# Questions tagged [definitions]

The definitions tag has no usage guidance.

153
questions

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### What is the standard definition of dual of disconnected planar graph when underlying graph derives 'product structure' over connected graphs?

Dual graph of a plane graph has a standard definition https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dual_graph and an edgeless graph on $n$ vertices is planar. What is the standard dual graph of such a graph?
Update ...

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418 views

### Coming up with a equivalent (or close) definition for an average which is easier to compute? [closed]

Continuing from my last question, I understand that my definition is unclear so I have modified it.
Since no one has answered my question on math stack exchange, I decided to ask here.
Definition
...

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votes

**1**answer

91 views

### Is this integral transform related to the Laplace transform?

The Laplace transform of a function $f(t)$, defined for all real numbers $t \geq 0$, is the function $F(s)$, defined by
$${\displaystyle F(s)=\int _{0}^{\infty }f(t)e^{-st}\,dt}.$$
Let $\varphi: {\...

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137 views

### Use of this space of very rapidly decreasing continuous functions

Let $C_n$ denote the subspace of continuous function on $[0,\infty)$ supported on $[n,n+1]$. Denote the $\ell^p$-direct sum Banach space
$$
V_p
:=
\left\{
f \in C([0,\infty)):\,
\sum_{n=1}^{\infty} ...

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27 views

### Extended-value subgradients

(I am not an expert in convex analysis, as may become clear.)
Let $R$ be the extended reals, $R = \mathbb{R} \cup \{\pm \infty\}$.
Standard texts define the subgradient of a convex function $f: \...

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vote

**1**answer

94 views

### What is the definition of Plancherel density?

I know about the Plancherel measure, but I don't know where the term "Plancherel density" is defined.

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**1**answer

157 views

### Terminology: “sufficiently large absolute constant”

I'm currently reading the paper "Random matrices: The distribution of the smallest singular values" by '"Terence Tao and Van Vu" and have run into some terminology which I don't quite (rigorously) ...

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53 views

### Open/closed/constructible subsets of locally free sheaves

(Cross-posted from math.SE since I'm not sure what is a suitable platform. Link on https://math.stackexchange.com/questions/3597258/open-closed-constructible-subsets-of-locally-free-sheaves)
Is there ...

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44 views

### Generalized compact open topology?

Let $X,Y$ be topological spaces. The compact-open topology on $C(X,Y)$ is generated by the sub-basic open sets
$$
\left\{U_{K,O}: \mbox{ K is compact in X and O is open in Y}\right\}\\
U_{K,O}:=\...

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1k views

### Understanding the definition of stacks

First of all I should apologies if this question does not count as a research level one. I asked the same question on MathUnderflow and didn't receive any answer. Let me cross post (copy and paste) it ...

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51 views

### Standard definition: vector-valued essential support

Let $f \in L^p(\mathbb{R}^n,\mathbb{R}^m)$. If $m=1$ then the essential support of $f$ is a mainstream definition; see here for example. However, when $m>1$ is the following definition used?
$$
\...

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votes

**1**answer

104 views

### Undecidable definition of mathematical expressions?

I am arguing a bit on Facebook regarding the definition of a mathematical expression. Some argue that equations are not expressions (and there are a few possibly dubious online sources which states ...

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votes

**1**answer

77 views

### Problematic definition of empirical distribution [closed]

Could you please me explain the definition of empirical distribution? In Wikipedia, the defining equality has a NUMBER on one side and a FUNCTION (the sum of functions) on the other, which seems a ...

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votes

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431 views

### Adjusting the definition of a well-powered category to category theory with universes: size issues

Wikipedia and Borceux (Handbook of Categorical Algebra, Part I) give the following definitions of subobjects and well-powered categories:
A subobject of an object $X$ of a category $\mathsf{C}$ is ...

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**1**answer

127 views

### Meaning of “quantitative result” [closed]

Recently I've begun reading on metric measure spaces and I keep seeing statements containing the phrase ", quantitatively". What does this mean, I googled it and couldn't find a rigorous answer.

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183 views

### Concise formulation of set of equation systems

I have the following set of equation systems, and I would like to find a short, formal way to write it down. My main difficulty is that I cannot find a good way to write the indices of the variables $\...

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87 views

### What's the name of functions that produces a non deterministic solution without losing the exact solution?

I know that Turing reductions, function reductions and aproximation algorithms can produce good results and aproaches to the solution of a problem, but sometimes they lost the exact solution. Is there ...

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**1**answer

2k views

### How can I improve my formal definitions?

I am a Software Architect and not very familiarized with standard notation in mathematics. Nonetheless, I would like to write a paper explaining a normalization of a computing model for expert systems....

**5**

votes

**3**answers

242 views

### Is there a name for this “stack” of graphs?

Let $G_1,\ldots,G_m$ be a sequence of graphs, all having the same number $n$ of vertices. For each pair $(G_i, G_{i+1})$ we add $n$ edges that connect the vertices of $G_i$ and $G_{i+1}$ bijectively. ...

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20 views

### A linear map satisfying the given property

Let $A$ and $B$ be two Banach algebras such that $B$ is a Banach $A$-bimodue and $T:A\rightarrow B$ a linear map satisfying
$T(aa')=aT(a')+T(a)a'+T(a)T(a')$ for all $a,a'\in A$.
If the algerba ...

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votes

**2**answers

363 views

### Explanation of definition of George Wilson's adelic Grassmannian

How is George Wilson's adelic Grassmannian from e.g. the paper https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs002220050237 related to the adeles or (especially) the affine Grassmannian (a.k.a. the loop ...

**0**

votes

**1**answer

217 views

### Different definitions of a relatively compact operator

(Cross-post from Math Stackexchange, where some work has been done in the comments)
Let $T,K$ be unbounded operators on a Hilbert space $H$.
I've seen the following definition of a relatively compact ...

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151 views

### Generalization of normal subgroup

I am wondering whether the following concept appears in the group theory literature under some (perhaps different) name. Let $G$ be a group and let $A,B$ be subgroups of $G$.
Definition. Say that $(...

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175 views

### Total complex of complexes

When we have a double complex of vector spaces $V^{p,q}$, we can produce a complex either taking direct sums or products along the anti-diagonals. Then, the differential in this new complex will be
$$ ...

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107 views

### Equivariant sheafs and $G$ actions on modules

I am reading Simpson's paper on The Hodge filtration on nonabelian cohomology. In particular Chapter 5 (p.24) and I am confused about the notion of a group acting on an equivariant sheaf.
The set up ...

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67 views

### What is meant by “roots in $Lie(N)$” in root space decomposition of Lie algebras?

Let $G = GL_n$ and $T$ the invertible diagonal matrices and $N$ the upper triangular matrices with only $1$'s on the diagonal. Then the Lie algebra $\mathcal{G}$ has the roots space decomposition
$$
\...

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81 views

### How is the following graph operation defined in the given research paper?

enter image description hereI am unable to understand the graph operation defined in the following paper
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0972860017301706.
Can someone kindly ...

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votes

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48 views

### What is meant by singular hyperplane of $c(w, \cdot)$? (global intertwining operator related to Eisenstein series)

Let $P_0$ be a minimal $\mathbb{Q}$-parabolic subgroup of $G$, a semisimple linear algebraic group over $\mathbb{Q}$. Then $P_0 = M_0 N_0$ where $M_0$ is a Levi subgroup of $P_0$. Let $E^G_{P_0}$ be ...

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30 views

### Formal definition of episodic Markov Decision process?

David Silver, in his lecture 4 from his Youtube lectures, speaks about episodic Markov Decision Processes (MDPs) and Monte-Carlo Policy Evaluation.
I could not find a formal definition of episodic ...

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79 views

### Basic notation question involving Lie Groups and Lie algebras

I just started reading "On the functional equations satisfied by Eisentstein series" by Langlands http://publications.ias.edu/sites/default/files/Eisenstein-ps.pdf . I wasn't sure of some notation/...

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votes

**1**answer

291 views

### Understanding the Hamilton's definition of $\ast$-operation

I'm studying by myself Mean Curvature Flow and I'm trying understand the definition of $\ast$-operation given by Richard Hamilton in the beginning of the section $13$ (page $40$) of his paper "Three-...

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263 views

### Basic questions about crystals and Grothendieck connections

I have a few basic questions about Grothendieck connections and crystals. I know it's bad practice to ask a bunch of different questions at once, however I feel they naturally come bundled together. ...

**51**

votes

**11**answers

6k views

### What definitions were crucial to further understanding?

Often the most difficult part of venturing into a field as a researcher is to come up with an appropriate definition. Sometimes definitions suggest themselves very naturally, as when you solve a ...

**2**

votes

**1**answer

296 views

### A “boundary map” for the algebraic equivalence relation of cycles

In what follows by projective variety I will mean the zero locus of homegeneous polynomials in some projective space. Anyway, feel free to deal with a sufficiently good scheme if you want.
Let $X$ be ...

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**1**answer

250 views

### “Cyclic” continuum

On p. 221 of http://topology.auburn.edu/tp/reprints/v08/tp08113.pdf, I found the following definition:
"A curve is said to be cyclic if its first Čech cohomology group with integer coefficients ...

**105**

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**1**answer

30k views

### What is the definition of the function T used in Atiyah's attempted proof of the Riemann Hypothesis?

In Michael Atiyah's paper purportedly proving the Riemann hypothesis, he relies heavily on the properties of a certain function $T(s)$, known as the Todd function. My question is, what is the ...

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253 views

### Different types of a test functions in weak solutions of a PDEs

In the literature about PDEs it is easy to find books that talk about weak solutions of a partial differential equations. A short reminder of the most usual definition is given bellow.
Let's ...

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3k views

### Paradoxical Mathematical Objects Pending for Construction [duplicate]

The possible properties and applications of some mathematical objects have been described far before their rigorous mathematical definition. Some of them even had a seemingly paradoxical description ...

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**2**answers

118 views

### Definition and examples of operator-stable distributions

I was trying to understand the basic ideas of the operator-stable distributions. I found the papers by Hudson and Sato. However, unfortunately, I am being unable to understand the mathematical ...

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votes

**0**answers

89 views

### Amalgamated free-product of semigroups (definition)

I am self-studying some concepts including the title one. I reached the definition of an amalgamated free-product ${S_1}{*_U}S_2$ where $[S_1, S_2; U, w_1,w_2]$ is an amalgam of semigroups. Let $S_1=\...

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votes

**1**answer

65 views

### Name for “partially complete” invariants in classification problems?

For any equivalence $\sim$ on some collection of objects $C$ consider the problem of trying to determine if two arbitrary objects $x$ and $y$ in $C$ are equivalent i.e. if $x\sim y$ now by definition ...

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156 views

### Exterior tensor product of $D$ Modules

The exterior tensor product of sheaves of modules is defined as:
$M \boxtimes N = p_1^{*}M \otimes_{\mathcal{O}_{X \times Y}} p_2^{*}N \cong \mathcal{O}_{X \times Y} \otimes_{p_1^{-1}\mathcal{O}_X \...

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88 views

### The premises of Aczel's inductive definitions

This is a follow-up to
https://stackoverflow.com/questions/49650053/are-inductive-definitions-finitely-generated-in-isabelle
As I said there, Aczel writes in his paper An Introduction to Inductive ...

**3**

votes

**2**answers

101 views

### In the context of directed graphs is it standard notation to allow an element of an independent vertex set to be contained in a loop?

Given any relation $R$, that is, any set of ordered pairs, we can associate a unique digraph $D$ to our relation $R$ by setting $D=(\text{fld}(R),R)$ where $\text{fld}(R)=\text{dom}(R)\cup\text{rng}(R)...

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**3**answers

276 views

### On 2-actions of strict 2-groupoids?

I'm looking for an opinion if the following makes sense.
A linear representation of a groupoid $\mathcal{G}$ is a functor $$\nabla: \mathcal{G}\longrightarrow \mathsf{Vect}_{\mathbb K},$$ where $\...

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votes

**2**answers

533 views

### Reference Request: A definition of topology using monads (a.k.a. halos)

In nonstandard analysis, there is a way of studying topological spaces known as "monads" (more commonly known as halos, as it turns out). The monad of a point $x$ (written $\mu(x))$ is the set of all ...

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48 views

### How is the minimax oracle used to find the oracle complexity of projected subgradient?

I am going through a set of blog posts on the complexity of projected gradient method.
https://blogs.princeton.edu/imabandit/2013/03/15/orf523-oracle-complexity-large-scale-optimization/ defines the ...

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2k views

### Main statement as theorem or corollary

In a text there will often be a few important results that are usually called Theorems. Intermediate statements are called Lemmas, and statements that follow immediately from previous results are ...

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**0**answers

250 views

### Characterization of non-Zeno functions $f:\mathbb{R}\rightarrow \{0,1\}$

[Edit: I tried to integrate Nate's comments (see below).]
In the context of automata over continuous time, consider Boolean-valued functions $f:\mathbb{R}\rightarrow \{0,1\}$. There are uncountably ...

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16k views

### Nonequivalent definitions in Mathematics

I would like to ask if anyone could share any specific experiences of
discovering nonequivalent definitions in their field of mathematical research.
By that I mean discovering that in different ...