# Questions tagged [fa.functional-analysis]

Banach spaces, function spaces, real functions, integral transforms, theory of distributions, measure theory.

Banach spaces, function spaces, real functions, integral transforms, theory of distributions, measure theory.

774
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This page on Wikipedia defines the so-called functional derivative as follows: "Given a manifold $M$ representing (continuous/smooth) functions $\rho$ (with certain boundary conditions, etc.) and a ...

22
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3
answers

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The Fourier transform of the volume form of the (n-1)-sphere in $\mathbf R^n$ is given by the well-known formula
$$
\int_{S^{n-1}}e^{i\langle\mathbf a,\mathbf u\rangle}d\sigma(\mathbf u) = (2\pi)^{\nu ...

43
votes

7
answers

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The Hahn-Banach theorem is rightly seen as one of the Big Theorems in functional analysis. Indeed, it can be said to be where functional analysis really starts. But as it's one of those "there ...

37
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4
answers

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If $X$ and $Y$ are separable metric spaces, then the Borel $\sigma$-algebra $B(X \times Y)$ of the product is the $\sigma$-algebra generated by $B(X)\times B(Y)$. I am embarrassed to admit that I ...

23
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5
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I am to teach a second year grad course in analysis with focus on Schwartz distributions. Among the core topics I intend to cover are:
Some multilinear algebra including the Kernel Theorem and ...

37
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5
answers

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Given a set Ω and a σ-algebra F of subsets, is there some natural way to assign something like a "uniform" measure on the space of all measurable functions on this space? (I suppose first ...

25
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6
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It is clear that each maximal ideal in ring of continuous functions over $[0,1]\subset \mathbb R$ corresponds to a point and vice-versa.
So, for each ideal $I$ define $Z(I) =\{x\in [0,1]\,|\,f(x)=0, ...

5
votes

1
answer

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Let $u: \Omega\subset \mathbb{R}^N \to \mathbb{R}^M$ be a $BV$ function.
Is the Hausdorff dimension of the graph of $u$ equal to $N$? How can we prove it?
Update.
In an answer to this post, it ...

23
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6
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This is to do with high dimensional geometry, which I'm always useless with. Suppose we have some large integer $n$ and some small $\epsilon>0$. Working in the unit sphere of $\mathbb R^n$ or $\...

22
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3
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This question came up when I was doing some reading into convolution squares of singular measures. Recall a function $f$ on the torus $T = [-1/2,1/2]$ is said to be $\alpha$-Hölder (for $0 < \alpha ...

21
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2
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in $C^*-$algebras with unit element, there is the definition of a state, as a functional $\omega$ with $\omega(e)=||\omega||=1.$
Now, of course there is also in classical physics and quantum ...

20
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2
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Context: I am a PhD student in theoretical physics with higher-than-average education on differential geometry. I am trying to understand Lagrangian and Hamiltonian field theories and related concepts ...

11
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1
answer

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Assume that we have an orthonormal basis of smooth functions in $L^2[0,1]$. Are there useful practical criteria to determine whether the sup-norm of the basis functions has a uniform bound? I am sure ...

10
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2
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755
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I am in the process of writing some self-contained notes on probability theory in spaces of distributions, for the purposes of statistical mechanics and quantum field theory. Perhaps the simplest ...

9
votes

2
answers

647
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Let us act intentionally stupid and assume we do not know that we can solve for the spectrum of the harmonic oscillator
$$-\frac{d^2}{dx^2}+x^2$$
explicitly.
Is there an abstract argument why the ...

5
votes

1
answer

535
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Let $L^1_{loc}$ denote the set of all functions from $\mathbb{R}$ to itself which are locally integrable. For every infinite compact subset $K\subseteq \mathbb{R}$, let $L^1_{m_K}$ denote the space ...

4
votes

1
answer

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Heuristically what does Alberti's rank-one theorem imply about the structure of a $\mathrm{BV}$ vector field $\boldsymbol{b}$?
Is it rigorously fair to say that the level lines of $\boldsymbol{b}$ ...

4
votes

2
answers

268
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Let $\Omega$ be an open (non empty) set and $u:\Omega \subset \mathbb{R}^N \to \mathbb{R}^M$ be a function such that the Hausdorff dimension of its graph is $N$.
Let $\tilde u = u$ a.e. Is it true ...

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[Title changed, and wording of question tweaked, by YC, because the original title asked a question which seems different from the one people want to answer.]
I've read looked at the examples in most ...

32
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3
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Some recent questions on MO (for example, Do subalgebras of C(X) admit a description in terms of the compact Hausdorff space X?) have been about Gelfand duality — namely, that the categories of ...

27
votes

1
answer

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Consider a power series $\sum_{n=0}^{\infty} a_n x^n$ that is convergent for all real
x, thus defining a function $f: \mathbb{R} \to \mathbb{R}$.
Can one give necessary and sufficient criteria the ...

26
votes

6
answers

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I imagine most people who frequent MO have been indoctrinated into the point of view that the Riemann integral can be safely discarded once one has taken the time to develop the Lebesgue integral. ...

25
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3
answers

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Voronin´s Universality Theorem (for the Riemann zeta-Function) according to Wikipedia: Let $U$ be a compact subset of the "critical half-strip" $\{s\in\mathbb{C}:\frac{1}{2}<Re(s)<1\}$ with ...

24
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2
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Let $U$ be an open bounded subset of $\mathbb{R}^n$ with $C^{1}$ boundary. Let $1 \leq p < n$ and $p^{\ast} = pn/(n-p)$. Then the Sobolev space $W^{1,p}(U)$ is contained $L^{p^{\ast}}(U)$ and ...

23
votes

1
answer

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I've read the claim that Fréchet spaces that are not Banach spaces never have a dual that is a Fréchet space, but have not been able to find a proof of this statement. Is it trivial or does someone ...

22
votes

4
answers

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Let X be a Banach space, and let Y be a proper non-meager linear subspace of X. If Y is not dense in X, then it is easy to see that the closure of Y has empty interior, contradicting Y being non-...

21
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5
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The standard proof of the Hahn-Banach theorem makes use of Zorn's lemma. I hear that, however, Hahn-Banach is strictly weaker than Choice. A quick search leads to many sources stating that Hahn-Banach ...

19
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2
answers

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In my paper On the optimal error bound for the first step in the method of cyclic alternating projections, I defined functions $f_n:[0,1]\to\mathbb{R}$,
$n\geqslant 2$, by
$$
f_n(c)=\sup\{\|P_n\dotsm ...

18
votes

6
answers

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Dirac writes down the following formula on page 61 of his "Principles of quantum mechanics":
$\frac{d}{dx}\log x = \frac{1}{x} -i\pi\delta(x)$, see http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1947pqm..book.....D ...

18
votes

2
answers

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The ring $C^\infty(M)$ of smooth functions on a smooth manifold $M$ is a topological ring with respect to the Whitney topology and the usual ring operations. Is it possible to describe, maybe under ...

16
votes

5
answers

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I'm looking for recommendations for books (or lecture notes) that develop measure theory in sufficient detail to state and prove the Riesz representation theorem (which is the characterization of the ...

14
votes

3
answers

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We say that the $C^*$-algebra $A$ generated by $a_1,...,a_n$ is universal subject to relations $R_1,...,R_m$ if for every $C^*$-algebra $B$ with elements $b_1,...,b_n$ satisfying relations $R_1,...,...

13
votes

2
answers

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Let $H$ be a separable, infinite dimensional Hilbert Space and $Calk(H):=B(H)/K(H)$ denotes
the Calkin algebra. There is obvious surjection $\pi: B(H) \to Calk(H)$ but I'm interested
in somehow ...

11
votes

4
answers

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Given a Lie group G and an infinite dimensional Hilbert space $\mathcal{H}$. In the literature I have only encountered the two following notions of a representation $\pi$ of G on $\mathcal{H}$ :
1) $\...

10
votes

2
answers

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I would like to know a simple proof of isometric injectivity of $L_\infty$. The proof I've found in Topics in Banach space theory. F. Albiac, N. Kalton uses two deep result.
$L_\infty$ as ...

9
votes

3
answers

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Fekete's (subadditive) lemma takes its name from a 1923 paper by the Hungarian mathematician Michael Fekete [1]. A historical overview and references to (a couple of) generalizations and applications ...

8
votes

1
answer

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The following result is often cited without reference in the context of PDEs:
Let $\varOmega \subset\mathbb R^n$ be a bounded open set with smooth boundary. If $0<\beta<\alpha<1$ then $C^\...

8
votes

1
answer

636
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We define below a von Neumann algebra $\mathcal{M}$ from an action of the free group on the circle, and we prove that $\mathcal{M}$ is a non-hyperfinite type ${\rm III}$ factor.
Question : Is $\...

8
votes

3
answers

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$( \Omega,F, P )$: a measurable space equipped with a finite measure
$(B , \Vert \cdot \Vert) $ : a Banach space with $\mathcal{B}$ as its borelian $\sigma$-algebra
$p$ : a constant bigger than $1$
...

8
votes

1
answer

340
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Does there exist a (onedimensional) integral functional of calculus of variations (with $f$ finite everywhere)
$$
F(y)=\int_a^b f(t,y(t),y'(t))\,dt
$$
such that
$$
\inf_{y\in Lip([a,b])}F(y)<\inf_{...

7
votes

1
answer

1k
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Consider the function
$$f_{n}(x)=e^{-x^2}x^n.$$
and the function
$$h_p(x):=e^{-\vert x \vert^p}.$$
My goal is to analyze
$$ F_p(y):=\frac{(f_2*h_p)(y)}{(f_0*h_p)(y)}- \left(\frac{(f_1*h_p)(y) }{(f_0*...

6
votes

1
answer

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Given a Hilbert space $H$, let $S_1(H)$ denote the space of trace-class operators on $H$, with the trace-class norm or Schatten 1-norm. That is
$$ \Vert T \Vert_1 = \sum_{j\geq 1} |s_j| $$
where $(s_1,...

6
votes

1
answer

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How is the proof that
$$[L^2(0,T;X)]' = L^2(0,T;X')$$
looking like, where $X$ is a Hilbert space? I am asking for the proof that the dual space of $L^2(0,T;X)$ is the space $L^2(0,T;X^*)$.
Is the ...

5
votes

0
answers

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This question is about some heuristics and graphs of BV functions.
In 1-dimensional setting, two key examples of $BV$ functions $u: \mathbb R \to \mathbb R$ are
the Heaviside function, whose ...

5
votes

1
answer

552
views

The tilte says it all. Given $f\in L^1(R^d)$ (let me restrict to dimension $d\geq 3$ for convenience), what is the optimal $L^p$ regularity for solutions to
$$
-\Delta u=f\hspace{3cm}(1)?
$$
I'm of ...

5
votes

2
answers

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Let $M([0,1])$ be the set of finite signed measures on $[0,1]$
(with the topology generated by the sets $\left\{ \mu \in M([0,1]) : \left| \int f(x) \mu(dx)- a\right| \leq \delta\right\}$ for all $\...

5
votes

3
answers

986
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The Ramanujan's master theorem states that:
$$
\int_0^{\infty}x^{s-1}\sum_{n=0}^{\infty}\frac{(-1)^n}{n!}a_nx^ndx=\Gamma(s)a_{-s}
$$
I found a really strange proof recently on a personal blog:
Define
$...

4
votes

1
answer

272
views

I'm looking for a reference for the following fact: In the torus $\mathbb T^d$ let me denote by $u_t=u(t,x)$ the (unique, distributional) solution of the heat equation
$$
\partial_t u=\Delta u
$$
...

2
votes

2
answers

268
views

I am looking for a good reference about the analogues of the Bochner Theorem and the Lévy Continuity Theorem
for probability measures on $\mathbb{R}^{\mathbb{N}}$ with the product topology.
...

2
votes

2
answers

810
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Given a real symmetric $n$ dimensional matrix $A$, with eigenvalues $\lambda_i$ I am defining its Cauchy transform as the function, $f_A(z) = \sum_i \frac{1}{z-\lambda_i}\,$
Is there any information ...