# Questions tagged [fa.functional-analysis]

Banach spaces, function spaces, real functions, integral transforms, theory of distributions, measure theory.

684
questions

**13**

votes

**2**answers

2k views

### Question about functional derivatives

This page on Wikipedia defines the so-called functional derivative as follows: "Given a manifold $M$ representing (continuous/smooth) functions $\rho$ (with certain boundary conditions, etc.) and a ...

**42**

votes

**7**answers

7k views

### What's an example of a space that needs the Hahn-Banach Theorem?

The Hahn-Banach theorem is rightly seen as one of the Big Theorems in functional analysis. Indeed, it can be said to be where functional analysis really starts. But as it's one of those "there ...

**35**

votes

**4**answers

12k views

### Product of Borel sigma algebras

If $X$ and $Y$ are separable metric spaces, then the Borel $\sigma$-algebra $B(X \times Y)$ of the product is the $\sigma$-algebra generated by $B(X)\times B(Y)$. I am embarrassed to admit that I ...

**32**

votes

**5**answers

8k views

### Is there a natural measures on the space of measurable functions?

Given a set Ω and a σ-algebra F of subsets, is there some natural way to assign something like a "uniform" measure on the space of all measurable functions on this space? (I suppose first ...

**21**

votes

**5**answers

2k views

### Nice applications for Schwartz distributions

I am to teach a second year grad course in analysis with focus on Schwartz distributions. Among the core topics I intend to cover are:
Some multilinear algebra including the Kernel Theorem and ...

**24**

votes

**6**answers

6k views

### prime ideals in C([0,1])

It is clear that each maximal ideal in ring of continuous functions over $[0,1]\subset \mathbb R$ corresponds to a point and vice-versa.
So, for each ideal $I$ define $Z(I) =\{x\in [0,1]\,|\,f(x)=0, ...

**21**

votes

**2**answers

2k views

### States in C*-algebras and their origin in physics?

in $C^*-$algebras with unit element, there is the definition of a state, as a functional $\omega$ with $\omega(e)=||\omega||=1.$
Now, of course there is also in classical physics and quantum ...

**21**

votes

**3**answers

8k views

### Fourier transform of the unit sphere

The Fourier transform of the volume form of the (n-1)-sphere in $\mathbf R^n$ is given by the well-known formula
$$
\int_{S^{n-1}}e^{i\langle\mathbf a,\mathbf u\rangle}d\sigma(\mathbf u) = (2\pi)^{\nu ...

**22**

votes

**6**answers

7k views

### Almost orthogonal vectors

This is to do with high dimensional geometry, which I'm always useless with. Suppose we have some large integer $n$ and some small $\epsilon>0$. Working in the unit sphere of $\mathbb R^n$ or $\...

**9**

votes

**2**answers

702 views

### Isomorphisms between spaces of test functions and sequence spaces

I am in the process of writing some self-contained notes on probability theory in spaces of distributions, for the purposes of statistical mechanics and quantum field theory. Perhaps the simplest ...

**6**

votes

**1**answer

502 views

### Can $L^1_{loc}$ be represented as colimit?

Let $L^1_{loc}$ denote the set of all functions from $\mathbb{R}$ to itself which are locally integrable. For every infinite compact subset $K\subseteq \mathbb{R}$, let $L^1_{m_K}$ denote the space ...

**11**

votes

**1**answer

962 views

### Uniform boundedness of an $L^2[0,1]$-ONB in $C[0,1]$

Assume that we have an orthonormal basis of smooth functions in $L^2[0,1]$. Are there useful practical criteria to determine whether the sup-norm of the basis functions has a uniform bound? I am sure ...

**4**

votes

**1**answer

431 views

### Meaning of Alberti rank-one theorem

Heuristically what does Alberti's rank-one theorem imply about the structure of a $\mathrm{BV}$ vector field $\boldsymbol{b}$?
Is it rigorously fair to say that the level lines of $\boldsymbol{b}$ ...

**67**

votes

**15**answers

16k views

### Is there a nice application of category theory to functional/complex/harmonic analysis?

[Title changed, and wording of question tweaked, by YC, because the original title asked a question which seems different from the one people want to answer.]
I've read looked at the examples in most ...

**31**

votes

**3**answers

2k views

### Reference request for translating from Top to C*-alg

Some recent questions on MO (for example, Do subalgebras of C(X) admit a description in terms of the compact Hausdorff space X?) have been about Gelfand duality — namely, that the categories of ...

**26**

votes

**1**answer

3k views

### Criteria for boundedness of power series

Consider a power series $\sum_{n=0}^{\infty} a_n x^n$ that is convergent for all real
x, thus defining a function $f: \mathbb{R} \to \mathbb{R}$.
Can one give necessary and sufficient criteria the ...

**23**

votes

**2**answers

7k views

### Compact embeddings of Sobolev spaces: a counterexample showing the Rellich-Kondrachov theorem is sharp

Let $U$ be an open bounded subset of $\mathbb{R}^n$ with $C^{1}$ boundary. Let $1 \leq p < n$ and $p^{\ast} = pn/(n-p)$. Then the Sobolev space $W^{1,p}(U)$ is contained $L^{p^{\ast}}(U)$ and ...

**20**

votes

**5**answers

5k views

### Hahn-Banach without Choice

The standard proof of the Hahn-Banach theorem makes use of Zorn's lemma. I hear that, however, Hahn-Banach is strictly weaker than Choice. A quick search leads to many sources stating that Hahn-Banach ...

**14**

votes

**5**answers

3k views

### Measure theory treatment geared toward the Riesz representation theorem

I'm looking for recommendations for books (or lecture notes) that develop measure theory in sufficient detail to state and prove the Riesz representation theorem (which is the characterization of the ...

**22**

votes

**1**answer

2k views

### Which Fréchet spaces have a dual that is a Fréchet space?

I've read the claim that Fréchet spaces that are not Banach spaces never have a dual that is a Fréchet space, but have not been able to find a proof of this statement. Is it trivial or does someone ...

**24**

votes

**6**answers

2k views

### Can distribution theory be developed Riemann-free?

I imagine most people who frequent MO have been indoctrinated into the point of view that the Riemann integral can be safely discarded once one has taken the time to develop the Lebesgue integral. ...

**22**

votes

**4**answers

4k views

### Are proper linear subspaces of Banach spaces always meager?

Let X be a Banach space, and let Y be a proper non-meager linear subspace of X. If Y is not dense in X, then it is easy to see that the closure of Y has empty interior, contradicting Y being non-...

**19**

votes

**2**answers

1k views

### Functional approach vs jet approach to Lagrangian field theory

Context: I am a PhD student in theoretical physics with higher-than-average education on differential geometry. I am trying to understand Lagrangian and Hamiltonian field theories and related concepts ...

**11**

votes

**4**answers

1k views

### Norm continuous infinite dimenisonal representation of a Lie group

Given a Lie group G and an infinite dimensional Hilbert space $\mathcal{H}$. In the literature I have only encountered the two following notions of a representation $\pi$ of G on $\mathcal{H}$ :
1) $\...

**7**

votes

**2**answers

2k views

### Direct proof of injectivity of $L_\infty$

I would like to know a simple proof of isometric injectivity of $L_\infty$. The proof I've found in Topics in Banach space theory. F. Albiac, N. Kalton uses two deep result.
$L_\infty$ as ...

**14**

votes

**3**answers

2k views

### Universal $C^*$-algebra with generators and relations

We say that the $C^*$-algebra $A$ generated by $a_1,...,a_n$ is universal subject to relations $R_1,...,R_m$ if for every $C^*$-algebra $B$ with elements $b_1,...,b_n$ satisfying relations $R_1,...,...

**7**

votes

**1**answer

983 views

### Properties of convolutions

Consider the function
$$f_{n}(x)=e^{-x^2}x^n.$$
and the function
$$h_p(x):=e^{-\vert x \vert^p}.$$
My goal is to analyze
$$ F_p(y):=\frac{(f_2*h_p)(y)}{(f_0*h_p)(y)}- \left(\frac{(f_1*h_p)(y) }{(f_0*...

**19**

votes

**2**answers

1k views

### Can we take a supremum over all Hilbert spaces?

In my paper On the optimal error bound for the first step in the method of cyclic alternating projections, I defined functions $f_n:[0,1]\to\mathbb{R}$,
$n\geqslant 2$, by
$$
f_n(c)=\sup\{\|P_n\dotsm ...

**6**

votes

**2**answers

532 views

### Harmonic oscillator discrete spectrum

Let us act intentionally stupid and assume we do not know that we can solve for the spectrum of the harmonic oscillator
$$-\frac{d^2}{dx^2}+x^2$$
explicitly.
Is there an abstract argument why the ...

**6**

votes

**1**answer

1k views

### Comparing norms on tensor products of matrices

Given a Hilbert space $H$, let $S_1(H)$ denote the space of trace-class operators on $H$, with the trace-class norm or Schatten 1-norm. That is
$$ \Vert T \Vert_1 = \sum_{j\geq 1} |s_j| $$
where $(s_1,...

**5**

votes

**0**answers

158 views

### Heuristic and graphic representation of BV functions and their singularities

This question is about some heuristics and graphs of BV functions.
In 1-dimensional setting, two key examples of $BV$ functions $u: \mathbb R \to \mathbb R$ are
the Heaviside function, whose ...

**5**

votes

**1**answer

528 views

### Reference request: optimal $L^p$ regularity for solutions to $-\Delta u=f$ with $f\in L^1(R^d)$

The tilte says it all. Given $f\in L^1(R^d)$ (let me restrict to dimension $d\geq 3$ for convenience), what is the optimal $L^p$ regularity for solutions to
$$
-\Delta u=f\hspace{3cm}(1)?
$$
I'm of ...

**2**

votes

**2**answers

746 views

### Can one estimate the distribution of eigenvalues of a matrix by its Cauchy/Stieltje transform?

Given a real symmetric $n$ dimensional matrix $A$, with eigenvalues $\lambda_i$ I am defining its Cauchy transform as the function, $f_A(z) = \sum_i \frac{1}{z-\lambda_i}\,$
Is there any information ...

**13**

votes

**2**answers

1k views

### Calkin Algebra and the embedding

Let $H$ be a separable, infinite dimensional Hilbert Space and $Calk(H):=B(H)/K(H)$ denotes
the Calkin algebra. There is obvious surjection $\pi: B(H) \to Calk(H)$ but I'm interested
in somehow ...

**9**

votes

**3**answers

1k views

### Generalizations and relative applications of Fekete's subadditive lemma

Fekete's (subadditive) lemma takes its name from a 1923 paper by the Hungarian mathematician Michael Fekete [1]. A historical overview and references to (a couple of) generalizations and applications ...

**3**

votes

**1**answer

281 views

### Hausdorff dimension of the graph of a BV function

Let $u: \Omega\subset \mathbb{R}^N \to \mathbb{R}^M$ be a $BV$ function.
Is the Hausdorff dimension of the graph of $u$ equal to $N$? How can we prove it?
Update.
In an answer to this post, it ...

**2**

votes

**2**answers

245 views

### Weak convergence for discrete-time processes using characteristic functions

I am looking for a good reference about the analogues of the Bochner Theorem and the Lévy Continuity Theorem
for probability measures on $\mathbb{R}^{\mathbb{N}}$ with the product topology.
...

**1**

vote

**2**answers

678 views

### Reference for proof that $C_b^* = rba$

The following theorem seems to have folk status:
The topological dual of the space $C_b(X)$ of bounded continuous functions on a topological space $X$ is isomorphic to the space $rba(X)$ of finite, ...

**8**

votes

**1**answer

591 views

### A non-hyperfinite type III factor from an action of the free group on the circle

We define below a von Neumann algebra $\mathcal{M}$ from an action of the free group on the circle, and we prove that $\mathcal{M}$ is a non-hyperfinite type ${\rm III}$ factor.
Question : Is $\...

**6**

votes

**1**answer

376 views

### Proof that $L^2(0,T;X)^* = L^2(0,T;X^*)$

How is the proof that
$$[L^2(0,T;X)]' = L^2(0,T;X')$$
looking like, where $X$ is a Hilbert space? I am asking for the proof that the dual space of $L^2(0,T;X)$ is the space $L^2(0,T;X^*)$.
Is the ...

**5**

votes

**2**answers

999 views

### Is the space of signed finite measures on a compact set $M([0,1])$ a sequential space?

Let $M([0,1])$ be the set of finite signed measures on $[0,1]$
(with the topology generated by the sets $\left\{ \mu \in M([0,1]) : \left| \int f(x) \mu(dx)- a\right| \leq \delta\right\}$ for all $\...

**4**

votes

**3**answers

837 views

### Ramanujan's Master Formula: A proof and relation to umbral calculus

The Ramanujan's master theorem states that:
$$
\int_0^{\infty}x^{s-1}\sum_{n=0}^{\infty}\frac{(-1)^n}{n!}a_nx^ndx=\Gamma(s)a_{-s}
$$
I found a really strange proof recently on a personal blog:
Define
$...

**7**

votes

**1**answer

282 views

### Lavrentiev phenomenon between $C^1$ and Lipschitz

Does there exist a (onedimensional) integral functional of calculus of variations (with $f$ finite everywhere)
$$
F(y)=\int_a^b f(t,y(t),y'(t))\,dt
$$
such that
$$
\inf_{y\in Lip([a,b])}F(y)<\inf_{...

**4**

votes

**1**answer

230 views

### Universal decay rate of the Fisher information along the heat flow

I'm looking for a reference for the following fact: In the torus $\mathbb T^d$ let me denote by $u_t=u(t,x)$ the (unique, distributional) solution of the heat equation
$$
\partial_t u=\Delta u
$$
...

**2**

votes

**2**answers

263 views

### Concrete example of BV function $u:\mathbb{R}^2 \to \mathbb{R}$ with singular derivative

What are examples of two BV functions $u:\mathbb{R}^2 \to \mathbb{R}$ with singular derivative?
More precisely, I'd like to see an example (and a plot using Mathematica or Matlab) of
a function
$$...

**39**

votes

**5**answers

4k views

### "Entropy" proof of Brunn-Minkowski Inequality?

I read in an information theory textbook the Brunn-Minkowski inequality follows from the Entropy Power inequality.
The first one says that if $A,B$ are convex polygons in $\mathbb{R}^d$, then
$$ m(...

**23**

votes

**19**answers

18k views

### Good books on theory of distributions

Hi all.
I'm looking for english books with a good coverage of distribution theory.
I'm a fan of Folland's Real analysis, but it only gives elementary notions on distributions.
Thanks in advance.

**33**

votes

**4**answers

3k views

### Which differential equations allow for a variational formulation?

Many ODE's and PDE's arising in nature have a variational formulation. An example of what I mean is the following. Classical motions are solutions $q(t)$ to Lagrange's equation
$$
\frac{d}{dt}\frac{\...

**56**

votes

**5**answers

7k views

### Jean Bourgain's relatively lesser known significant contributions

Jean Bourgain passed away on December 22, 2018.
A great mathematician is no longer with us.
Terry Tao has blogged about Bourgain's death and mentioned some of his more recent significant contributions,...

**47**

votes

**2**answers

3k views

### A strengthening of the Cauchy-Schwarz inequality

Suppose $\mathbf{v},\mathbf{w} \in \mathbb{R}^n$ (and if it helps, you can assume they each have non-negative entries), and let $\mathbf{v}^2,\mathbf{w}^2$ denote the vectors whose entries are the ...