# Questions tagged [complex-dynamics]

Dynamics of holomorphic transformations; Mandelbrot and Julia sets.

186
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### Dense orbits for a rational map

Given a complex rational function $f$ and $z\in \mathbb C$, let $O^+(z)=\{f^n(z):n\geq 1\}$. Let $$D(f)=\big\{z\in \mathbb C:\overline{O^+(z)}=J(f)\big\}.$$
So $D(f)$ is the set of points whose (...

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### Uniformization of Julia sets and lacunary series

If the complement of a Julia set of quadratic polynomial z^2+c is locally connected and simply connected, it is uniformized by the complement of the unit disk. Consider the uniformization map and its ...

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### Jordan curve boundaries of Fatou components

Let $f:\mathbb C\to \mathbb C$ be a rational map and let $J(f)$ and $F(f)$ denote the Julia and Fatou sets of $f$, respectively.
Let $\mathcal S$ be the set of all boundaries of Fatou components. ...

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### Finding a branch cut or a branch point [closed]

Is there a way to find a branch cut or a branch point, through which a curve over a complex function goes, or in general in some region of complex function, say $\ln(f(z))$, using numerical methods or ...

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### How to find the hyperbolic dimension of map $f(z) = z^2$ of $\overline{\mathbb{C}}$ onto itself?

I am reading the research article "The Hausdorff dimension of the boundary of Mandelbrot set and Julia sets" by Shishikura. In his article, he defined hyperbolic sets and hyperbolic ...

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### Persistence of irrationally indifferent periodic points

I am trying to see when an irrationally indifferent periodic point persists for a holomorphic family of rational maps on the Riemann sphere. This is a question I am currently pondering after reading ...

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### $f(f(z)) = z , f(\exp(z)) = \exp(f(z)) $?

While talking about tetration with my friend the following idea (re)occured.
$$f(f(z)) = z ,\quad f(\exp(z)) = \exp(f(z)) \tag{A}\label{A}$$
or variations of it like the weaker
$$f(f(f(f(z)))) = z ,\...

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### What is the logical complexity of the Mandelbrot Local Connectivity conjecture? (Is it equivalent to a statement of arithmetic?)

Denote by MLC the statement “the Mandelbrot set is locally connected” and MHC the statement “hyperbolic components are dense in the Mandelbrot set” (it is known that MLC implies MHC, and whether ...

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### Examples of hyperbolic set and J-stable sets

I am reading the research article "The Hausdorff dimension of the boundary of Mandelbrot set and Julia sets" by Shishikura. The following two definitions are given without any examples in ...

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### Does the Mandelbrot set have dense interior?

Let $M$ be the Mandelbrot set.
Question: Is the interior of $M$ dense in $M$?
My intuition is that this is true, and moreover that hyperbolic components of the interior are dense in $M$ as well, and ...

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### Borel summation and the Abel function of $e^z-1$

This is a question that has bothered myself and Gottfried Helms a fair amount of late. He has made his case for the following result, but a proof escapes both of us. The question is deceptively simple,...

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### Finding the repelling fixed point of an exponential, knowing only its attracting one

This question has been bugging me for a while, I have an answer that is working sufficiently for the program I'm using, but it is a tad slow, and let's say imprecise. It is not an overtly difficult ...

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### On entire functions with polynomial Schwarzian derivative

The Schwarzian derivative of an entire holomorphic function $f$ is defined as
$$Sf:=\left(\frac{f^{''}}{f'}\right)'-\frac{1}{2}\left(\frac{f^{''}}{f'}\right)^2.$$
In the following, we only consider ...

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### Positive integration on P^1

Let $u: \mathbb{P}^1(\mathbb{C}) \longrightarrow \mathbb{R}$ be a smooth function s.t. $u$ is invariant under complex conjugation and $\displaystyle \int_{\mathbb{P}^1(\mathbb{C})}u \; \omega_{\mathrm{...

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### A curious observation on the elliptic curve $y^2=x^3+1$

Here is a calculation regarding the $2$-torsion points of the elliptic curve $y^2=x^3+1$ which looks really miraculous to me (the motivation comes at the end).
Take a point of $y^2=x^3+1$ and ...

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### A question about decompositions of rational functions

Let $f_1,g_1,f_2,g_2$ be non-constant rational functions on the Riemann sphere (i.e. elements of $\Bbb{C}(z)-\Bbb{C}$) satisfying $f_1\circ g_1=f_2\circ g_2$. Suppose there is a prime number $p$ such ...

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### Tiling the plane with finitely many congruent pieces

Suppose $A_1,\dots,A_n$ are measurable subsets of the plane that are all related by rigid motions such that $|(A_1 \cup \dots \cup A_n)^c| = 0$ and $|A_i \cap A_j| = 0$ for all $1 \leq i < j \leq n$...

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### Ahlfors' proof of Bloch's theorem

In his pioneering paper An extension of Schwarz's lemma, Ahlfors proves the lower bound on the Bloch constant $B \geq \frac{\sqrt{3}}{4}$. The proof of this lower bound proceeds as follows:
Let $W$ be ...

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### Understanding a more intricate Schwarz reflection principle--A question about Tetration

everyone. This is going to be a long question as it requires a good amount of back story in theory. This question is mostly along the lines: "I think this should happen, and I think my proof is ...

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### the (non-existent) group of conformal transformations

In physics intros to 2d conformal field theory, people often talk about the "group of conformal transformations". Of course, that's not a group but rather a pseudo-group... that's not what ...

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### Holomorphic dynamical systems defined on a contractible bounded open subset of $\Bbb{C}^n$

Let $U$ be a contractible bounded open subset of $\Bbb{C}$. There is a standard classification of possible dynamical behaviors of holomorphic maps $f:U\rightarrow U$:
Attracting Case: There is an ...

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### Renormalization in physics vs. dynamical systems

I am studying complex dynamics, so to me renormalization of a dynamical system means something like a rescaled first-return map on (a subset of) the underlying space. I understand that in quantum ...

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### When is replacing the prefix of an angled internal address a valid operation?

While working on an artwork exploring patterns in the Mandelbrot set fractal, I constructed an angled internal address by:
$$
1 \overset{1/2}\longrightarrow 2 \overset{1/2}\longrightarrow 3 \overset{1/...

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### If I have zeros at the vertices of an icosahedron, where should the poles go?

I've been tinkering with Newton's method applied to polynomials. E.g., Newton's method for $z^5 - 1 = 0$ gives:
There aren't a lot of symmetric patterns of finite sets of points in the plane, so I ...

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### On the relevance of the property $\exp^{\circ a}(\exp^{\circ b}(z))=\exp^{\circ a+b}(z)$ for the *fractional* iteration ("tetration")

In the concept of fractional iteration of the exponential function ("tetration") the property of $$\exp^{\circ a}(\exp^{\circ b}(z))=\exp^{\circ b}(\exp^{\circ a}(z))=\exp^{\circ a+b}(z) \...

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### Hausdorff dimension of Julia set

Can anyone show me the proof "Hausdorff dimension of Julia set is strictly positive"?
For purpose to prove this we might have to prove the green function of basin of attraction to infinity ...

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### Lower semicontinuity of the number of attracting periodic points of a holomorphic family of rational maps?

Recently I have been reading the book Mathematical Tools for One-Dimensional Dynamics.
In the proof of the theorem 5.4.2, authors use the following fact that the number of attracting periodic points ...

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### Cutting a Julia set into infinitely many pieces at finitely many points

Let $f\colon \widehat{\mathbb{C}}\to \widehat{\mathbb{C}}$ be a rational function of degree two or greater whose Julia set $J_f$ is connected. If $S\subseteq J_f$ is a finite set of periodic points, ...

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### Clarification about the process of naturally endowing a space with a Riemann orbifold structure supported on a sphere

I am having some difficulties understanding an argument in a proof. Here is an excerpt from Lyubich–Peters - Classification of invariant Fatou components for dissipative Henon maps, first geometric ...

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### Mandelbrot set and logistic map connection

I'm currently writing an undergraduate thesis on chaos theory with a particular focus on the connection between the Mandelbrot set and the logistic map. I have found scattered posts on this site, ...

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### Integral curves of rational vector fields and approximations

The following is the formal statement of a conjecture that feels almost obvious, but I cannot find a reference for it. The idea is that one can obtain the integral curves of a vector field $V(z)$ by ...

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### Confusion on the assumption when discussing the kneading invariants for unimodal maps

A unimodal map is a continuous map $f:[0,1]\longrightarrow [0,1]$ such that there is only one turning point (critical point), denoted by $c$, and $f(0)=f(1)=0$.
Unimodal map is related to kneading ...

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### Discriminants of Gleason's period-$n$ polynomials for the Mandelbrot set

Gleason's polynomials are the sequence of monic integer polynomials defined recursively by
$$
\prod_{d \mid n} G_d(c) = (((c^2+c)^2+c)^2+\cdots+c)^2+c \quad \quad \quad [\textrm{$n$ iterates}],
$$
for ...

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### Critical points of polarized endomorphisms of algebraic varieties

My main question is the following:
Let $f: \mathbb{CP}^n \to \mathbb{CP}^n$ be a holomorphic endomorphism of degree $d \ge 2$ of $\mathbb{CP}^n$ .
1. Let $X \subset \mathbb{CP}^n$ be an irreducible ...

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### Exponential iterates of a complex number

Let $f:\mathbb C\to \mathbb C$ be defined by $f(z)=e^z-1$. Let $f^n$ denote the $n$-fold composition of $f$.
In my new paper Erdős space in Julia sets I show that $$Z:=\{z\in \mathbb C:\lvert\...

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### Locally connectedness and accessibility in $\mathbb{C}$

Suppose $\Omega$ to be a bounded area in the complex plane $\mathbb{C}$ with a locally connected boundary $\partial\Omega$, then every point of $\partial\Omega$ is accessible from Ω.Here accessibility ...

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### Exponential towers of $i$'s

It's well known that the expression $i^i$ takes on an infinite set of values if we understand $w^z$ to mean any number of the form $\exp (z (\ln w + 2 \pi i n))$ where $\ln$ is a branch of the natural ...

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### Convex Julia sets

Consider the classical Julia set $J_f$ associated with $f(z)=z^2+c$.
Since $J_c$ is completely invariant,
we know that $f^{-1}(J_f) \subseteq J_f$.
Now, let $H_f$ be the convex hull of $J_f$.
Is it ...

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### Computing the maximum modulus

For each $a\in \mathbb C$ define $f_a:\mathbb C\to \mathbb C$ by $f_a(z)=\exp(z)+a$. I am primarily interested in real values $a\in (-\infty,-1)$.
For each $r\in [0,\infty)$ define $M_a(r)=\max\{|f_a(...

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### Fully invariant measures for rational functions

Let $f(z)$ be a rational function of degree $d \geq 2$, with complex coefficients. I am interested in fully invariant measures for the dynamical system $(\mathbb C_\infty,f)$, where $\mathbb C_\infty$ ...

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### On complex dynamics in high dimensions

I am a fresh Ph.D student and I'm interested in complex dynamics in high dimensions. I have the following questions.
What research directions are there in several complex dynamics and what problems ...

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### Can the immediate basin of attraction of super-attracting fixed point at 0 of a polynomial contain non-zero roots?

Let $f$ be a polynomial with a super attracting fixed point at $x=0$. Can the immediate basin of attraction of the fixed point contain other roots? If so, please provide a specific example with the ...

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### Is the set of non-escaping points in a Julia set always totally disconnected?

I am looking for examples of transcendental entire functions $f:\mathbb C\to \mathbb C$ such that the set of non-escaping points in the Julia set of $f$ is not totally disconnected. I denote this set $...

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### Algorithm for computing external angles for the Mandelbrot set

Let $M$ be the Mandelbrot set: there exists a unique series
$$
\psi(z) := z + \sum_{m=0}^{+\infty} b_m z^{-m} = z - \frac{1}{2} + \frac{1}{8} z^{-1} - \frac{1}{4} z^{-2} + \cdots
$$
which defines a ...

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### Showing that a certain level set of a continuous family of holomorphic maps is locally path connected

I'm working with a continuous function $P: [0,1] \times W \to \mathbb{C}^n$, where $W \subset \mathbb{C}^n$ is an open, relatively compact ball centred at the origin. The map $P$ satisfies the ...

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### wild julia sets

Using the Baire category theorem, we may show that most simple closed curves satisfy the following property: any segment between an interior point and an exterior point of the curve intersects the ...

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### The mysterious numbers $ \frac{13}{20} $ and $20$?

Let $g(x) = x^6 - 30 x $
Let $h(x) = x^6 $
Let $f(x) = x^2 - 2 $
Let $r$ be a reduced fraction $0 < \frac{p}{q} < 2 $ with integers $p,q > 1$
Let $f_{n+1}(x) = f(f_n(x)) = f_n(f(x)) , ...

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### Who proved that the Mandelbrot set's Julia sets are locally connected?

I'd be greatly interested in a reference to the respective article.
Was it Douady? Julia? Hubbard? Fatou?
Bonus question: Who gave the proof that can be found in the Orsay notes?
EDIT: The question ...

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### Is the set of escaping endpoints for $e^z-2$ completely metrizable?

Let $f:\mathbb C \to \mathbb C$ be the complex exponential $$f(z)=e^z-2.$$ It is known that $J(f)$, the Julia set of $f$, is a uncountable collection of disjoint rays (one-to-one continuous images ...

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### Modulus estimate with intersecting annuli (quasi-additivity)

In general for annulus $A\subset \mathbb{C}$ if $A_{1},A_{2}....\subset A$ are disjoint annuli inside it, then we have
$$mod(A)=\frac{1}{2\pi}\int_{A}\int_{A} \frac{1}{|z|^{2}}dz>\frac{1}{2\pi}\...