Ty\...
Ady's user avatar
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46 votes
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2k views

Set-theoretic reformulation of the invariant subspace problem

The invariant subspace problem (ISP) for Hilbert spaces asks whether every bounded linear operator $A$ on $l^2$ (with complex scalars) must have a closed invariant subspace other than $\{0\}$ and $l^2$...
Nik Weaver's user avatar
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33 votes
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Subalgebras of von Neumann algebras

In the late 70s, Cuntz and Behncke had a paper H. Behncke and J. Cuntz, Local Completeness of Operator Algebras, Proceedings of the American Mathematical Society, Vol. 62, No. 1 (Jan., 1977), pp. 95-...
Andreas Thom's user avatar
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31 votes
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When are two C*-algebras isomorphic as Banach spaces?

We may consider each $C^*$-algebra as a Banach space (by forgetting the multiplication and adjoint). I wonder how drastic this step is, i.e., which properties of the $C^*$-algebra are reflected by its ...
Hannes Thiel's user avatar
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30 votes
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Do there exist infinite-dimensional Banach spaces in which every bounded linear operator attains its norm?

Let $X$ be a Banach space, $L(X)$ the space of all bounded linear operators on $X$. We say that $A ∈ L(X)$ attains its norm if there exists $x ∈ X$ such that $\|x\| = 1$ and $\|Ax\| = \|A\|$. The ...
Mikhail Ostrovskii's user avatar
27 votes
1 answer
1k views

The dual of $\mathrm{BV}$

$\DeclareMathOperator\BV{BV}\DeclareMathOperator\SBV{SBV}$I'm going to let $\BV := \BV(\mathbb{R}^d)$ denote the space of functions of bounded variation on $\mathbb{R}^d$. My question concerns the ...
Gary Moon's user avatar
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27 votes
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Unital $C^{*}$ algebras whose all elements have path connected spectrum

A unital $C^{*}$ algebra is called a "Path connected algebra" if the spectrum of all its elements is a path connected subset of $\mathbb{C}$. What is an example of a non commutative ...
Ali Taghavi's user avatar
21 votes
0 answers
857 views

Noncommutative arithmetic mean geometric mean inequality and symmetric polynomials

While analyzing convergence speed of stochastic-gradient methods for convex optimization problems, Recht et al (2011) posed a tantalizing conjecture. It seems quite tricky, so after having struggled a ...
Suvrit's user avatar
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21 votes
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719 views

Closed connected additive subgroups of the Hilbert space

It is a classical result that a closed and connected additive subgroup of $\mathbb{R}^n$ is necessarily a linear subspace. However, this is no longer true in infinite dimension: a very easy example is ...
Pietro Majer's user avatar
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21 votes
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Are the eigenvalues of the Laplacian of a generic Kähler metric simple?

It is a theorem of Uhlenbeck that for a generic Riemannian metric, the Laplacian acting on functions has simple eigenvalues, i.e., all the eigenspaces are 1-dimensional. (Here "generic" means the set ...
Joel Fine's user avatar
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19 votes
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Laplace Transform in the context of Gelfand/Pontryagin

Question: Do quasi-characters or some other semi-group properly generalize the Laplace transform or decompose functions in some setting in a way similar to how characters generalize the classical ...
Greg Zitelli's user avatar
17 votes
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410 views

Talagrand's "Creating convexity" conjecture

We say a subset $A$ of $\mathbb{R}^N$ is balanced if \begin{equation} x \in A, \lambda \in [-1,1] \implies \lambda x \in A. \end{equation} Given a subset $A$ of $\mathbb{R}^N$, we write \begin{...
Samuel Johnston's user avatar
17 votes
1 answer
2k views

Equivalence of fractional Sobolev space defined through Gagliardo norm and interpolation; dependence on the domain

Let $\Gamma$ be a smooth hypersurface in $\mathbb{R}^n$. We can define the fractional Sobolev space $$X = \left\{ u \in L^2(\Gamma) \mid |u|_X^2 := \int_\Gamma \int_\Gamma \frac{|u(x)-u(y)|^2}{|x-y|^{...
JakeA's user avatar
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17 votes
0 answers
479 views

Large almost equilateral sets in finite-dimensional Banach spaces

Question: Does there exist a function $C:~(0,1)\to (0,\infty)$ such that for each $\varepsilon\in(0,1)$ every Banach space $X$ of dimension $\ge C(\varepsilon)\log n$ contains an $n$-point set $\{x_i\...
Mikhail Ostrovskii's user avatar
17 votes
0 answers
1k views

Finite Rank Commutators

My former student Detelin Dosev and I are interested in classifying the commutators in $L(X)$, the bounded linear operators on the Banach space $X$ (see our joint paper on my home page or the ArXiv ...
Bill Johnson's user avatar
16 votes
0 answers
536 views

$C^*$-algebra generated by those operators that are bounded on every $\ell_p$

Suppose $T: c_{00} \to c_{00}$ is a linear map such that, when regarded as an infinite matrix, there is a uniform bound on the $\ell_1$-norms of its columns, and a uniform bound on the $\ell_1$-norms ...
Yemon Choi's user avatar
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15 votes
0 answers
469 views

Quantitative Skorokhod embedding

The Skorokhod embedding theorem says that any random variable $X$ with $\mathbb E X=0$ and $\mathbb E[X^2]<\infty $ can be written as $X=B_{\tau }$ where $B$ is a Brownian motion and $\tau $ is a ...
Dor's user avatar
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15 votes
0 answers
355 views

Admissible relations in a Banach algebra

Suppose that $\mathbb{C}\left\langle x, y \right\rangle = R$ is a free (associative and unital) algebra and $f \in R$. I wonder whether there exists a (unital) Banach algebra $A$ and a non-zero pair $...
Peter Kosenko's user avatar
15 votes
0 answers
343 views

Is there support for the term "Gelfand algebra"?

In this question Yemon Choi asked whether there is a standard term for Banach algebras for which the submultiplicative law ($\|ab\| \leq \|a\| \|b\|$) is weakened to merely requiring the product to be ...
Nik Weaver's user avatar
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15 votes
0 answers
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Homotopy equivalence vs weak homotopy equivalence in Gromov's h-principle

My question concerns Gromov's h-principle for open diffeomorphism-invariant partial differential relations on open manifolds; see e.g. Eliashberg/Mishachev: Introduction to the h-principle, §6.2.A and ...
Marc Nardmann's user avatar
14 votes
0 answers
356 views

Are dualizable topological vector spaces finite-dimensional?

Consider the symmetric monoidal category TVS of complete Hausdorff topological vector spaces equipped with the completed projective, injective, or inductive tensor product. Every finite-dimensional ...
Dmitri Pavlov's user avatar
14 votes
0 answers
714 views

strong topologies on $C_c^\infty$

UPDATE (27/08/2020): I realized after a comment from Jochen Wengenroth that there was at least one false premise behind my question, owing to the fact that analysts sometimes use the words "...
Chris Wendl's user avatar
14 votes
0 answers
710 views

Lower bounds on analytic functions connected to Fox H

The question is related to the one I asked before and never got an answer to. Fourier transform of $f_a(x)= a^{-2}\exp(-|x|^a)$, $a \in (0,2)$, is decreasing in $a$ . I need to demonstrate that the ...
Tanya Vladi's user avatar
14 votes
0 answers
203 views

Have there been further developments on this scheme for polytope approximations to the unit ball of $\ell_p^n$?

A long time ago I happened to look at, and save (on a floppy disk!) for future reading, a copy of the following article: W. T. Gowers, Polytope approximations of the unit ball of $l^n_p$. In Convex ...
Yemon Choi's user avatar
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14 votes
0 answers
627 views

Classes of (non-continuous) functions with the fixed point property

Let $K$ be a convex body in $ R^d$. (Say, a ball, say a cube...) For which classes $ \cal C$ of functions, every function $ f \in {\cal C}$ which takes $K$ into itself admits a fixed point in $K$. ...
Gil Kalai's user avatar
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14 votes
0 answers
3k views

Tanh version of a Fourier Transform?

I am trying to perform some computations in an environment where it is much easier to compute the hyperbolic tangent function (tanh) than cosines or sines. This prevents me from performing Fourier ...
Bill Bradley's user avatar
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14 votes
0 answers
2k views

Schwartz kernel theorem for A-linear operators

Let $X,Y \subset \mathbb{R}^n$ be open subsets. Denote by $C^\infty(X)$ the smooth functions on $X$, let $\mathcal{E}'(Y)$ be its dual space considered as a space of distributions. Let $L(C^\infty(X), ...
Ulrich Pennig's user avatar
13 votes
0 answers
690 views

Covering number estimates for Hölder balls

Let $\alpha \in (0,1]$, $r>0$ and $L>0$, and positive intwgers $n$ and $m$. The Arzela-Ascoli Theorem guarantees that the set $X(\alpha,L,r)$ of $f:[-1,1]^n\rightarrow [-r,r]^m$ with $\alpha$-...
ABIM's user avatar
  • 4,775
13 votes
0 answers
379 views

Converse to Riesz-Thorin Theorem

Let $T$ be an operator on simple functions on (say) $\mathbb{R}$. The Riesz-Thorin interpolation theorem, in one form, says that the Riesz type diagram of $T$ is a convex subset of $[0,1]\times[0,1]$....
Yonah Borns-Weil's user avatar
13 votes
0 answers
365 views

Finite dimensional approximation of Donaldson theory

In addition to the Seiberg-Witten invariant there has been further success with "finite dimensional approximations" of the Seiberg-Witten theory: Bauer-Furuta's stable (co)homotopy invariants, and ...
Chris Gerig's user avatar
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13 votes
0 answers
301 views

Banach spaces with $d(X,Y) = 1$

We recall that the Banach-Mazur distance between two isomorphic Banach spaces is given by $d(X,Y) = \inf \{ \|T\| \|T^{-1}\| : T$ is an isomorphism from $X$ to $Y\}$. It is a classical result that we ...
James Kilbane's user avatar
13 votes
0 answers
322 views

Kolmogorov width for cartesian products

For an operator $T:X\to Y$ between Banach spaces with unit balls $B_X$ and $B_Y$ the sequence of Kolmogorov widths is $$ \delta_n(T)=\inf\lbrace \delta>0: T(B_X)\subseteq \delta B_Y +L \text{ for ...
Jochen Wengenroth's user avatar
13 votes
0 answers
464 views

Does anybody know if the Fourier algebra of SL(3,Z) has an approximate identity?

(Note to those who like to tidy LaTeX, or ${\rm \LaTeX}$: I kindly request that you don't put any LaTeX in the title of this question, nor change the bolds below to blackboard bold.)$\newcommand{\FA}{{...
Yemon Choi's user avatar
  • 25.5k
13 votes
0 answers
558 views

Symmetric (extended) Haagerup tensor product

Given a von Neumann algebra M, then the weak$^*$ (or extended) Haagerup tensor product of M with itself is the collection of $\tau\in M\overline\otimes M$ with $$\tau=\sum_i x_i\otimes y_i$$ the sum ...
Matthew Daws's user avatar
  • 18.5k
13 votes
0 answers
814 views

How hard is it to make a differential operator Hermitian?

Let $M$ be a closed finite-dimensional smooth manifold (over $\mathbb R$). Let $C^\infty(M) = C^\infty(M,\mathbb C)$ be the algebra of smooth complex-valued functions on $M$, with the natural complex ...
Theo Johnson-Freyd's user avatar
12 votes
0 answers
539 views

Classical (i.e. commutative) spaces with quantum symmetry but no classical symmetry

In a recent preprint (arXiv:2311.04889), my coauthors and I constructed a sequence of graphs with no classical symmetry which nevertheless have quantum symmetry. For graphs this had been an open ...
David Roberson's user avatar
12 votes
0 answers
131 views

Existence of more than two C*-norms on algebraic tensor product of C*-algebras

Let $A$ and $B$ be two C*-algebras. Then $(A,B)$ is called is a nuclear pair if there is a unique $C^*$-norm on the algebraic tensor product $A\odot B$. If $A$ or $B$ is nuclear, then all pairs $(A,B)$...
Alcides Buss's user avatar
12 votes
0 answers
194 views

UMD constant of finite dimensional spaces

For a Banach space $B$, its one-sided Unconditional Martingale Difference (UMD) constant $C^-_p$ (for $p \in (1,\infty)$) is the smallest value such that for all $B$-valued martingale difference ...
Marco's user avatar
  • 408
12 votes
0 answers
454 views

Does Hahn-Banach for $\ell^\infty$ imply the existence of a non-measurable set?

Working over ZF but without the Axiom of Choice (AC), assume that the Hahn–Banach Theorem holds for $\ell^\infty$. Does it follow that there exists a set of real numbers that is not Lebesgue ...
Timothy Chow's user avatar
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12 votes
0 answers
338 views

Does Thompson's group $V$ have property AP?

Property AP: A discrete group $\Gamma$ has property AP (Approximation Property) if there exists a net $(\phi_i)_{i \in I}$ of finitely supported functions on $\Gamma$ such that $\phi_i \to 1 $ weak$^*$...
tattwamasi amrutam's user avatar
12 votes
0 answers
452 views

Is there a simple and reflexive Banach algebra?

There are many Banach algebras which, as Banach spaces, are reflexive. Of course, unitisation is just adding one dimension so this operation preserves reflexivity, hence there are many reflexive, ...
Tomasz Kania's user avatar
  • 11.3k
12 votes
0 answers
452 views

Are Sobolev trace spaces equal from both sides of the boundary?

Let $\Omega\subset\mathbb R^n$ be a bounded open set and $\Omega'$ the complement of its closure. Assume $\partial\Omega=\partial\Omega'$. Are the quotient spaces $W^{1,p}(\Omega)/W^{1,p}_0(\Omega)$ ...
Joonas Ilmavirta's user avatar
12 votes
0 answers
849 views

What's the appropriate notion of a Unitary representation of a Lie algebra?

Here Lie algebras/groups are real. The most straightforward definition might be: Def: A representation $\rho:\mathfrak{g} \rightarrow \mathfrak{gl}(V)$ is unitary if $V$ is equipped with a Hermitian ...
Alex Zorn's user avatar
  • 902
12 votes
0 answers
272 views

Star-shaped Folner sequence

Fix a (finite) generating set $S$ for $\Gamma$ (discrete) amenable. Given a Følner sequence (i.e. a sequence of finite sets $F_n$ whose boundary $\partial F_n$ in the Cayley graph of $S$ is such that $...
ARG's user avatar
  • 4,352
12 votes
0 answers
468 views

Where to use differential calculus on space of measures?

One great inside of Felix Otto is that the Wasserstein metric from optimal transportation gives the space of (finite second moment, probability) measures on $\mathbb{R}^n$ (or a manifold) a kind of ...
Benoît Kloeckner's user avatar
12 votes
0 answers
431 views

Uniform closure of subspaces of Baire class 1

Describe a uniformly closed linear subspace $A \subset C([0,1])$ such that the space $B_1(A)$ is not uniformly complete. Here $B_1(A)$ is the set of all bounded functions $f$ which are pointwise ...
Fred Dashiell's user avatar
12 votes
0 answers
470 views

What is known about the Yang-Mills stratification over 3-manifolds?

Rade proved in his thesis (Crelle's Journal, 1992, available here: digizeitschriften.de/dms/toc/?PPN=PPN243919689) that if $E\rightarrow M$ is a $U(n)$-bundle over a 3-manifold, then the gradient flow ...
Dan Ramras's user avatar
  • 8,508
11 votes
0 answers
334 views

Tauberian Theorem for 1-parameter groups of operators

The Wiener Tauberian Theorem gives condition on an $f\in L^1(\mathbb{R})$ such that the "induced 1-parameter family" $\{T_b(f)\}_{b\in \mathbb{R}}$ has a dense span in $L^1(\mathbb{R})$; ...
ABIM's user avatar
  • 4,775
11 votes
0 answers
645 views

What is the asymptotics of the Fourier transform of $\exp(-x^4)$ for large wave numbers?

The Fourier transform of $\exp(-x^4)$ has an analytical expression, it's the difference of two generalized hypergeometric functions: $\int d x \ e^{-x^4} e^{ikx} = 2 \ \Gamma(\frac{5}{4}) \ _0F_2(;\...
Sara's user avatar
  • 111
11 votes
0 answers
253 views

Quantifier swap in Banach space theory

The uniform boundedness principle and its corollaries from a logical point of view are statements of when one can swap quantifiers in Banach spaces. Take for instance the principle of condensation of ...
Jason Zhao's user avatar

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