# Questions tagged [computational-complexity]

This is a branch that includes: computational complexity theory; complexity classes, NP-completeness and other completeness concepts; oracle analogues of complexity classes; complexity-theoretic computational models; regular languages; context-free languages; Komolgorov Complexity and so on.

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### Computational complexity of topological K-theory

I am a novice with K-theory trying to understand what is and what is not possible. Given a finite simplicial complex $X$, there of course elementary ways to quickly compute the cohomology of $X$ with ...
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### How can an approach to $P$ vs $NP$ based on descriptive complexity avoid being a natural proof in the sense of Raborov-Rudich?

EDIT: This question has been modified to make it a stand-alone question. Feel free to retract your votes for the previous version. Here are Vinay Deolalikar's paper, and Richard Lipton's first post ...
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### Is there an efficient algorithm for testing isomorphism of projective planes?

Isomorphism testing is a core problem in computational complexity. Recently, Babai has shown that Graph Isomorphism problem for general graphs can be solved in quasipolynomial time. Long time before ...
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### Is there a Ladner's Theorem" for the PH-vs-PSPACE scenario?

Like a statement of the kind, If the Polynomial Hierarchy (PH) $\neq$ PSPACE then there exists $L \in PSPACE \backslash PH$ which is not PSPACE-complete"? Or is there something else that states ...
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### Weighted Hamming distance

Basically my question is, what kind of geometry do we get if we use a "weighted" Hamming distance. This is combinatorics but similar things come up sometimes in theoretical computer science, ...
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### Size of 3-SAT assignments

Let $F(N,M)$ be the set of 3-SAT formula with $N$ variables and $M$ clauses. For a given formula $f\in F(N,M)$, we can ask for the set $s_f$ of truth assignments that satisfy $f$. (If $f$ is ...
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### Inverse polynomial map $\mathbb{Z}^2\to\mathbb{Z}^2$ growing faster than $2^{2^n}$

Let $P, Q\in \mathbb{Z}[x, y]$ be polynomials with zero constant terms. Assume the induced map $\phi_{P, Q}:\mathbb{Z}^2\to\mathbb{Z}^2$ is injective. An example is $P=x+x^3 y^2, Q=y+x^2 y^3$. Can the ...
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### Is recognizing if a Latin square is isotopic to its transpose more efficient than computing its symmetry group?

Ihrig and Ihrig (2007) described a mathematical method for determining if a Latin square is isotopic to its transpose (where isotopic Latin squares vary by permuting the rows, columns and symbols). ...
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### Is Hankelability NP-hard?

This question was previously asked on cstheory but with no answers or substantive comments. I am trying to write code to detect if a matrix is a permutation of a Hankel matrix. Here is the spec. ...
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### Ricocheting pinball-like shot: Complexity?

Suppose one has $n$ perfect two-sided mirror segments in the plane $\mathbb{R}^2$. The segments are open, excluding their endpoints. They are disjoint as closed segments, i.e., no pair shares an ...
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### Recognizing sequences sortable by transpositions?

While reading the post, Probability of generating a desired permutation by random swaps, by Aaronson, and to continue my program I started in this post, How hard is reconstructing a permutation from ...
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### Can the isomorphism relation for countable models become harder when adding finitely many constants?

I am particularly interesting in the case where $T$ is o-minimal, but I would be interested in any theory $T$ (or even an $L_{\omega_1,\omega}$-sentence) which has this property. Context: view the ...
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### Is the dominating set problem restricted to planar bipartite graphs of maximum degree 3 NP-complete?

Does anyone know about an NP-completeness result for the DOMINATING SET problem in graphs, restricted to the class of planar bipartite graphs of maximum degree 3? I know it is NP-complete for the ...
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### Upper bound on the number of perfect matchings in $K_{3,3}$-free graphs

Let $G=(V,E)$ be a graph with an even number of vertices $|V|=2n$. Assume that $G$ is $K_{3,3}$-free i.e. it does not contain a graph isomorphic to biclique $K_{3,3}$. A perfect matching of $G$ is a ...
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### Zero-knowledge proofs for answers to the $P=NP$ question

Are there zero-knowledge proofs for every answer to the $P=NP$ question? For instance, if you have a polynomial-time algorithm of moderate complexity for the graph-coloring problem, then it is easy to ...
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### Exactly Counting the Number of Lattice Points in an $n$-Dimensional Sphere

Let $S_n(R)$ denote the number of lattice points in an $n$-dimensional "sphere" with radius $R$. For clarification, I am interested in lattice points found both strictly inside the sphere, and on its ...
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### Does the problem of recognizing 3DORG-graphs have polynomial complexity?

A 2DORG is the intersection graph of a finite family of rays directed $\to$ or $\uparrow$ in the plane. Such graphs can be recognized effectively (Felsner et al.). A 3DORG is the intersection graph of ...
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### Surprising mathematical consequences of of $\mathbf{P} = \mathbf{NP}$

I got interested in the mathematical consequences of $P = NP$ after reading this post, Any important consequences with presupposition of P≠NP . Wang conjectured that if a finite set of Wang tiles ...
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### When is a reduction not a reduction?

Every mathematician understands the concept of reducing a complicated problem to a simpler problem. "Without loss of generality, we may assume…" However, I've noticed that some kinds of "...
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### Feasible Type Theories

I am looking for references about efficient type theories, efficiency in the sense of computational complexity, and type theory in the sense of Martin-Lof's type theories. Has there been any studies ...
What is the computational complexity of multiplication in a Carnot group ? Background: A Carnot group is a real nilpotent Lie group $N$ whose Lie algebra $Lie(N)$ admits a direct sum decomposition ...